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    Cisco ccna exam tutorial using trivial file transfer protocol tftp

     

    One of the first things you do when you start studying for the CCNA exam is memorizing a list of port numbers and the protocols that run on those ports. If you're an experienced networker, you know most of the protocols that are mentioned - DNS, DHCP, FTP, SMTP, and so on. But there's one protocol that you might not have experience with, but is actually vital for CCNA exam success and success in working with Cisco routers and switches, and that's TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol. TFTP is basically FTP's non-secure relative. There are no passwords, no authentication scheme, no nothing! As someone once told me, "If I'm transferring my files, there's nothing 'trivial' about it." Great. So you’re thinking, “What the heck do we use TFTP for, anyway?” TFTP is used in the Cisco world to perform IOS upgrades and to save configs to a TFTP Server. Cisco routers can themselves serve as TFTP servers, or you can use a workstation to fill that role. If you needed to copy an IOS image to a router, for example, you could do so easily by connecting your PC to the router’s console port (via a rollover cable, right?). Your PC would need to run TFTP server software. There are quite a few free TFTP server software programs that work quite well – just enter “free tftp server” into Google or your favorite search engine and you’ll see what I mean. Using TFTP in this fashion is a great way to have backup copies of IOS images or router configs right on your laptop. And take it from me, when the day comes that you need those backups, you’ll be glad you did! Remember that when using the copy command, you first indicate where you’re copying from, then where you’re copying to: R1#copy flash tftp Source filename []? Example Address or name of remote host []? When performing such a copy, you’ll need to name the file you’re copying, as well as the IP address of the device you’re copying to. Using TFTP to perform IOS upgrades takes a little getting used to, especially the syntax of the copy command. But knowing that syntax and how to use TFTP will indeed get you one step closer to the CCNA!

         
    Cisco ccna exam tutorial and case study vlans and ip connectivity

     

    : In this CCNA case study, we'll take some basic switching and trunking theory and put it into action. We have two routers (R2 and R3) along with two switches (SW1 and SW2). R2 is connected to SW1 at fast 0/2, and R3 is connected to SW2 at fast 0/3. Both routers have IP addresses on the 172.12.23.0 /24 network. For these routers to be able to ping each other, the switches must be able to communicate. These are two 2950 switches, and they're connected via two crossover cables. Before we worry about the router connectivity, let's make sure the trunk link is up between the switches with the "show interface trunk" command. SW2#show interface trunk Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan Fa0/11 desirable 802.1q trunking 1 Fa0/12 desirable 802.1q trunking 1 < output truncated for clarity > The default mode of these switches is for the ports to run in dynamic desirable trunking mode, so we didn't even need to write a configuration to have the trunk form - it's already there! Show vlan brief reinforces the theory that by default, all switch ports are placed into VLAN 1 (except the trunk ports). R2 and R3’s Ethernet addresses have already been configured, the trunk line is operational, and both ports are in VLAN 1. We'll ping R2’s Ethernet interface from R3, and then R3’s Ethernet interface from R2 to verify IP connectivity. R2#ping 172.23.23.3 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.23.23.3, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms R3#ping 172.23.23.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.23.23.2, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms With pings, exclamation points indicate IP connectivity, and periods indicate no connectivity. So we've got connectivity! Now let's see if we still have that connectivity when the ports are placed into different VLANs. Cisco CCNA theory states that devices in different VLANs can't communicate without the intervention of a Layer 3 device, but let's see if that's true by placing R2 into VLAN 23. (VTP is already running on these switches.) SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. SW1(config)#int fast 0/2 SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 23 SW1(config-if)#^Z Now that R2 and R3 are in separate VLANs, can they still send pings back and forth? R2#ping 172.23.23.3 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.23.23.3, timeout is 2 seconds: ..... Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) R3#ping 172.23.23.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.23.23.2, timeout is 2 seconds: ..... No, they can’t. The difference is that they’re now in separate VLANs, and devices in different VLANs can’t communicate unless routing is taking place somewhere. Here, no routing is taking place, so the pings don’t go through. Put R3’s switch port into VLAN 23, and try the ping again. SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. SW2(config)#interface fast0/3 SW2(config-if)#switchport mode access SW2(config-if)#switchport access vlan 23 R3#ping 172.23.23.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.23.23.2, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/4/8 ms R2#ping 172.23.23.3 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.23.23.3, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Now that R2 and R3 are in the same VLAN, pings can go through. This just proves the theory - that inter-VLAN communicate requires a Layer 3 device. Layer 3 switches are becoming more and more popular, but router-on-a-stick is still around - and we'll see how to configure that in our next tutorial!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial 10 isis details you must know

     

    Earning your CCNP certification and passing the BSCI exam depends on knowing the details of many Cisco technologies, ISIS chief among them. To help you prepare for exam success, here's a list of ISIS terminology and basic concepts that will help you pass this tough exam. Enjoy! ISIS Terms: Domain: section of the network under common administrative control Area: logical segment of the network composed of contiguous routers and their data links Intermediate System: A router. End System: A host device. The four levels of ISIS routing: Level 0: ES-IS routing in the same subnet. Level 1: IS-IS routing in the same area. Level 2: IS-IS routing in the same domain. Level 3: Inter-domain routing performed by InterDomain Routing Protocol (IDRP). ISIS Adjacency Possibilities: L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1/L2 in the same area. L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1/L2 in any area. L1/L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1/L2 in any area, and L2 in any area. A router interface’s SNPA (Subnetwork Point Of Attachment) is its highest DLCI number if it’s on a Frame network, and its MAC address if the interface is on an Ethernet segment. ISIS Hello Types: ESH: ES Hello – Sent by End Systems to discover a router. ISH: IS Hello – Send by Intermediate Systems to announce their presence. End Systems listen for these. IIH: IS-to-IS Hello – Send by one IS to be heard by another IS. These hellos makes IS-IS adjacencies possible. Best of luck on your CCNP exams!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial bpdu skew detection

     

    You may look at that feature's name and think, "What is a BPDU Skew, and why do I want to detect it?" What we're actually attempting to detect are BPDUs that aren't being relayed as quickly as they should be. After the root bridge election, the root bridge transmits BPDUs, and the non-root switches relay that BPDU down the STP tree. This should happen quickly all around, since the root bridge will be sending a BPDU every two seconds by default ("hello time"), and the switches should relay the BDPUs fast enough so every switch is seeing a BPDU every two seconds. That's in a perfect world, though, and there are plenty of imperfect networks out there! You may have a busy switch that can't spare the CPU to relay the BDPU quickly, or a BPDU may just simply be lost in transmission. That two-second hello time value doesn't give the switches much leeway, but we don't want the STP topology recalculated unnecessarily either. BDPU Skew Detection is strictly a notification feature. Skew Detection will not take action to prevent STP recalculation when BDPUs are not being relayed quickly enough by the switches, but it will send a syslog message informing the network administrator of the problem. The amount of time between when the BDPU should have arrived and when it did arrive is referred to as "skew time" or "BPDU latency". A busy CPU could quickly find itself overwhelmed if it had to send a syslog message for every BPDU delivery that's skewed. The syslog messages will be limited to one every 60 seconds, unless the "skew time" is at a critical level. In that case, the syslog message will be sent immediately with no one-per-minute limit. And what is "critical", according to BDPU Skew Detection? Any value greater than 1/2 of the MaxAge value, making the critical skew time level 10 seconds or greater.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial changing the active router in hsrp

     

    To pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP certification, you've got to know HSRP inside and out. While the operation and basic commands of HSRP are pretty simple, there are some important details that are easily overlooked but are vital in getting HSRP to work the way you want it to. Let's take a look at using the priority command correctly on both the exam and in production networks. A key value in the show standby command is the priority. The default is 100, and the router with the highest priority will be the primary HSRP router. We'll raise the default priority on R2 and see the results. R3 is currently the Active router and R2 the standby, so let's raise the priority on R2 and see what happens. R2(config)#interface ethernet0 R2(config-if)#standby 5 priority 150 R2#show standby Ethernet0 - Group 5 Local state is Standby, priority 150 Hellotime 4 sec, holdtime 12 sec Next hello sent in 0.896 Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured Active router is 172.12.23.3, priority 100 expires in 8.072 Standby router is local 1 state changes, last state change 00:14:24 R2 now has a higher priority, but R3 is still the active router. R2 will not take over as the HSRP primary until R3 goes down - OR the preempt option is configured on R2. R2(config-if)#standby 5 priority 150 preempt 1d11h: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: Ethernet0 Group 5 state Standby -> Active R2#show standby Ethernet0 - Group 5 Local state is Active, priority 150, may preempt Hellotime 4 sec, holdtime 12 sec Next hello sent in 1.844 Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured Active router is local Standby router is 172.12.23.3 expires in 10.204 Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac05 2 state changes, last state change 00:00:13 In just a few seconds, a message appears that the local state has changed from standby to active. Show standby confirms that R2, the local router, is now the active router - the primary. R3 is now the standby. So if anyone tells you that you have to take a router down to change the Active router, they're wrong - you just have to use the preempt option on the standby priority command. Another vital part of HSRP configurations is knowing how to change the MAC address of the virtual router, as well as interface tracking. We'll look at those features in the next part of my HSRP tutorial!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial configuring cgmp on routers switches

     

    If a Layer Two switch doesn't have the capabilities to run IGMP Snooping, it will be able to run CGMP - Cisco Group Membership Protocol. CGMP allows the multicast router to work with the Layer Two switch to eliminate unnecessary multicast forwarding. CGMP will be enabled on both the multicast router and the switch, but the router's going to do all the work. The router will be sending Join and Leave messages to the switch as needed. PIM must be running on the router interface facing the switch before enabling CGMP, as you can see: R1(config)#int e0 R1(config-if)#ip cgmp WARNING: CGMP requires PIM enabled on interface R1(config-if)#ip pim sparse R1(config-if)#ip cgmp When CGMP is first enabled on both the multicast router and switch, the router will send a CGMP Join message, informing the switch that a multicast router is now connected to it. This particular CGMP Join will contain a Group Destination Address (GDA) of 0000.0000.0000 and the MAC address of the sending interface. The GDA is used to identify the multicast group, so when this is set to all zeroes, the switch knows this is an introductory CGMP Join, letting the switch know that the multicast router is online. The switch makes an entry in its MAC table that this router can be found off the port that the CGMP Join came in on. The router will send a CGMP Join to the switch every minute to serve as a keepalive. A workstation connected to the switch on port 0/5 now wishes to join multicast group 225.1.1.1. The Join message is sent to the multicast router, but first it will pass through the switch. The switch will do what you'd expect it to do - read the source MAC address and make an entry for it in the MAC address table as being off port fast 0/5 if there's not an entry already there. (Don't forget that the MAC address table is also referred to as the CAM table or the bridging table.) The router will then receive the Join request, and send a CGMP Join back to the switch. This CGMP Join will contain both the multicast group's MAC address and the requesting host's MAC address. Now the switch knows about the multicast group 225.1.1.1 and that a member of that group is found off port fast 0/5. In the future, when the switch receives frames destined for that multicast group, the switch will not flood the frame as it would an unknown multicast. Instead, the switch will forward a copy of the frame to each port that it knows leads to a member of the multicast group. Two major benefits of CGMP are the explicit Join and Leave Group messages. In the next part of this BCMSN exam tutorial, we’ll take a look at the Leave Group messages.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial configuring portfast and bpdu guard

     

    In your CCNA studies, you learned about PortFast and the trouble it can cause if configured on the wrong port! Suitable only for switch ports connected directly to a single host, PortFast allows a port running STP to go directly from blocking to forwarding mode. A Cisco router will give you a warning when you configure PortFast: SW1(config)#int fast 0/5 SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast %Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc... to this interface when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary bridging loops. Use with CAUTION %Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0/5 but will only have effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode. SW1(config-if)# Not only will the switch warn you about the proper usage of PortFast, but you must put the port into access mode before PortFast will take effect. Now, you'd think that would be enough of a warning, right? But there is a chance - just a chance - that someone is going to manage to connect a switch to a port running Portfast. That could lead to two major problems, the first being the formation of a switching loop. Remember, the reason we have listening and learning modes is to help prevent switching loops. The next problem is that there could be a new root bridge elected - and it could be a switch that isn't even in your network! BPDU Guard protects against this disastrous possibility. If any BPDU comes in on a port that's running BPDU Guard, the port will be shut down and placed into error disabled state, shown on the switch as err-disabled. A port placed in err-disabled state must be reopened manually. BPDU Guard is off on all ports by default, and is enabled as shown here: SW1(config)#int fast 0/5 SW1(config-if)#spanning-tree bpduguard enable It's a good idea to enable BPDU Guard on any port you're running PortFast on. There's no cost in overhead, and it does prevent the possibility of a switch sending BPDUs into a port configured with PortFast - not to mention the possibility of a switch not under your control becoming a root switch to your network!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial dynamic trunking protocol dtp

     

    When you're studying to pass the BCMSN exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, you're going to add to your CCNA knowledgebase every step of the way. Nowhere is that more than configuring a trunk between two switches. You know that IEEE 802.1Q ("dot1q") and ISL are your two choices of trunking protocols, and you know the main differences between the two. What you might not have known is that there's a third trunking protocol that's running between your Cisco switches, and while it's a transparent process to many, you had better know about it for your BCMSN and other CCNP exams! The Cisco-proprietary Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) actively attempts to negotiate a trunk link with the remote switch. This sounds great, but there is a cost in overhead - DTP frames are transmitted every 30 seconds. If you decide to configure a port as a non-negotiable trunk port, there's no need for the port to send DTP frames. DTP can be turned off at the interface level with the switchport nonegotiate command, but as you see below, you cannot turn DTP off until the port is no longer in dynamic desirable trunking mode. (Dynamic desirable is the default mode for most Cisco switch ports.) SW2(config)#int fast 0/8 SW2(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate Command rejected: Conflict between 'nonegotiate' and 'dynamic' status. SW2(config-if)#switchport mode ? access Set trunking mode to ACCESS unconditionally dynamic Set trunking mode to dynamically negotiate access or trunk mode trunk Set trunking mode to TRUNK unconditionally SW2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk SW2(config-if)#switchport nonegotiate When you're working with Cisco switches in a home lab or rack rental environment, run IOS Help regularly to see what options are available for the commands you're practicing with. Cisco switch ports have quite a few options, and the best way to find them is with one simple symbol - the question mark!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial dynamic vlans and vmps

     

    Knowledge of Dynamic VLANs and VMPS is important in your efforts to pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP, and it's also a great skill to have for your networking career. As a CCNA and CCNP candidate, you know how and why to configure static VLANs. Static VLANs can be a powerful tool for reducing unnecessary broadcast and multicast traffic, but if hosts are moved from one switch port to another, you've got to make those changes manually on the switch. With Dynamic VLANs, the changes are made - how else? - dynamically. The actual configuration of dynamic VLANs is out of the scope of the BCMSN exam, but as a CCNP candidate you need to know the basics of VMPS - a VLAN Membership Policy Server. Using VMPS results in port VLAN membership changes being performed dynamically, because the port's VLAN membership is decided by the source MAC address of the device connected to that port. (Yet another reason that the first value a switch looks at on an incoming frame is the source MAC address.) In my home lab network, I've got a host connected to switch port fast0/1 that resides in VLAN 12. What if we had to move Host 1's connection to the switch to port 0/6? With static VLANs, we'd have to connect to the switch, configure the port as an access port, and then place the port into VLAN 12. With VMPS, the only thing we'd have to do is reconnect the cable to port 0/6, and the VMPS would dynamically place that port into VLAN 12. I urge you to do additional reading regarding VMPS. Use your favorite search engine for the term configuring vmps and you'll quickly find some great official Cisco documentation on this topic. To review, the VLAN membership of a host is decided by one of two factors. With static VLANs, the host's VLAN membership is the VLAN to which its switch port has been assigned. With dynamic VLANs, it is dependent upon the host's MAC address.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial multicasting and reserved addresses

     

    Ever since you picked up your first CCNA book, you've heard about multicasting, gotten a fair idea of what it is, and you've memorized a couple of reserved multicasting addresses. Now as you prepare to pass the BCMSN exam and become a CCNP, you've got to take that knowledge to the next level and gain a true understanding of multicasting. Those of you with an eye on the CCIE will truly have to become multicasting experts! Having said that, we're going to briefly review the basics of multicasting first, and then future tutorials will look at the different ways in which multicasting can be configured on Cisco routers and switches. What Is Multicasting? A unicast is data that is sent from one host to another, while a broadcast is data sent from a host that is destined for "all" host addresses. By "all", we can mean all hosts on a subnet, or truly all hosts on a network. There's a quite a bit of a middle ground there! A multicast is that middle ground, as a multicast is data that is sent to a logical group of hosts, called a multicast group. Hosts that are not part of the multicast group will not receive the data. Some other basic multicasting facts: There's no limit on how many multicast groups a single host can belong to. The sender is usually unaware of what host devices belong to the multicast group. Multicast traffic is unidirectional. If the members of the multicast group need to respond, that reply will generally be a unicast. The range of IP addresses reserved for multicasting is the Class D range, 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255. That range contains a couple of other reserved address ranges. 224.0.0.0 - 224.0.0.255 is reserved for network protocols only on a local network segment. Packets in this range will not be forwarded by routers, so these packets cannot leave the segment. Just as Class A, Class B, and Class C networks have private address ranges, so does Class D. The Class D private address range is 239.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255. Like the other private ranges, these addresses can't be routed, so they can be reused from one network to another. The remaining addresses fall between 224.0.1.0 and 238.255.255.255. That's the "normal" range of multicast addresses. These addresses can be routed, so they must be unique and should not be duplicated from one network to the next. In my next BCMSN / CCNP multicasting tutorial, we'll take a look at the different ways in which Cisco routers and switches interact to forward multicast traffic.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial spanning tree protocol stp timers

     

    In your BCMSN / CCNP exam study, it's easy to overlook some of the details of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). After all, you learned all of that in your CCNA studies, right? Not necessarily! While some of the BCMSN material will be a review for you, there are some details regarding familiar topics that you need to learn. That includes the timers for STP - Hello Time, MaxAge, and Forward Delay. You may remember these timers from your CCNA studies as well, and you should also remember that these timers should not be changed lightly. What you might not have known is that if you decide to change any and all of these timers, that change must be configured on the root bridge! The root bridge will inform the nonroot switches of the change via BPDUs. Hello Time is the interval between BPDUs, two seconds by default. Forward Delay is the length of both the listening and learning STP stages, with a default value of 15 seconds. Maximum Age, referred to by the switch as MaxAge, is the amount of time a switch will retain a BPDU's contents before discarding it. The default is 20 seconds. The value of these timers can be changed with the spanning-tree vlan command shown below. Verify the changes with the show spanning-tree command. SW1(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 ? forward-time Set the forward delay for the spanning tree hello-time Set the hello interval for the spanning tree max-age Set the max age interval for the spanning tree priority Set the bridge priority for the spanning tree root Configure switch as root SW1(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 hello-time 5 SW1(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 max-age 30 SW1(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 forward-time 20 SW1(config)#^Z SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32769 Address 000f.90e1.c240 This bridge is the root Hello Time 5 sec Max Age 30 sec Forward Delay 20 sec Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1) Address 000f.90e1.c240 Hello Time 5 sec Max Age 30 sec Forward Delay 20 sec Aging Time 300 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio. Nbr Type ---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -------------------------------- Fa0/11 Desg FWD 19 128.11 P2p Fa0/12 Desg FWD 19 128.12 P2p Again, you should always take great care in changing these timers. Those defaults are set for a reason - helping to prevent switching loops!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial switches qos and cisco s networking model

     

    QoS is a big topic on your BCMSN and CCNP exams, and for good reason. As more and more traffic flows through today's networks, accurately applying QoS to both your routers and switches becomes more important. Note the phrase "accurately applying". You must have a plan in place before you start configuring QoS on your switches, and to create such a plan you should use Cisco's Three-layer Hierarchical Model. This model breaks switches down into three main groups - Access, Distribution, and Core. You're familiar with these groups from your CCNA studies, and now you've got to apply this knowledge. The QoS workload should be borne by the Access and Distribution layers, because the Core layer switches need to be left alone as much as possible to their primary purpose - switching! Traffic should generally be classified and marked at the Access layer. This allows traffic to be assigned the desired QoS values and carry that value throughout the network. If you choose to change CoS-DSCP mappings, this will generally be done at the Distribution layer. Since distribution layer switches will be receiving frames and packets with QoS values from the access layer switches, the appropriate "trust" and "no trust" statements should be configured on the appropriate distribution layer switches. Any traffic received by core switches should already be classified and marked as needed. The key with core switches is to use a simple queuing setup to keep the switching process fast. Fast, fast, fast! Real-world note - Low Latency Queuing (LLQ) is an excellent choice for core switches. The name says it all - low latency! The configuration of LLQ is not a BCMSN topic, but a quick search on the term low latency queuing will quickly bring up several Cisco LLQ configuration documents. Knowing the three layers of Cisco's networking model and the basic QoS operation and commands is vital to passing the CCNP exams, but even more importantly, you've got to apply this knowledge carefully and accurately to make QoS work for you in today's production networks.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial the core layer of cisco s three layer model

     

    In this section, you're going to be reintroduced to a networking model you first saw in your CCNA studies. No, it's not the OSI model or the TCP/IP model - it's the Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model. Let's face it, just about all you had to do for the CCNA was memorize the three layers and the order they were found in that model, but the stakes are raised here in your CCNP studies. You need to know what each layer does, and what each layer should not be doing. This is vital information for your real-world network career as well, so let's get started with a review of the Cisco three-layer model, and then we'll take a look at each layer's tasks. Most of the considerations at each layer are common sense, but we'll go over them anyway! Today we’ll take a look at the core layer of the Cisco model. The term core switches refers to any switches found here. Switches at the core layer allow switches at the distribution layer to communicate, and this is more than a full-time job. It's vital to keep any extra workload off the core switches, and allow them to do what they need to do - switch! The core layer is the backbone of your entire network, so we're interested in high-speed data transfer and very low latency - that's it! Core layer switches are usually the most powerful in your network, capable of higher throughput than any other switches in the network. Remember, everything we do on a Cisco router or switch has a cost in CPU or memory, so we're going to leave most frame manipulation and filtering to other layers. The exception is Cisco QoS, or Quality of Service. QoS is generally performed at the core layer. We'll go into much more detail regarding QoS in another tutorial, but for now, know that QoS is basically high-speed queuing where special consideration can be given to certain data in certain queues. (You’ll soon find that this is a very basic definition!) We always want redundancy, but you want a lot of redundancy in your core layer. This is the nerve center of your entire network, so fault tolerance needs to be as high as you can possibly get it. Root bridges should also be located in the core layer. The importance of keeping unnecessary workload off your core switches cannot be overstated. In the next part of this BCMSN tutorial, we’ll take a look at how the other layers of the Cisco three-part model do just that.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial the four or five stp port states

     

    As a CCNP candidate and a CCNA, you may be tempted to skip or just browse the many details of Spanning Tree Protocol. After all, you learned all of that in your CCNA studies, right? That's right, but it never hurts to review STP for a switching exam! Besides, many of us think of the four STP port states - but officially, there's a fifth one! Disabled isn't generally thought of as an STP port state, but Cisco does officially consider this to be an STP state. A disabled port is one that is administratively shut down. Once the port is opened, the port will go into blocking state. As the name implies, the port can't do much in this state - no frame forwarding, no frame receiving, and therefore no learning of MAC addresses. About the only thing this port can do is accept BPDUs from neighboring switches. A port will then go from blocking mode into listening mode. The obvious question is "listening for what?" Listening for BPDUs - and this port can now send BPDUs as well. The port still can't forward or receive data frames. When the port goes from listening mode to learning mode, it's getting ready to send and receive frames. In learning mode, the port begins to learn MAC addresses in preparation for adding them to its MAC address table. Finally, a port can go into forwarding mode. This allows a port to forward and receive data frames, send and receive BPDUs, and place MAC addresses in its MAC table. To see the STP mode of a given interface, use the show spanning-tree interface command. SW1#show spanning-tree interface fast 0/11 Vlan Role Sts Cost Prio. Nbr Type ---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- ---------- VLAN0001 Desg FWD 19 128.11 P2p To see these states in action, shut a port down in your CCNA / CCNP home lab and continually run the show spanning interface command. Once you see this in action on real Cisco equipment, you'll have no problem with BCMSN exam questions. Just don't practice this or any other Cisco command on a production network!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial changing root bridge election results

     

    Your BCMSN and CCNP studies will include mastering the details of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). While you learned some of these details in your CCNA studies, quite a bit of it may be new to you. Before going on to the intermediate and advanced STP features, let's review the root bridge election process and learn how to change these results. Each switch will have a Bridge ID Priority value, more commonly referred to as a BID. This BID is a combination of a default priority value and the switch's MAC address, with the priority value listed first. For example, if a Cisco switch has the default priority value of 32,768 and a MAC address of 11-22-33-44-55-66, the BID would be 32768:11-22-33-44-55-66. Therefore, if the switch priority is left at the default, the MAC address is the deciding factor. Switches are a lot like people - when they first arrive, they announce that they are the center of the universe! Unlike some people, the switches will soon get over it. BPDUs will be exchanged until one switch is elected Root Bridge, and it's the switch with the lowest BPDU that will end up being the Root Bridge. If STP is left totally alone, a single switch is going to be the root bridge for every single VLAN in your network. Worse, that single switch is going to be selected because it has a lower MAC address than every other switch, which isn't exactly the criteria you want to use to select a single root bridge. The time will definitely come when you want to determine a particular switch to be the root bridge for your VLANs, or when you will want to spread the root bridge workload. For instance, if you have 50 VLANs and five switches, you may want each switch to act as the root bridge for 10 VLANs each. You can make this happen with the spanning-tree vlan root command. SW1(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 ? forward-time Set the forward delay for the spanning tree hello-time Set the hello interval for the spanning tree max-age Set the max age interval for the spanning tree priority Set the bridge priority for the spanning tree root Configure switch as root In this example, we've got two switches, and SW1 has been elected the root bridge for VLANs 10, 20, and 30. We'll use the spanning-tree vlan root command on SW2 to make it the root bridge for VLANs 20 and 30. SW2(config)#spanning-tree vlan 20 root primary SW2(config)#spanning-tree vlan 30 root primary SW2#show spanning vlan 20 VLAN0020 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 24596 Address 000f.90e2.1300 This bridge is the root SW2#show spanning vlan 30 VLAN0030 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 24606 Address 000f.90e2.1300 This bridge is the root SW 2 is now the root bridge for both VLAN 20 and 30. Notice that the priority value has changed from the default of 32768. In the next CCNP / BCMSN tutorial, we'll take a look at more STP features.

         
     
         
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