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    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial multicasting and the rpf check

     

    Multicasting is a vital topic on your BCMSN, CCNP, and CCIE exams, and it can also be very confusing when you first start studying it. Multicasting uses concepts that are unlike anything you've run into in your routing protocol studies, and that can throw you at first. I speak from experience that multicasting is like any other Cisco technology - learn the basics, master the fundamentals, and then build your skills on that foundation. One such fundamental is the RPF Check, or Reverse Path Forwarding Check. A fundamental difference between unicasting and multicasting is that a unicast is routed by sending it toward the destination, while a multicast is routed by sending it away from its source. "toward the destination" and "away from its source" sound like the same thing, but they're not. A unicast is going to follow a single path from source to destination. The only factor the routers care about is the destination IP address - the source IP address isn't a factor. With multicast routing, the destination is a multicast IP group address. It's the multicast router's job to decide which paths will lead back to the source (upstream) and which paths are downstream from the source. Reverse Path Forwarding refers to the router's behavior of sending multicast packets away from the source rather than toward a specific destination. The RPF Check is run against any incoming multicast packet. The multicast router examines the interface that the packet arrived on. If the packet comes in on an upstream interface - that is, an interface found on the reverse path that leads back to the source - the packet passes the check and will be forwarded. If the packet comes in on any other interface, the packet is dropped. The RPF Check serves to verify the integrity of your multicasting network, and also serves as a reminder that the basic operation of multicasting is a lot different than unicasting!

         
    Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial static vlans

     

    BCMSN exam success and earning your CCNP certification requires you to add to your knowledge of VLAN configuration. When you studied for your CCNA exam, you learned how to place ports into a VLAN and what the purpose of VLANs was, but you may not be aware that there are two types of VLAN membership. To pass the BCMSN exam, you must know the details of both types. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at the VLAN type you are most familiar with, the "static VLAN". As you know, VLANs are a great way to create smaller broadcast domains in your network. Host devices connected to a port belonging to one VLAN will receive broadcasts and multicasts only if they were originated by another host in that same VLAN. The drawback is that without the help of a Layer 3 switch or a router, inter-VLAN communication cannot occur. The actual configuration of a static VLAN is simple enough. In this example, by placing switch ports 0/1 and 0/2 into VLAN 12, the only broadcasts and multicasts hosts connected to those ports will receive are the ones transmitted by ports in VLAN 12. SW1(config)#int fast 0/1 SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 % Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 12 SW1(config-if)#int fast 0/2 SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 One of the many things I love about Cisco switches and routers is that if you have forgotten to do something, the Cisco device is generally going to remind you or in this case actually do it for you. I placed port 0/1 into a VLAN that did not yet exist, so the switch created it for me! There are two commands needed to place a port into a VLAN. By default, these ports are running in dynamic desirable trunking mode, meaning that the port is actively attempting to form a trunk with a remote switch in order to send traffic between the two switches. The problem is that a trunk port belongs to all VLANs by default, and we want to put this port into a single VLAN only. To do so, we run the switchport mode access command to make the port an access port, and access ports belong to one and only one VLAN. After doing that, we placed the port into VLAN 12 with the switchport access vlan 12 command. Running the switchport mode access command effectively turns trunking off on that port. The hosts are unaware of VLANs; they simply assume the VLAN membership of the port they're connected to. But that's not quite the case with dynamic VLANs, which we'll examine in the next part of this BCMSN tutorial.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcsi exam tutorial broadcasts and the ip helper address command

     

    : While routers accept and generate broadcasts, they do not forward them. This can be quite a problem when a broadcast needs to get to a device such as a DHCP or TFTP server that's on one side of a router with other subnets on the other side. If a PC attempts to locate a DNS server with a broadcast, the broadcast will be stopped by the router and will never get to the DNS server. By configuring the ip helper-address command on the router, UDP broadcasts such as this will be translated into a unicast by the router, making the communication possible. The command should be configured on the interface that will be receiving the broadcasts. R1(config)#int e0 R1(config-if)#ip helper-address ? A. B.C. D IP destination address R1(config-if)#ip helper-address 100.1.1.2 Now, you may be wondering if this command covers all UDP services. Sorry, you're not getting off that easy! The command does forward eight common UDP service broadcasts, though. TIME, port 37 TACACS, port 49 DNS, port 53 BOOTP/DHCP Server, port 67 BOOTP/DHCP Client, port 68 TFTP, port 69 NetBIOS name service, port 137 NetBIOS datagram service, port 138 That's going to cover most scenarios where the ip helper-address command will be useful, but what about those situations where the broadcast you need forwarded is not on this list? You can use the ip forward-protocol command to add any UDP port number to the list. Additionally, to remove protocols from the default list, use the no ip forward-protocol command. In the following example, we'll add the Network Time Protocol port to the forwarding list while removing the NetBIOS ports. Remember, you can use IOS Help to get a list of commonly filtered ports! R1(config)#ip forward-protocol udp ? <0-65535> Port number biff Biff (mail notification, comsat, 512) bootpc Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) client (68) bootps Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) server (67) discard Discard (9) dnsix DNSIX security protocol auditing (195) domain Domain Name Service (DNS, 53) echo Echo (7) isakmp Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (500) mobile-ip Mobile IP registration (434) nameserver IEN116 name service (obsolete, 42) netbios-dgm NetBios datagram service (138) netbios-ns NetBios name service (137) netbios-ss NetBios session service (139) ntp Network Time Protocol (123) pim-auto-rp PIM Auto-RP (496) rip Routing Information Protocol (router, in. routed, 520) snmp Simple Network Management Protocol (161) snmptrap SNMP Traps (162) sunrpc Sun Remote Procedure Call (111) syslog System Logger (514) tacacs TAC Access Control System (49) talk Talk (517) tftp Trivial File Transfer Protocol (69) time Time (37) who Who service (rwho, 513) xdmcp X Display Manager Control Protocol (177) R1(config)#ip forward-protocol udp 123 R1(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 137 R1(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 138 As you can see, the ip helper-address command helps work around the fact that broadcasts aren't forwarded by routers by default, and if you just need to send one or two broadcast types, the other types can be turned off easily.

         
    Cisco ccnp bcsi exam tutorial configuring eigrp packet authentication

     

    Configuring RIPv2 and EIGRP authentication with key chains can be tricky at first, and the syntax isn't exactly easy to remember. But for BSCI and CCNP exam success, we've got to be able to perform this task. In a previous tutorial, we saw how to configure RIPv2 packet authentication, with both clear-text and MD5 authentication schemes. EIGRP authentication is much the same, and has the text and MD5 authentication options as well. But EIGRP being EIGRP, the command just has to be a little more detailed! As with RIPv2, the authentication mode must be agreed upon by the EIGRP neighbors. If one router's interface is configured for MD5 authentication and the remote router's interface is configured for text authentication, the adjacency will fail even if the two interfaces in question are configured to use the same password. We'll now configure link authentication on the adjacency over an Ethernet segment. Below, you'll see how to configure a key chain called EIGRP on both routers, use key number 1, and use the key-string BSCI. Run show key chain on a router to see all key chains. R2(config)#key chain EIGRP R2(config-keychain)#key 1 R2(config-keychain-key)#key-string BSCI R2#show key chain Key-chain EIGRP: key 1 -- text "BSCI" accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] R3(config)#key chain EIGRP R3(config-keychain)#key 1 R3(config-keychain-key)#key-string BSCI R3#show key chain Key-chain EIGRP: key 1 -- text "BSCI" accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now] The EIGRP command to apply the key chain is a bit of a pain to remember, because the protocol and AS number is identified in the middle of the command, not the beginning. Also note that two commands are needed - one to name the key chain, another to define the authentication mode in use. R2(config)#interface ethernet0 R2(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 100 EIGRP R2(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 100 md5 5d07h: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 172.12.23.3 (Ethernet0) is down: keychain changed R3(config)#interface ethernet0 R3(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 100 EIGRP R3(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 100 md5 5d07h: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 172.12.23.2 (Ethernet0) is up: As with RIPv2, the existing adjacency was torn down when one side was configured with authentication. If the key chain is correctly defined and applied on both sides, the adjacency will come back up. Always run show ip eigrp neighbor to make sure the adjacency is present. Learn the details of EIGRP key chains by configuring them on your home lab equipment, and you'll be more than ready for BSCI exam success!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification bgp route reflector tutorial

     

    When you're studying for your BSCI exam and CCNP certification, you quickly realize that BGP is a whole new world from anything you've previously studies. One topic that sometimes confuses CCNP candidates is when a BGP route reflector needs to be configured. In the following example, the routers R1, R2, and R3 are all in BGP AS 100. This is not a full mesh, however. There are peer relationships between R1-R2 and R1-R3, but not between R2 and R3. R3 is advertising network 3.3.3.0/24 via BGP, and the route is seen on R1. R1's iBGP neighbor, R2 does not see the route. A basic rule of BGP is that a BGP speaker cannot advertise a route to an iBGP neighbor if that route was learned from another iBGP neighbor. Configuring R1 as a route reflector will allow us to circumvent this rule. The entire route reflector process is transparent to the clients, and no configuration is necessary on those clients. We'll configure R1 as a route reflector for both R2 and R3. R1(config)#router bgp 100 R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 route-reflector-client 3d18h: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 172.12.123.2 Down RR client config change R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.3 route-reflector-client 3d18h: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 172.12.123.3 Down RR client config change The BGP adjacencies do come down when this configuration is added, so this isn't something you want to do during a peak traffic time. Once the adjacencies come back up, R2 will have the route to 3.3.3.0/24. There are other possible solutions to this iBGP limitation, such as configuring BGP confederations. Those solutions are generally used on larger BGP deployments and with other concerns in mind, though, and configuring route reflectors serves this purpose just as well.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification introduction to isis terminology

     

    When you're studying to pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, you're going to be introduced to ISIS. ISIS and OSPF are both link-state protocols, but ISIS works quite differently from OSPF. You must master these details in order to earn your CCNP. One of the major differences between OSPF and ISIS will be evident to you when you first begin your BSCI exam studies, and that is the terminology. ISIS uses terms that no other protocol you've studied to date uses, and learning these new terms is the first step to BSCI and CCNP exam success. First off, what does "IS" stand for in "ISIS"? It stands for "Intermediate System", which sounds like a group of routers. As opposed to Autonomous Systems, which are logical groups of routers, an Intermediate System is simply a single router. That's it. You'll also become familiar with End Systems, referred to in ISIS as an "ES". The End System is simply an end host. ISIS and OSPF both use the concept of areas, but ISIS takes a different approach to this concept. ISIS routers use three different types of routing levels, according to the area a router has been placed in. Level 2 routers are connected only to the backbone and serve as a transit device between non-backbone areas. Level 1 routers are totally internal to a non-backbone area. ISIS uses both Level-1 and Level-2 Hellos, meaning that the two types of routers just mentioned cannot form an adjacency. Luckily for us, there is a middle ground, and that is the Level 1-2 router. These routers connect non-backbone areas to backbone areas. L1-L2 routers keep two separate routing tables, one for L1 routing and another for L2 routing. This is the default setting for a Cisco router, and L1-L2 routers can form adjacencies with both L1 and L2 routers. Part of the challenge of learning ISIS is getting used to the differences between ISIS and OSPF. Keep studying the terminology, master one concept at a time, and soon you'll be a master of ISIS and a CCNP to boot!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification the bgp attribute med

     

    When you're preparing to pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, one of the biggest challenges is learning BGP. BGP is totally different from any protocol you learned to earn your CCNA certification, and one of the differences is that BGP uses path attributes to favor one path over another when multiple paths to or from a destination exist. Notice I said "to or from". In earlier free BGP tutorials, I discussed the BGP attributes "weight" and "local preference". These attributes are used to favor one path to a destination over another; for example, if BGP AS 100 has two paths to a destination in AS 200, these two attributes can be set in AS 100 to favor one path over another. But what if AS 100 wants to inform the routers in AS 200 as to which path it should use to reach a given destination in AS 100? That's where the BGP attribute "Multi-Exit Discriminator", or MED, comes in. The MED value can be set in AS 100 to tell AS 200 which path it should use to reach a given network in AS 100. As with many BGP attributes, the MED can be set with a route-map. What you need to watch is that there is no "set med" value in route maps. To change the MED of a path, you need to change the metric of that path. Let's say that there are two entry paths for AS 200 to use to reach destinations in AS 100. You want AS 200 to use the 100.1.1.0/24 path over the 100.2.2.0/24 path. First, identify the two paths with two separate ACLs. R1(config)#access-list 22 permit 100.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 R1(config)#access-list 23 permit 100.2.2.0 0.0.0.255 Next, write a route-map that assigns a lower metric to the more-desirable path. R1(config)#route-map PREFER_PATH permit 10 R1(config-route-map)#match ip address 22 R1(config-route-map)#set metric 100 R1(config-route-map)#route-map PREFER_PATH permit 20 R1(config-route-map)#match ip address 23 R1(config-route-map)#set metric 250 Finally, apply the route-map to the neighbor or neighbors. R1(config-route-map)#router bgp 100 R1(config-router)#neighbor 22.2.2.2 route-map PREFER_PATH out The key points to keep in mind is that while many BGP attributes prefer a higher value, the MED is basically an external metric - and a lower metric is preferred, just as with the protocols you've already studied to earn your CCNA certification.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification the local preference bgp attribute

     

    When studying for your BSCI exam for the CCNP, you get your first taste of BGP. One of the major differences between BGP and the other protocols you've studied to date is that BGP uses attributes to describe paths, and to influence the selection of one path over the other. In this free tutorial, we're going to take a look at the Local Preference attribute and compare it to the Cisco-proprietary BGP attribute "weight". The Local Preference (LOCAL_PREF) attribute is used to influence how traffic will flow from one Autonomous System (AS) to another when multiple paths exist. For example, if AS 100 has two different paths to a destination network in AS 200, the LOCAL_PREF attribute can be used to influence the path selection. The major difference between the Weight and LOCAL_PREF attributes is that when the LOCAL_PREF attribute is changed, that change is reflected throughout the AS. The new LOCAL_PREF value will be advertised to all other routers in the AS, as compared to the Weight attribute, which is locally significant only. If you change the Weight for a path on one router in an AS, the other routers in the AS will not learn of the change. A route-map can be used to change a local preference value. For example, if you want to change the local preference value to 200 for the path advertisement 10.2.2.0/24 coming in from neighbor 10.1.1.1, there are three steps involved. First, write an ACL matching the remote network you want to change the local preference for. R1(config)#access-list 5 permit 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.255 Second, write a route-map setting the local preference to 200. This will double the default value of 100, and the path with the highest local preference will be the preferred path. R1(config)#route-map PREFER_PATH permit 10 R1(config-route-map)#match ip address 5 R1(config-route-map)#set local-pref 200 Finally, apply the route-map to routes that are being received from 10.1.1.1. R1(config)#router bgp 100 R1(config-router)#network 10.1.1.1 route-map PREFER_PATH in R1 will then advertise this new local preference value to all other routers in AS 100 - all of its iBGP neighbors.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification troubleshooting route redistribution part i

     

    : If there's one CCNP / BSCI topic that looks so easy but can lead to a real headache, it's route redistribution. I'm not even talking about the routing loops and suboptimal routing that can result when route redistribution is done without proper planning - I'm talking about the basic commands themselves. Leaving out one single command option, or forgetting what else needs to be redistributed when redistributing dynamically discovered routes, can leave you with a routing table that looks complete but does not result in full IP connectivity. In this free CCNP / BSCI tutorial series, we'll take a look at three common errors in route redistribution configurations, and how to fix them. We'll use three routers, R1, R3, and R5. R1 and R5 are in a RIPv2 domain and R1 and R3 are in an OSPF domain. R1 will be performing two-way route redistribution. R5 is advertising its loopback, 5.5.5.5/24, into the RIPv2 domain. R1 sees this route in its RIP routing table: R1#show ip route rip 5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets R 5.5.5.0 [120/1] via 100.1.1.5, 00:00:01, Ethernet0 For R3 to see this route, route redistribution must be configured on R1. We'll use the redistribute rip command to do so. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#redistribute rip % Only classful networks will be redistributed The router immediately gives us a message that "only classful networks will be redistributed". What does this mean? Let's go to R3 and see if that router is receiving this route. R3#show ip route ospf < no output > When we get no result from a show command, that means there's nothing to show. The only routes that will be successfully redistributed with the current configuration on R1 are classful networks, and 5.5.5.0/24 is a subnet. To further illustrate the point, a classful network has been added to R5. This network is 16.0.0.0 /8, and is now being advertised by RIP. R1 sees this network as classful... R1#show ip route rip R 16.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 100.1.1.5, 00:00:00, Ethernet0 5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets R 5.5.5.0 [120/1] via 100.1.1.5, 00:00:00, Ethernet0 ... and R3 is receiving the route through redistribution. R3#show ip route ospf O E2 16.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0.31 To redistribute both classful and classless networks, the option "subnets" must be added to the redistribute command on R1. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#no redistribute rip R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets R3 will now see both the classful and classless networks being redistributed into OSPF. (100.1.1.0 is the network connecting R1 and R5.) R3#show ip route ospf O E2 16.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial0.31 100.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 100.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial0.31 5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 5.5.5.0 [110/20] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:20, Serial0.31 This is one of the most common errors made during route redistribution, but now you know what to look out for! In the next part of this free CCNP / BSCI tutorial, we'll take a look at another such error.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification route redistribution and the seed metric

     

    : In the first part of this free CCNP / BSCI tutorial, we looked at how leaving one simple word out of our route redistribution configuration - "subnets" - resulted in an incomplete routing table when redistributing routes from RIP to OSPF. (If you missed that part of the tutorial, visit my website's "Free Tutorials" section.) Today, we'll look at redistributing OSPF routes into RIP and identify another common redistribution error. We are using a three-router network. R5 is running RIP, R1 is serving as a hub between R5 and R3 and is running RIP and OSPF, and R3 is running OSPF. To begin this lab, we'll add three loopbacks to R3 and advertise them to R1 via OSPF. R3(config)#int loopback33 R3(config-if)#ip address 33.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 R3(config-if)#int loopback34 R3(config-if)#ip address 34.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 R3(config-if)#int loopback35 R3(config-if)#ip address 35.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 R3(config-if)#router ospf 1 R3(config-router)#network 33.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 area 1 R3(config-router)#network 34.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 area 1 R3(config-router)#network 35.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 area 1 R1 sees all three of these routes in its routing table. R1#show ip route ospf 34.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 34.3.3.3 [110/65] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:55, Serial0 35.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 35.3.3.3 [110/65] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:45, Serial0 33.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 33.3.3.3 [110/65] via 172.12.123.3, 00:00:55, Serial0 We'll now redistribute these routes into RIP on R1. Remember the "subnets" option we talked about in the first part of this tutorial? There is no such option when redistributing OSPF routes into RIP, as IOS Help shows us. R1(config)#router rip R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 ? match Redistribution of OSPF routes metric Metric for redistributed routes route-map Route map reference vrf VPN Routing/Forwarding Instance R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 The routes have been redistributed into RIP with the redistribute ospf 1 command. (The "1" is the OSPF process number.) Let's look at R5 and see the results. R5#show ip route rip R5# The routes aren't there, but we didn't get a warning from the router that we needed to do anything else. What is the problem? The problem is that RIP requires a seed metric to be specified when redistributing routes into that protocol. A seed metric is a "starter metric" that gives the RIP process a metric it can work with. The OSPF metric of cost is incomprehensible to RIP, since RIP's sole metric is hop count. We've got to give RIP a metric it understands when redistributing routes into that protocol, so let's go back to R1 and do so. R1(config)#router rip R1(config-router)#no redistribute ospf 1 R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 2 R5 now sees the routes. Note that the metric contained in the brackets is the seed metric. R5#show ip route rip 34.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets R 34.3.3.3 [120/2] via 100.1.1.1, 00:00:24, Ethernet0 35.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets R 35.3.3.3 [120/2] via 100.1.1.1, 00:00:24, Ethernet0 33.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets R 33.3.3.3 [120/2] via 100.1.1.1, 00:00:24, Ethernet0 If you read the previous tutorial, you may have noticed that we did not specify a seed metric for OSPF. OSPF does not require a seed metric to be set during redistribution. You also noticed that the router did tell us that there might be a problem when we left the "subnets" option out of RIP>OSPF redistribution, but the router didn't tell us anything about a seed metric when we performed OSPF>RIP redistribution. This is a detail you must know by heart in order to make your route redistribution successful!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci certification exam five ospf details you must know

     

    Preparing for your BSCI exam on your way to the Cisco CCNP certification, you can quickly get overwhelmed by the details! Here are five commonly overlooked points you should keep in mind when it comes to your OSPF studies. The virtual link command includes the area number of the transit area, and if authentication is being used on Area 0, the virtual link command must include the authentication statement. Since the virtual link is a logical extension of Area 0, it stands to reason that it has to be configured with the authentication type and password configured on Area 0. OSPF requires no seed metric when routes are being redistributed into an OSPF domain. The default cost for such routes is 20, but you do need to use the "subnets" option if you want to redistribute subnets into OSPF. There are two kinds of external OSPF routes. The default, E2, reflects the cost of the path from the ASBR to the external destination. The other option, E1, has a cost reflecting the entire path from the local router to the external destination. When configuring stub areas, each router in the area must agree that the area is stub. For a total stub area, only the ABR needs to be configured with the "no-summary" option, but all routers in the area still must agree that the area is stub. Routers in a stub area will have a default route to use to reach external destinations; routers in total stub areas will have a default route to use in order to reach both external and inter-area networks. The BSCI exam and CCNP certification require a great deal of dedication and hard work. Keep studying and paying attention to the details, and you will get there!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial a guide to ipv6 addressing

     

    Learning IPv6 is paramount in your efforts to pass the BSCI exam and go on to earn your CCNP, and it's going to help in your real-world networking career as well. IPv6 can be confusing at first, but it's like anything else in Cisco or networking as a whole - learn one part at a time, master the fundamentals, and you're on your way to success. In today's article we're going to take a look at IPv6 address types. In IPv4, a unicast address is simply an address used to represent a single host, where multicast addresses represent a group of hosts and broadcasts represent all hosts. In IPv6, it's not quite that simple. There are actually different types of unicast addresses, each with its own separate function. This allows IPv6 to get data where it's supposed to go quicker than IPv4 while conserving router resources. IPv6 offers two kinds of local addresses, link-local and site-local. Site-local addresses allow devices in the same organization, or site, to exchange data. Site-local addresses are IPv6's equivalent to IPv4's private address classes, since hosts using them are able to communicate with each other throughout the organization, but these addresses cannot be used to reach Internet hosts. Site-local and link-local addresses are actually derived from a host's MAC address. Therefore, if HostA has HostB's IPv6 address, HostA can determine HostB's MAC address from that, making ARP unnecessary. Link-local addresses have a smaller scope than site-local. Link-local addresses are just that, local to a physical link. These particular addresses are not used at all in forwarding data. One use for these addresses is Neighbor Discovery, which is IPv6's answer to ARP. You can identify these and other IPv6 addresses by their initial bits: 001 - Global address (first 96 bits set to zero) - IPv4-compatible address 1111 1111 – Multicast 1111 1110 11 - Site local 1111 1110 10 - Link Local As a future CCNP, you're more than familiar with the reserved IPv4 address classes. You also know that they're not exactly contiguous. The developers of IPv6 took a structured approach to IPv6 reserved addresses - any address that begins with "0000 0000" is an IPv6 reserved address. One of these is the IPv6 loopback address, and this will give you some practice with your zero compression! IP v6 Loopback: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 Using Leading Zero Compression Only: 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Combining Leading Zero and Zero Compression: ::1 Zero compression looks pretty good now, doesn't it? You just have to get used to it and keep the rules in mind. You can use all the leading zero compression you want, but zero compression ("double-colon") can only be used once in a single address. IPv6 is here to stay, not only on your BSCI and CCNP exams, but in the real world as well. Learning it now will not only aid you in passing your Cisco exams, but in supporting IPv6 in the future.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial bgp adjacency states

     

    To pass the BSCI exam, earn your CCNP certification, and become an outstanding networker, you've got to master the many details of BGP - and trust me, there are a lot of details to master! Before you get into the more advanced features of BGP, you should have the fundamentals down cold, and one of those fundamentals is knowing the BGP adjacency states. This will allow you to successfully analyze and troubleshoot BGP peer relationships. In the following example, a BGP peering is being created between R1 and R3. R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.3 remote-as 200 BGP speakers do not have to be in the same AS to become peers. To verify that the remote BGP speaker has become a peer, run show ip bgp neighbor. R1#show ip bgp neighbor BGP neighbor is 172.12.123.3, remote AS 200, external link BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.0 BGP state = Active Last read 00:01:39, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Received 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Route refresh request: received 0, sent 0 Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds The output here can be a little misleading the first time you read it. The first highlighted line shows 172.12.123.3 is a BGP neighbor, is located in AS 200, and is an external link, indicating that the neighbor is in another AS entirely. The second highlighted line shows the BGP state as Active. This sounds great, but it actually means that a BGP peer connection does not yet exist with the prospective neighbor. Before we continue with this example, let’s look at the different BGP states: Idle is the initial state of a BGP connection. The BGP speaker is waiting for a start event, generally either the establishment of a TCP connection or the re-establishment of a previous connection. Once the connection is established, BGP moves to the next state. Connect is the next state. If the TCP connection completes, BGP will move to the OpenSent stage if the connection does not complete, BGP goes to Active. Active indicates that the BGP speaker is continuing to create a peer relationship with the remote router. If this is successful, the BGP state goes to OpenSent. You’ll occasionally see a BGP connection flap between Active and Connect. This indicates an issue with the physical cable itself, or with the configuration. OpenSent indicates that the BGP speaker has received an Open message from the peer. BGP will determine whether the peer is in the same AS (iBGP) or a different AS (eBGP) in this state. In OpenConfirm state, the BGP speaker is waiting for a keepalive message. If one is received, the state moves to Established, and the neighbor relationship is complete. It is in the Established state that update packets are actually exchanged. So even though the show ip bgp neighbor output indicated that this is an Active neighbor relationship, that’s not as good as it sounds. Of course, the reason the peer relationship hasn’t been established is that we haven’t configured R3 yet! R3(config)#router bgp 200 R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 remote-as 100 Verify the peer establishment with show ip bgp neighbor: R3#show ip bgp neighbor BGP neighbor is 172.12.123.1, remote AS 100, external link BGP version 4, remote router ID 172.12.123.1 BGP state = Established, up for 00:01:18 Last read 00:00:17, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Received 5 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 5 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Route refresh request: received 0, sent 0 Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds Local host: 172.12.123.3, Local port: 179 (BGP uses TCP Port 179) Foreign host: 172.12.123.1, Foreign port: 11007 The peer relationship between R1 and R3 has been established!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial eigrp route summarization

     

    Summarizing routes is a vital skill to learn to pass the BSCI exam and get one step closer to earning your CCNP. The actual binary conversions are only part of the test, though! You've got to know how to correctly apply the summary routes, and that differs from one protocol to the next. In the last few CCNP / BSCI tutorials, we've looked at using the "area range" and "summary-address" commands to perform OSPF route summarization. Today, we'll take a look at summarizing routes in EIGRP. We'll use the following four loopback addresses in this example: Loopback 16, 16.16.16.16 /32 Loopback 17, 17.17.17.17 /32 Loopback 18, 18.18.18.18 /32 Loopback 19. 19.19.19.19 /32 On R1, we'll place these four addresses into EIGRP AS 100. R1(config-if)#router eigrp 100 R1(config-router)#network 16.16.16.16 0.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 17.17.17.17 0.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 18.18.18.18 0.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 19.19.19.19 0.0.0.0 R3 is an EIGRP neighbor of R1, and that router's EIGRP routing table now looks like this: R3#show ip route eigrp 17.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets D 17.17.17.17 [90/2297856] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:29, Serial0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets D 16.16.16.16 [90/2297856] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:36, Serial0 19.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets D 19.19.19.19 [90/2297856] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:08, Serial0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets D 18.18.18.18 [90/2297856] via 172.12.123.1, 00:00:22, Serial0 To perform manual route summarization, write out the network addresses in binary and then determine the point at which the addresses no longer have a bit in common. For these four addresses, it will be enough to write out the first octet in binary: 16 00010000 17 00010001 18 00010010 19 00010011 Working from left to right, the common bits are the first six bits - 000100xx. In decimal, this value is 16. The summary mask must be determined as well, and that value is derived from putting a "1" in the mask for each common bit. With the first six bits all set to one - 11111100 - the resulting mask is 252.0.0.0. The full summary address is 16.0.0.0 252.0.0.0. In EIGRP, the summary address is actually configured on an interface, not under the routing process. R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 100 16.0.0.0 252.0.0.0 02:39:50: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 172.12.123.3 (Serial0) is down: summary configured 02:39:50: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 172.12.123.2 (Serial0) is down: summary configured 02:40:16: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 172.12.123.2 (Serial0) is up : new adjacency 02:40:17: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 172.12.123.3 (Serial0) is up: new adjacency There's an immediate side effect here that most books leave out. Your EIGRP adjacencies are going to come down after you configure this summary, but they should come back up quickly. The key word there is "should". If you configure EIGRP summary addresses on a production network, you may want to do this during non-peak hours. The timestamps on the above commands indicate that the adjacencies were down for about 27 seconds over the NBMA network. That's about 30 minutes in end-user time. ;) Check R3's EIGRP routing table. R3#show ip route eigrp D 16.0.0.0/6 [90/2297856] via 172.12.123.1, 00:01:46, Serial0 The four summarized routes are no longer in the routing table, and they have been replaced by the summary route shown at the bottom of the routing table. Notice the mask is /5, which is prefix notation for 248.0.0.0. Knowing how and why to summarize routes is a valuable skill, regardless of the protocol in use. But before you take the BSCI exam on your way to the CCNP, make sure you know how to perform summarization with all of the core protocols!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial filtering bgp updates with prefix lists

     

    A major part of your BSCI and CCNP exam success is mastering BGP, and that includes filtering BGP routing updates. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at how to filter BGP updates with prefix lists. R4 is advertising three networks via BGP. The downstream router R3 sees these routes and places them into its BGP table as shown below. R3 has two downstream BGP peers, R1 and R2, and is advertising itself as the next-hop IP address for all BGP routes sent to those two routers. R4(config)#router bgp 4 R4(config-router)#network 21.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 R4(config-router)#network 22.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 R4(config-router)#network 23.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 R3#show ip bgp BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 3.3.3.3 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i – Internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? – incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 21.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I *> 22.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I *> 23.0.0.0 10.2.2.4 0 0 4 I R3(config)#router bgp 123 R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 next-hop-self R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 next-hop-self In turn, both R1 and R2 have these three routes in their respective BGP tables. R2#show ip bgp BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 2.2.2.2 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i – Internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? – incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I *>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I *>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I R1#show ip bgp BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 19.1.1.1 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i – Internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? – incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I *>i22.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I *>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I If we wanted R3 to receive all three of these routes from R4 but not advertise all of them to R2 and R1, we've got a couple of options on how to block these routes. Cisco's recommendation is the use of prefix-lists, and once you get used to the syntax (which you should do before taking and passing the BSCI), you'll see they are actually easier to use than access-lists. In this case, we're going to configure R3 to send only the route to 21.0.0.0 to R1 and 23.0.0.0 to R2. However, we do want these two routers to get any future routes that R4 advertises into BGP. Since R1 and R2 will learn about these routes from an iBGP neighbor, they will not advertise the routes to each other. On R3, we'll write a prefix-list that denies 22.0.0.0/8 and 23.0.0.0/8, but permits all other routes. After applying the prefix list as shown, R1 sees only the 21.0.0.0 /8 route. R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 22.0.0.0/8 R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 deny 23.0.0.0/8 R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R1 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32 R3(config)#router bgp 123 R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.1 prefix-list FILTER_R1 out R3#clear ip bgp * soft R1#show ip bgp BGP table version is 6, local router ID is 19.1.1.1 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i – Internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? – incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *>i21.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I The paths to 22.0.0.0/8 and 23.0.0.0/8 have been successfully filtered. We'll do the same for R2, except the route not being expressly blocked is 23.0.0.0/8. The line "ip prefix-list permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32" is the prefix list equivalent of a "permit any" statement in an ACL. R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 21.0.0.0/8 R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 deny 22.0.0.0/8 R3(config)#ip prefix-list FILTER_R2 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32 R3(config)#router bgp 123 R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.12.123.2 prefix-list FILTER_R2 out R3#clear ip bgp * soft R2#show ip bgp BGP table version is 6, local router ID is 2.2.2.2 Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i – Internal Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? – incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *>i23.0.0.0 172.12.123.3 0 100 0 4 I The paths to 21.0.0.0/8 and 22.0.0.0/8 have been successfully filtered. To see the prefix lists configured on a route as well as the order of the statements in each list, run show ip prefix-list. R3#show ip prefix-list ip prefix-list FILTER_R1: 3 entries seq 5 deny 22.0.0.0/8 seq 10 deny 23.0.0.0/8 seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32 ip prefix-list FILTER_R2: 3 entries seq 5 deny 21.0.0.0/8 seq 10 deny 22.0.0.0/8 seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32 Get some hands-on practice with prefix lists and you'll quickly master them. Prefix lists are an important part of working with BGP in the exam room and production networks, so it's vital that you are comfortable working with them.

         
     
         
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