Navigation
  • Essay Webtraffic
  • Essay Google Adsense
  • Essay Random Articles
  • Essay Various
  • Essay Self Improvement Articles
  • Essay Articles Marketing1
  • Essay Accounting
  • Essay Acid reflux
  • Essay Acne
  • Essay Adsense
  • Essay Adult
  • Essay Advertising
  • Essay Adwareand spyware
  • Essay Aff10mar
  • Essay Affiliate
  • Essay Affiliate Marketing
  • Essay Affiliate Marketing On The Internet
  • Essay Affiliate Success
  • Essay Affiliate Marketers
  • Essay Affiliate Articles
  • Essay Affiliate Programs
  • Essay After School Activities
  • Essay Aikido
  • Essay Air Purifiers
  • Essay Air freight
  • Essay Air Purifiers
  • Essay Alternative energy
  • Essay Alternative Medicine
  • Essay American History
  • Essay Anger management
  • Essay Art Auctions
  • Essay ArticleMarketing
  • Essay Articles
  • Essay Articles Web Design
  • Essay Articles Marketing
  • Essay Articles
  • Essay Article Marketing
  • Essay Article Writing
  • Essay Artmarketing
  • Essay Arts Entertainment
  • Essay Aspen nightlife
  • Essay Aspen Nightlife
  • Essay Astrology
  • Essay Astronomy
  • Essay Atkins Diet
  • Essay Attraction
  • Essay ATV
  • Essay Auctions
  • Essay Audio Video Streaming
  • Essay Autism
  • Essay Auto Navigation Systems
  • Essay Auto Responders
  • Essay Auto sound systems
  • Essay Auto Leasing
  • Essay Autoresponders
  • Essay Aviation
  • Essay Babies
  • Essay Baby
  • Essay Back pain
  • Essay Backyard Activities
  • Essay Bargain Hunting
  • Essay Bathroom Remodeling
  • Essay Bathroom accessories
  • Essay BBQs
  • Essay Beach Vacations
  • Essay Beauty
  • Essay Biking
  • Essay Biography
  • Essay Black History
  • Essay Blog Marketing
  • Essay Blogging
  • Essay Blogs
  • Essay Bluetooth Technology
  • Essay Boarding
  • Essay Boating
  • Essay Boats
  • Essay Bodydetox
  • Essay Book Marketing
  • Essay Book Reviews
  • Essay Breast Feeding
  • Essay Breast Cancer
  • Essay Budgeting
  • Essay Burglar alarm
  • Essay Business
  • Essay Buying A Boat
  • Essay Buying Paintings
  • Essay California tan
  • Essay Camera bag
  • Essay Candle Making
  • Essay Car Rental
  • Essay Car Stereo
  • Essay Cardio
  • Essay Careers
  • Essay Carpet
  • Essay Cars
  • Essay Cats
  • Essay CD duplication
  • Essay Celebrities
  • Essay Cell Phone
  • Essay Child Care
  • Essay Choosing the Right Golf Clubs
  • Essay Christmas Shopping
  • Essay Cigars
  • Essay Closet Organizers
  • Essay Clothing
  • Essay Coaching
  • Essay Coffee
  • Essay Coin Collecting
  • Essay Colic
  • Essay College
  • Essay College Scholarship
  • Essay Colon Cancer
  • Essay Communications
  • Essay COMPUTER GAMES & SYSTEMS
  • Essay COMPUTERS, LAPTOPS, SMARTPHONES
  • Essay Computers Technology
  • Essay Computer Certification
  • Essay Consumer Electronics
  • Essay Contact Lenses
  • Essay Cooking
  • Essay Copywriting
  • Essay Corporate gifts
  • Essay Crafts
  • Essay Crafts articles
  • Essay Craigslist
  • Essay Creating an online business
  • Essay Creativity
  • Essay Credit
  • Essay Credit Card
  • Essay Credit Cards
  • Essay Credit score
  • Essays Credit Cards
  • Essay Credit Card Debt
  • Essay Criminology
  • Essay Cruise Ships
  • Essay Cruises
  • Essay Currency Trading
  • Essay Customer Service
  • Essay Dance
  • Essays Data Recovery
  • Essay Data Recovery
  • Essay Dating
  • Essay Dating Women
  • Essay Debt
  • Essay Debt Consolidation
  • Essay Decorating for Christmas
  • Essay Dental
  • Essay Dental Assistant
  • Essay Depression
  • Essay Destinations
  • Essay Diabetes
  • Essay Diamonds
  • Essay Diesel VS Gasoline vehicles
  • Essay Dieting
  • Essay Digital Camera
  • Essay Digital photography
  • Essay Digital Cameras
  • Essays Digital cameras
  • Essay Digital Products
  • Essay Disease Illness
  • Essay Disneyland
  • Essay Divorce
  • Essay Divorce rebuild life
  • Essay Dogs
  • Essay Domains
  • Essay EBay
  • Essay Ebooks
  • Essay Ecommerce
  • Essay Education
  • Essay Elderly Care
  • Essay Elliptical trainers
  • Essay Email Marketing
  • Essay Emergency preparation
  • Essay Entrepreneurs
  • Essay Environmental
  • Essay Writing
  • Essay Ethics
  • Essay Eventplanning
  • Essay Excavation Equipment
  • Essay Exercise
  • Essay Extra Income
  • Essay Extreme
  • Essay Ezine Marketing
  • Essay Ezine Publishing
  • Essay Family Budget
  • Essay Fashion
  • Essay Fashion school
  • Essay Feng shui
  • Essay Finance
  • Essay Finance and insurance
  • Essay Fishing
  • Essay Fitness
  • Essay Fitness Equipment
  • Essay Food Beverage
  • Essay Forex
  • Essay Formula D Racing
  • Essay Forums
  • Essay Fruit Trees
  • Essays Fruit Trees
  • Essay Fundraising
  • Essay Gambling
  • Essay Gambling Casinos
  • Essay Games
  • Essay Garage Remodeling
  • Essay Gardening
  • Essay General
  • Essay Goal Setting
  • Essay Golden Retriever
  • Essays Golden Retriever
  • Essay Golf
  • Essay Google Sense
  • Essays Google Adsense
  • Essay Gourmet
  • Essay Government
  • Essay Grief
  • Essay Hair Loss
  • Essay Happiness
  • Essay Hardware
  • Essay Health
  • Essay Health Articles Pack
  • Essay Healthy Aging
  • Essay Healthy Eating
  • Essay Health Fitness
  • Essay Health Insurance articles
  • Essay High Definition Video Cameras
  • Essay High Definition Video Cameras
  • Essay Hiking and Camping
  • Essay Hobbies
  • Essay Hobby Articles
  • Essay Holiday Games Activities
  • Essays Holiday Games Activities
  • Essay Holidays
  • Essay Home and constructions
  • Essay Home decorating
  • Essay Home Schooling
  • Essay Home Security
  • Essay Home Theater Systems
  • Essay Home Theater
  • Essay Homeschooling
  • Essay Home Security
  • Essay Home Based Business
  • Essay Home Entertainment
  •  
    Free Essay
    8.7 of 10 on the basis of 4307 Review.
     

     

     

     

     

     

         
     
    Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial route summarization

     

    Preparing to pass the BSCI exam and earn your Cisco CCNP? Route summarization is just one of the many skills you'll have to master in order to earn your CCNP. Whether it's RIP version 2, OSPF, or EIGRP, the BSCI exam will demand that you can flawlessly configure route summarization. Route summarization isn't just important for the BSCI exam. It's a valuable skill to have in the real world as well. Correctly summarizing routes can lead to smaller routing tables that are still able to route packets accurately - what I like to call "concise and complete" routing tables. The first skill you've got to have in order to work with route summarization is binary math more specifically, you must be able to take multiple routes and come up with both a summary route and mask to advertise to downstream routers. Given the networks 100.16.0.0 /16, 100.17.0.0 /16, 100.18.0.0 /16, and 100.19.0.0 /16, could you quickly come up with both the summary address and mask? All you need to do is break the four network numbers down into binary strings. We know the last two octets will all convert to the binary string 00000000, so in this article we'll only illustrate how to convert the first and second octet from decimal to binary. 100 16 = 01100100 00010000 100 17 = 01100100 00010001 100 18 = 01100100 00010010 100 19 = 01100100 00010011 To come up with the summary route, just work from left to right and draw a line where the four networks no longer have a bit in common. For these four networks, that point comes between the 14th and 15th bits. This leaves us with this string: 01100100 000100xx. All you need to do is convert that string back to decimal, which gives us 100 for the first octet and 16 for the second. (The two x values are bits on the right side of the line, which aren't used in calculating the summary route.) Since we know that zero is the value for the last two octets, the resulting summary network number is 100.16.0.0. But we're not done! We now have to come up with the summary mask to advertise along with the summary route. To arrive at the summary route, write out a mask in binary with a "1" for every bit to the left of the line we drew previously, and a "0" for every bit to the right. That gives us the following string: 11111111 11111100 00000000 00000000 Converting that to dotted decimal, we arrive at the summary mask 255.252.0.0. The correct summary network and mask to advertise are 100.16.0.0 252.0.0.0. For the BSCI exam, emphasis is put on knowing how to advertise these summary routes in RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF. For RIP v2 and EIGRP, route summarization happens at the interface level - it's not configured under the protocol. On the interface that should advertise the summary route, use the command "ip summary-address". Here are examples of how the above summary route would be configured on ethernet0 in both RIPv2 and EIGRP. R1(config-if)#ip summary-address rip 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0 R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 100 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0 The main difference between the two is that the EIGRP command must specify the AS number - that's what the "100" is in the middle of the EIGRP command. Since RIPv2 does not use AS numbers, there's no additional value needed in the configuration. For OSPF, the commands differ. If you're configuring inter-area route summarization, use the "area range" command. The number following "area" is the area containing the routes being summarized, not the area receiving the summary. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#area 1 range 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0 If you are summarizing routes that are being redistributed into OSPF, use the summary-address command under the OSPF routing process on the ASBR. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#summary-address 100.16.0.0 255.252.0.0 I speak from experience when I tell you that practice makes perfect on the BSCI exam, especially with binary and summarization questions. The great thing about these questions is that there are no grey areas with these questions - you either know how to do it or you don't. And with practice and an eye for detail, you can master these skills, pass the exam, and become a CCNP. Here's to your success on these tough Cisco certification exams!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci tutorial comparing ospf and isis hellos

     

    While studying to pass the BSCI exam and preparing to earn your CCNP certification, you'll quickly notice that while OSPF and ISIS are both link-state protocols, there are a lot of differences between the two. One major difference is the way the two protocols handle hello packets. Hello packets are imperative to keeping OSPF and ISIS adjacencies alive. Since they are both link-state protocols, neither of them will send updates at any specified time. Hello packets are the only method by which routers running OSPF and ISIS can see that a neighboring router is still available. OSPF gives us some great options when it comes to keeping routing table size down via the use of stub and total stub areas, but to OSPF, a hello packet is a hello packet. ISIS routers are capable of sending two different types of hellos - Level 1 and Level 2. ISIS routers are classified as Level 1 (L1), Level 2 (L2), and Level 1-2 (L1-L2). By default, Cisco routers are L1-L2 routers; this means that every ISIS-enabled interface will send out both L1 and L2 hellos. If one of the interfaces is forming only an L1 or L2 adjacency, there's no reason to send out hellos for the other adjacency type. For example, if R1 is forming an L1 adjacency with R2 via its ethernet0 interface, there is no reason to allow the router to transmit L2 hellos. To hardcode a router interface to send only L1 or L2 hellos, use the isis circuit-type command. R1(config)#interface ethernet0 R1(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-1 Note: To configure this interface to send only L2 hellos, the full command is "isis circuit-type level-2-only", not just "level-2". This configuration would prevent L2 hellos from being transmitted out ethernet0. While this does save router resources and prevents unnecessary bandwidth usage, there is also no way an L2 adjacency can be formed - so double-check your network topology before using this command!

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci tutorial route summarization with rip and eigrp

     

    To pass your BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, you've got to master route summarization. When you get to the BSCI level, actually breaking the routes down into binary strings and performing summarization is second nature to you. (If it isn't, get some more practice!) What makes CCNP / BSCI route summarization more difficult is just keeping the different protocol summarization commands straight! RIP and EIGRP both perform route summarization at the interface level with the ip summary-address command. In the following example, R2 is running RIP and was sending four routes to R3, R3's table looked like this before summarization: R3#show ip route rip 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets R 172.16.8.0 [120/1] via 172.23.23.2, 00:00:02, Ethernet0 R 172.16.9.0 [120/1] via 172.23.23.2, 00:00:02, Ethernet0 R 172.16.10.0 [120/1] via 172.23.23.2, 00:00:02, Ethernet0 R 172.16.11.0 [120/1] via 172.23.23.2, 00:00:02, Ethernet0 By summarizing the routes and using the ip summary-address command, RIP advertises only the summary route to the downstream neighbor. R2(config)#int ethernet0 R2(config-if)#ip summary-address rip 172.16.8.0 255.255.252.0 R3#clear ip route * R3#show ip route rip 172.16.0.0/22 is subnetted, 1 subnets R 172.16.8.0 [120/1] via 172.23.23.2, 00:01:24, Ethernet0 EIGRP works much the same way, except that the EIGRP AS number must be named in the ip summary-address command. In the following example, R2 was advertising four separate routes to R3 via EIGRP 100: 100.0.0.0, 101.0.0.0, 102.0.0.0, and 103.0.0.0, all with an eight-bit mask. What summary route can be used here? The summary is 100.0.0.0 252.0.0.0. To send that route to downstream routers, configure the following on R2: R2(config)#interface ethernet0 R2(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 100 100.0.0.0 252.0.0.0 R3 will then have only one route in its EIGRP table - the summary route. R3#show ip route eigrp D 100.0.0.0/6 [90/2297856] via 172.23.23.2, 00:02:33, Ethernet0 By mastering basic binary skills and keeping in mind that RIP and EIGRP perform route summarization at the interface level, you're one step closer to passing your BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification! In the next part of this tutorial, we'll take a detailed look at the different methods OSPF uses for route summarization.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci tutorial the bgp attribute next hop

     

    : When you're studying for the BSCI exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, you've got to master the use of BGP attributes. These attributes allow you to manipulate the path or paths that BGP will use to reach a given destination when multiple paths to that destination exist. In this free BGP tutorial, we're going to take a look at the NEXT_HOP attribute. You may be thinking "hey, how complicated can this attribute be?" It's not very complicated at all, but this being Cisco, there's got to be at least one unusual detail about it, right? The NEXT_HOP attribute is simple enough - this attribute indicates the next-hop IP address that should be taken to reach a destination. In the following example, R1 is a hub router and R2 and R3 are spokes. All three routers are in BGP AS 100, with R1 having a peer relationship with both R2 and R3. There is no BGP peering between R2 and R3. R3 is advertising the network 33.3.0.0 /24 via BGP, and the value of the next-hop attribute on R1 is the IP address on R3 that is used in the peer relationship, 172.12.123.3. The issue with the next-hop attribute comes in when the route is advertised to BGP peers. If R3 were in a separate AS from R1 and R2, R1 would then advertise the route to R2 with the next-hop attribute set to 172.12.123.3. When a BGP speaker advertises a route to iBGP peers that was originally learned from an eBGP peer, the next-hop value is retained. Here, all three routers are in AS 100. What will the next-hop attribute be set to when R1 advertises the route to its iBGP neighbor R2? R2#show ip bgp < no output > There will be no next-hop attribute for the route on R2, because the route will not appear on R2. By default, a BGP speaker will not advertise a route to iBGP neighbors if the route was first learned from another iBGP neighbor. Luckily for us, there are several ways around this rule. The most common is the use of route reflectors, and we'll look at RRs in a future free BGP tutorial.

         
    Cisco ccnp bsci tutorial the role of the ospf asbr

     

    To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, you've got to master the (many) details of OSPF. You might have thought there were quite a few OSPF details in your CCNA studies, but you'll now build on that foundation on the way to earning your CCNP. One such detail is the role of the Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) in OSPF. The name itself raises some eyebrows, since you learned in your CCNA studies that OSPF doesn't use autonomous systems! Just as an OSPF Area Border Router borders multiple OSPF areas, the ASBR borders the entire OSPF domain and another source of routes. This can be another dynamic routing protocol, or directly connected networks that are not being advertised into OSPF by the network command. Let's say we have a router running both OSPF and RIP version 2. By default, the RIP process will not contain any OSPF-discovered routes, and vice versa. The two separate routing processes are just that - separate. If we want the other OSPF routers to know about the RIP routes, route redistribution must be configured. When the RIP routes are redistributed into OSPF, that router is then an ASBR. In the below example, RIP subnets have been redistributed into OSPF. A seed metric is not necessary when redistributing routes into OSPF. The command "show ip ospf" confirms that this router is now an ASBR. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets R1#show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 1.1.1.1 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA It is an autonomous system boundary router The ASBR can also perform route summarization on the routes being injected into OSPF with the summary-address command. (To configure OSPF inter-area summarization, use the area range command.) By mastering route summarization and route redistribution, you're well on your way to passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bcmsn exam tutorial uplinkfast

     

    You remember from your CCNA studies that when a port goes through the transition from blocking to forwarding, you're looking at a 50-second delay before that port can actually begin forwarding frames. Configuring a port with PortFast is one way to get around that, but again, you can only use it when a single host device is found off the port. What if the device connected to a port is another switch? A switch can be connected to two other switches, giving that local switch a redundant path to the root bridge, and that's great - we always want a backup plan! However, STP will only allow one path to be available, but if the available path to the root switch goes down, there will be a 50-second delay due to the STP timers MaxAge and ForwardDelay before the currently blocked path will be available. The delay is there to prevent switching loops, and we can't use PortFast to shorten the delay since these are switches, not host devices. What we can use is Uplinkfast. The ports that SW3 could potentially use to reach the root switch are collectively referred to as an uplink group. The uplink group includes the ports in forwarding and blocking mode. If the forwarding port in the uplink group sees that the link has gone down, another port in the uplink group will be transitioned from blocking to forwarding immediately. Uplinkfast is pretty much PortFast for wiring closets. (Cisco recommends that Uplinkfast not be used on switches in the distribution and core layers.) Some additional details regarding Uplinkfast: The actual transition from blocking to forwarding mode takes about three seconds. Uplinkfast cannot be configured on a root switch. Uplinkfast is configured globally. You can't run Uplinkfast on some ports or on a per-VLAN basis - it's all or nothing. The original root port will become the root port again when it detects that its link to the root switch has come back up. This does not take place immediately. The switch uses the following formula to determine how long to wait before transitioning back to the forwarding state: ( 2 x FwdDelay) + 5 seconds Uplinkfast will take immediate action to ensure that the switch upon which it is configured cannot become the root switch. First, the switch priority will be set to 49,152, which means that if all other switches are still at their default priority, they'd all have to go down before this switch can possibly become the root switch. Additionally, the STP Port Cost will be increased by 3000, making it highly unlikely that this switch will be used to reach the root switch by any downstream switches. And you just know there's got to be at least one option with this command, right? Let's run IOS Help and see. SW2(config)#spanning-tree uplinkfast ? max-update-rate Rate at which station address updates are sent When there is a direct link failure, dummy multicast frames are sent to the MAC destination 0100.0ccd. cdcd. The max-update-rate value determines how many of these frames will be sent in a 100-millisecond time period. Mastering the details of UplinkFast, BackboneFast, BPDU Guard, and Loop Guard are vital to your success on the CCNP exams, and one or more of these features are in use on almost every network in the world. Learn these features for success in both the exam room and the real world!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bcmsn exam tutorial writing qos policy

     

    QoS - Quality of Service - is a huge topic on both the BCMSN exam and real-world networks. QoS is so big today that Cisco's created separate specialist certifications that cover nothing but QoS! It can be an overwhelming topic at first, but master the fundamentals and you're on your way to exam and job success. If you work with QoS at any level - and sooner or later, you will - you've got to know how to write and apply QoS policies. Creating and applying such a policy is a three-step process. 1. Create a QoS class to identify the traffic that will be affected by the policy. 2. Create a QoS policy containing the actions to be taken by traffic identified by the class. 3. Apply the policy to the appropriate interfaces. If the phrase "identify the traffic" sounds like it's time to write an access-list, you're right! Writing an ACL is one of two ways to classify traffic, and is the more common of the two. Before we get to the less-common method, let's take a look at how to use an ACL to classify traffic. You can use either a standard or extended ACL with QoS policies. The ACL will be written separately, and then called from the class map. SW1(config)#access-list 105 permit tcp any any eq 80 SW1(config)#class-map WEBTRAFFIC SW1(config-cmap)#match access-group 105 Now that we've identified the traffic to be affected by the policy, we better get around to writing the policy! QoS policies are configured with the policy-map command, and each clause of the policy will contain an action to be taken to traffic matching that clause. SW1(config)#policy-map LIMIT_WEBTRAFFIC_BANDWIDTH SW1(config-pmap)#class WEBTRAFFIC SW1(config-pmap-c)#police 5000000 exceed-action drop SW1(config-pmap-c)#exit This is a simple policy, but it illustrates the logic of QoS policies. The policy map LIMIT_WEBTRAFFIC_BANDWIDTH calls the map-class WEBTRAFFIC. We already know that all WWW traffic will match that map class, so any WWW traffic that exceeds the stated bandwidth limitation will be dropped. Finally, apply the policy to the appropriate interface. SW1(config-if)#service-policy LIMIT_WEBTRAFFIC_BANDWIDTH in Getting your CCNP is a great way to boost your career, and learning QoS is a tremendous addition to your skill set. Like I said, learn the fundamentals, don't get overwhelmed by looking at QoS as a whole, and you're on your way to success!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bcmsn exam tutorial the hsrp mac address

     

    To pass the BCMSN exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to know HSRP inside and out! Part of that is knowing how the MAC address of the virtual router is derived, and another part is knowing how to change this address. We'll look at both features in this tutorial. We've got two routers on a segment running HSRP, so first we need to find out what the MAC address of the HSRP virtual router is. The show command for HSRP is show standby, and it's the first command you should run while configuring and troubleshooting HSRP. Let's run it on both routers and compare results. R2#show standby Ethernet0 - Group 5 Local state is Standby, priority 100 Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec Next hello sent in 0.776 Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured Active router is 172.12.23.3, priority 100 expires in 9.568 Standby router is local 1 state changes, last state change 00:00:22 R3#show standby Ethernet0 - Group 5 Local state is Active, priority 100 Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec Next hello sent in 2.592 Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured Active router is local Standby router is 172.12.23.2 expires in 8.020 Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac05 2 state changes, last state change 00:02:08 R3 is in Active state, while R2 is in Standby. The hosts are using the 172.12.123.10 address as their gateway, but R3 is actually handling the workload. R2 will take over if R3 becomes unavailable. An IP address was statically assigned to the virtual router, but not a MAC address. However, there is a MAC address under the show standby output on R3, the active router. How did the HSRP process arrive at a MAC of 00-00-0c-07-ac-05? Well, most of the work is already done before the configuration is even begun. The MAC address 00-00-0c-07-ac-xx is reserved for HSRP, and xx is the group number in hexadecimal. That's a good skill to have for the exam, so make sure you're comfortable with hex conversions. The group number is 5, which is expressed as 05 with a two-bit hex character. If the group number had been 17, we'd see 11 at the end of the MAC address - one unit of 16, one unit of 1. On rare occasions, you may have to change the MAC address assigned to the virtual router. This is done with the standby mac-address command. Just make sure you're not duplicating a MAC address that's already on your network! R2(config-if)#standby 5 mac-address 0000.1111.2222 1d12h: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: Ethernet0 Group 5 state Active -> Learn R2#show standby Ethernet0 - Group 5 Local state is Active, priority 150, may preempt Hellotime 4 sec, holdtime 12 sec Next hello sent in 3.476 Virtual IP address is 172.12.23.10 configured Active router is local Standby router is 172.12.23.3 expires in 10.204 Virtual mac address is 0000.1111.2222 configured 4 state changes, last state change 00:00:00 1d12h: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: Ethernet0 Group 5 state Listen -> Active The MAC address will take a few seconds to change, and the HSRP routers will go into Learn state for that time period. A real-world HSRP troubleshooting note: If you see constant state changes with your HSRP configuration, do what you should always do when troubleshooting - check the physical layer first. Best of luck on your BCMSN exam!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bsci exam tutorial comparing irdp and hsrp

     

    To pass the BSCI exam, you need to know the difference between IRDP and HSRP. While they have the same basic function, the operation and configuration of each are totally different. The aim of both is to allow hosts to quickly discover a standby router when the primary router fails. IRDP is commonly used by Windows DHCP clients and several Unix variations, but you do see it in Cisco routers as well. IRDP is defined in RFC 1256. IRDP routers will multicast Hello messages that host devices hear. If a host hears from more than one IRDP router, it will choose one as its primary and will start using the other router if the primary it's chosen goes down. HSRP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that is designed for quick cutover to a secondary router if the primary fails, but the host devices don't "see" either the primary or secondary router. The hosts use a virtual router as their default gateway. This virtual router has its own IP and MAC address! All the while, the router chosen as the primary is actually the one doing the routing. If the primary router goes down, the secondary router quickly takes over with no major interruption to network services. The HSRP routers communicate by multicasting updates to 224.0.0.2, and its through these hellos that the HSRP routers decide which router is primary and which is secondary. HSRP is defined in RFC 2281. The configuration of each of these will be covered in a future tutorial. In the meantime, I urge you to read the RFCs mentioned in this article, and visit cisco/univercd to read about the configurations and options available for both of these vital protocols.

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bsci exam tutorial route summarization basics

     

    As you earn your CCNA and CCNP certification, you're going to have to get comfortable with manually summarizing routes. This isn't just another reason to learn binary math (although it's a good one!), but summarizing routes is a true real-world skill that can help your network operate more efficiently. So the question isn't just how to summarize routes, it's why. When you summarize routes in RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, or OSPF, you're replacing a series of routes with a summary route and mask. With RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP, this actually lessens the size of the routing update packet itself - multiple routes are replaced with the summary route. For instance, the routes 8.0.0.0/8, 9.0.0.0/8, 10.0.0.0/8, and 11.0.0.0/8 can be summarized as 8.0.0.0 252.0.0.0. Only the summary address will be found in the update packet, making it concise yet complete. Summarizing routes can also make the routing table smaller, yet still allow for complete IP connectivity when done correctly. Using the above example, the four more-specific routes will be replaced by a single summary route. Since the entire routing table is parsed before the routing process is complete, keeping the routing table as small as possible does help speed the routing process as a whole. To prepare for success on your CCNA and CCNP exam, you've got to know how to summarize routes as well as the specific commands for doing so with OSPF, EIGRP, RIP, and IGRP - but knowing why to summarize routes is just as important as knowing how! Here are some additional tips on route summarization. With RIP version 2 and EIGRP, manual route summarization is configured on the interface that will be advertising the summary. This is done with the route summarization command "ip summary-address." RIP version 2 and EIGRP also both perform autosummarization on routes that are advertised across classful network boundaries. This is disabled with the protocol-level command "no auto-summary". OSPF offers two different route summarization commands. To summarize routes from one OSPF area to another, use the "area range" command; to summarize routes learned via redistribution, use the "summary-address" command on the ASBR. With proper planning and an understanding of binary math, you'll master route summarization quickly with some practice - and you'll be ready for success on real-world networks as well as the CCNA and CCNP exams!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bsci exam tutorial an introduction to bgp

     

    When you're studying for the BSCI exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, it's safe to say that BGP is like nothing you’ve studied to this point. BGP is an external routing protocol used primarily by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Unless you work for an ISP today or in the future, you may have little or no prior exposure to BGP. Understanding BGP is a great addition to your skill set – and you have to know the basics well to pass the BSCI exam. Note that I said “the basics”. BGP is a very complex protocol, and when you pursue your CCIE, you’ll see what I’m talking about. As with all things Cisco, though, when broken down into smaller pieces, BGP becomes quite understandable. You will need to know the basics of BGP as presented in this chapter to pass your BSCI exam – so let’s get started. BGP Defined: “An Internet protocol that enables groups of routers (called autonomous systems) to share routing information so that efficient, loop-free routes can be established. BGP is commonly used within and between Internet Service Providers (ISPs).” There are a couple of terms in there that apply to the protocols you’ve mastered so far in your studies. The term “autonomous system” applies to IGRP and EIGRP as well as BGP; you’ll be indicating a BGP AS in your configurations just as you did with IGRP and EIGRP. And we’re always looking for efficient, loop-free routes, right? As it did with IGRP and EIGRP, "autonomous system" simply refers to a group of routers that is managed by a single administrative body. An autonomous system will use an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as OSPF or EIGRP to route packets inside the AS; outside the AS, an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) such as BGP will be used. BGP shares some characteristics with some routing protocols you’ve already studied. BGP supports VLSM, summarization, and CIDR. Like EIGRP, BGP will send full updates when two routers initially become neighbors and will send only partial updates after that. BGP does create and maintain neighbor relationships before exchanging routes, and keepalives are sent to keep this relationship alive. BGP has some major differences from the IGPs we’ve studied to this point. You’ll hear BGP referred to as a path-vector protocol. As opposed to distance-vector protocols that exchange relatively simple information about available routes, BGP routers will exchange extensive information about networks to allow the routers to make more intelligent routing decisions. This additional BGP path information comes in the form of attributes, and these path attributes are contained in the updates sent by BGP routers. Attributes themselves are broken up into two classes, well-known and optional. BGP also keeps a routing table separate from the IP routing table. We'll take a look at BGP attributes in future BSCI tutorials. In the meantime, keep studying!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bsci exam tutorial floating static routes

     

    : Passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification demands that you add greatly to the networking skills foundation you created when you studied for your CCNA certification. You learned quite a bit about static routing and default static routing when you passed the CCNA test, and it does seem like that should be all you need to know about static routing, right? One thing you'll learn as you continue to earn Cisco certifications is that there's always something else to learn! You may have heard the term "floating static route", which does suggest some interesting mental pictures. "Floating"? Floating on what? In a way, a floating static route is "floating" in your routing table. A floating static route is a route that will be used only if routes for the same destination but with a lower administrative distance are removed from the table. For example, you could be using an OSPF-discovered route as your primary route to a given destination, and the floating static route would serve as a backup route that would be used only if the OSPF route leaves the routing table. Now, how can that happen? After all, OSPF has an administrative distance of 110 and static routes have ADs of one or zero, depending on whether it's configured with a next-hop IP address or a local exit interface. One way or the other, 1 and 0 are still less than 110! When you want to configure a floating static route, you must assign the route an AD higher than that of the primary route. In this case, we've got to create a static route with an AD higher than 110. We do this by using the "distance" option at the end of the "ip route" command. R1(config)#ip route 110.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.12.123.1 ? <1-255> Distance metric for this route name Specify name of the next hop permanent permanent route tag Set tag for this route R1(config)#ip route 110.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.12.123.1 111 The number entered at the very end of the "ip route" command is the AD of that route. If there is an OSPF route for 110.1.1.0 /24, that will be the primary route, and the floating static route will not be used unless the OSPF route is taken out of the routing table. Floating static routes aren't just a good thing to know for the BSCI exam and your CCNP certification pursuit - they're very practical in the real world as well.

         
    Cisco ccnp certification bsci exam tutorial isis hellos and adjacencies

     

    In my last ISIS tutorial, I mentioned that while ISIS and OSPF are both link state protocols, their actual operation differs greatly. To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you'll need to know these differences! Today, we'll take a look at ISIS Hello types and the adjacency types that form through the use of these Hellos. Hello packets have been mentioned several times with ISIS, and with good reason. Hello packets are the heartbeat of OSPF and ISIS when heartbeats are no longer heard from a neighbor, that adjacency will be dropped. A major difference between OSPF and ISIS is that OSPF has one type of Hello packet, where ISIS actually has three! An ES Hello (ESH) is send by all End Systems, and all IS devices listen for this Hello. This is how a router (IS) discovers a host (ES). An IS Hello (ISH) announces the presence of an IS. An IS Hello is sent by all IS devices, and End Systems listen for these hellos. An IS-to-IS Hello (IIH) is used by an IS to discover other ISes and to form adjacencies with them. An interesting side note: A router will send an IIH to another router on the link to form or maintain an adjacency, but it will still send an ISH as well in case there are end systems located on that segment. ISIS and OSPF both create and maintain adjacencies with the Hello packet. Let's take a look at the rules regarding ISIS adjacencies as well as the adjacency types. L1 and L2 Hellos are different messages, so an L1 router must exchange Hellos with another L1 router to form an adjacency, just as L2 routers form adjacencies with L2 routers. L1 routers can only form an adjacency with an L2 router if one of the two routers involved is actually an L1/L2 router. L1 routers must be in the same area in order to form an adjacency. The Hello timers, as well as the MTU, must match between the interfaces used to form the adjacency. That's a lot of L1, L2, and L1/L2, isn't it? Let's review the adjacencies each router type can form: L1: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area and any L1/L2 in the same area. L2: Can form adjacency with any L2 in any area, and with an L1/L2 in any area. L1/L2: Can form adjacency with any L1 in the same area, L1/L2 in any area, and L2 in any area. Knowing the similarities and differences regarding ISIS and OSPF is vital for CCNP exam success. Take your time, master the fundamentals, and before long the magic letters “CCNP” are behind your name and on your resume!

         
    Cisco ccnp certification the bgp weight attribute

     

    When you're studying for the CCNP certification, especially the BSCI exam, you must gain a solid understanding of BGP. BGP isn't just one of the biggest topics on the BSCI exam, it's one of the largest. BGP has a great many details that must be mastered for BSCI success, and those of you with one eye on the CCIE must learn the fundamentals of BGP now in order to build on those fundamentals at a later time. Path attributes are a unique feature of BGP. With interior gateway protocols such as OSPF and EIGRP, administrative distance is used as a tiebreaker when two routes to the same destination had different next-hop IP addresses but the same prefix length. BGP uses path attributes to make this choice. The first attribute considered by BGP is weight. Weight is a Cisco-proprietary BGP attribute, so if you're working in a multivendor environment you should work with another attribute to influence path selection. The weight attribute is significant only to the router on which it is changed. If you set a higher weight for a particular route in order to give it preference (a higher weight is preferred over a lower one), that weight is not advertised to other routers. BGP uses categories such as "transitive", "non-transitive", "mandatory", and "optional" to classify attributes. Since weight is a locally significant Cisco-proprietary attribute, it does not all into any of these categories. The weight can be changed on a single route via a route-map, or it can be set for a different weight for all routes received from a given neighbor. To change the weight for all incoming routes, use the "weight" option with the neighbor command after forming the BGP peer relationships. R2(config)#router bgp 100 R2(config-router)#neighbor 100.1.1.1 remote-as 10 R2(config-router)#neighbor 100.1.1.1 weight 200 Learning all of the BGP attributes, as well as when to use them, can seem an overwhelming task when you first start studying for your BSCI and CCNP exams. Break this task down into small parts, learn one attribute at a time, and soon you'll have the BGP attributes mastered.

         
    Cisco ccnp certification using the bgp command update source

     

    When you start preparing for your CCNP exam, particularly the BSCI exam, you're introduced to Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) configurations. BGP is unlike any protocol you learned during your CCNA studies, and even the similarities are a little bit different! BGP forms neighbor relationships, much like EIGRP and OSPF do. The interesting thing with BGP is that potential neighbors, or "peers", do not need to be directly connected and can use their loopback interfaces to form the peer relationships. It may well be to your advantage to use loopbacks to form peer relationships rather than the actual interface facing the potential neighbor. This can be done because BGP uses static neighbor statements rather than any kind of dynamic neighbor discovery process. Consider a router that has two paths to a BGP speaker. The interfaces are numbered like this: Router1: Serial0, 172.1.1.1 /24, Serial2, 179.1.1.1 /24, loopback0, 1.1.1.1 /32. Router2: Serial0, 172.1.1.2/24, Serial2 179.1.1.2/24, loopback0, 2.2.2.2 /32. We could configure Router1 like this: router bgp 200 neighbor 172.1.1.2 remote-as 200 In this case, BGP would automatically use 172.1.1.1 as the source for the TCP connection that has to be set up with the neighbor before updates can be exchanged; this address is known as the best local address. However, if the remote peer's serial0 interface is shut down or goes down for another reason, the peer relationship would be lost even though Router2 is still available. Instead of using one of the physical interfaces, we can use the loopbacks on each router to establish the TCP-based peer connection. The configurations would look like this: Router1: router bgp 200 neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 200 neighbor 2.2.2.2 update-source loopback0 Router2: router bgp 200 neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 200 neighbor 1.1.1.1 update-source loopback0 In this case, losing one of the physical connections does not necessarily mean the BGP peering is lost; as long as the routers have a valid path to each other's loopback addresses, the BGP peer relationship will stay in place. And better yet, we avoid the dreaded “single point of failure

         
     
         
    Essay Service
  • Essay Home Family
  • Essay Home Improvement
  • Essay Home Security
  • Essay Horse racing
  • Essay Hosting
  • Essay Humanities
  • Essay Humor
  • Essay Hunting
  • Essay Hybrid car
  • Essay Hypoallergenic dogs
  • Essay Improve personal life
  • Essay Innovation
  • Essay Inspirational
  • Essay Insurance
  • Essay Interior Design
  • Essay International Airports
  • Essay Internet security
  • Essay Internet Marketing
  • Essay Internet Business
  • Essays Internet Marketing
  • Essay Investing
  • Essay Investment Basics
  • Essay Ipod Video
  • Essay Ireland golf vacation
  • Essay Jewelry
  • Essay Jewelry Wholesale
  • Essay Job Search
  • Essay Junior golf
  • Essay K 12 Education
  • Essay Kitchen
  • Essay Kitchen Remodeling
  • Essays Kitchen Remodeling
  • Essay Koi
  • Essay La Jolla California
  • Essay Landscaping
  • Essay Language
  • Essay Las Vegas
  • Essay Law
  • Essay Leadership
  • Essay Leasing
  • Essay Legal
  • Essay Leukemia
  • Essay Loans
  • Essay Low cholesterol
  • Essay Making Money With Articles
  • Essay Male menopause
  • Essay Management
  • Essay Marketing
  • Essay Marketing PLR
  • Essay Marketing Your Business On The Internet
  • Essay Marriage
  • Essay Martial Arts
  • Essays Martial Arts
  • Essay Writing Martial Arts
  • Essay Medicine
  • Essay Meditation
  • Essay Membership Sites
  • Essay Men s Issues
  • Essay Mesothelioma
  • Essay Mexico Vacations
  • Essay Microbrews
  • Essay Mini Blinds or Wood Shutters
  • Essay MLM
  • Essay Mobile A V
  • Essay Mobility scooters
  • Essay Monograms
  • Essay Mortgage
  • Essay Motivation
  • Essay Motor Homes
  • Essay Motorcycles
  • Essay Motorcycles and Scooters
  • Essay Mountain Biking
  • Essay Movies
  • Essay Movie Reviews
  • Essay Moving
  • Essay Moving overseas
  • Essay Movinghouse
  • Essay Multiple Sclerosis
  • Essay Muscle Building
  • Essay Music
  • Essay Music Reviews
  • Essay Mutual Funds
  • Essay Myspace
  • Essay Networking
  • Essay Networks
  • Essay New Air Travel Rules
  • Essay New Years Eve Party Planning
  • Essay New York
  • Essays New York
  • Essay NewAirTravelRules
  • Essay Newport Beach
  • Essay New Years Eve Party Planning
  • Essay Niche Marketing
  • Essay Nursing Assistant
  • Essay Nutrition
  • Essay Office Chairs
  • Essay Online Dating General
  • Essay Online Dating Man
  • Essay Online Dating Woman
  • Essay Online Shopping
  • Essay Opt In List
  • Essays Opt In List
  • Essay Organizing
  • Essay Outdoors
  • Essay Outsourcing
  • Essay Outsourcing Ebooks and Software Jobs
  • Essay Ovarian Cancer
  • Essay Paint Ball
  • Essay Parenting
  • Essay Parentingskills
  • Essay Paris
  • Essay Personal Loans
  • Essay Personal Finance
  • Essay Pet health care
  • Essay Pets
  • Essay PH Miracle Diet
  • Essay Philosophy
  • Essay Photography
  • Essay Playstation3
  • Essay PLC AffiliateMarketing
  • Essay Podcasting
  • Essay Podcasts
  • Essay Poetry
  • Essay Politics
  • Essay Politics Commentary
  • Essay Politics Current Events
  • Essay Politics History
  • Essay Pool Accessories
  • Essay Porsche
  • Essay Power Tools
  • Essay PPC
  • Essay PPC Advertising
  • Essay Pre Paid Legal
  • Essay Pregnancy
  • Essay Private Jet Charters
  • Essay Private Label Resell Rights
  • Essay Private Yacht Charters
  • Essay Private investigation
  • Essays Private Label Resell Rights
  • Essay Product Reviews
  • Essay Prostate Cancer
  • Essay Psychology
  • Essay Public Relations
  • Essay Public Speaking
  • Essay Rawfood
  • Essay RC Hobbies
  • Essay Rc car
  • Essay Re Financing
  • Essay Real Estate
  • Essay Real Estatearticles
  • Essay Real Estate
  • Essay Recipes
  • Essay Recreation Sports
  • Essay Reference
  • Essay Reference Education
  • Essay Relationships
  • Essay Religion
  • Essay Remote control helicopters
  • Essay Renting A House Or Apartment
  • Essay Retirement Planning
  • Essay RSS
  • Essay Running
  • Essay RVs
  • Essay Sales
  • Essay San Diego
  • Essay San Fransisco
  • Essay Satellite Radio
  • Essay Science
  • Essay Scotch
  • Essay Seattle
  • Essay Security
  • Essay Self Improvement Articles
  • Essay Self Help
  • Essay Self Improvement
  • Essays Self Improvement
  • Essay Sell Your House
  • Essay SEO
  • Essay Sexuality
  • Essay Shoes
  • Essay Show Business
  • Essay Site Promotion
  • Essay Ski vacations
  • Essay Skiing Locations
  • Essay Skincare
  • Essay Skin Cancer
  • Essay Sk Vacations
  • Essay Sleepingbaby
  • Essay Small Business
  • Essay Snoring
  • Essay Snoring remedy
  • Essay Snowboarding
  • Essay Snowmobiling
  • Essay Social Networking
  • Essay Society
  • Essay Sociology
  • Essay Software
  • Essay Spam
  • Essay Spirituality
  • Essay Sports
  • Essay Sports Car
  • Essay Sports coaching articles
  • Essay St. Thomas Vacations
  • Essay Stock Market
  • Essay Stress Management
  • Essays St Thomas Vacations
  • Essay Success
  • Essay Summer Vacations
  • Essay Supercross Racing
  • Essay Supplements
  • Essay Surround Sound
  • Essay Swimming Pools
  • Essay Tattoos
  • Essay Tax attorney
  • Essay Taxes
  • Essay Tech gadgets
  • Essay Teeth whitening
  • Essay Tennis
  • Essay Terrier dogs
  • Essay Thanksgiving Party Articles
  • Essay Theater Arts
  • Essay Time Share Investments
  • Essay Time Management
  • Essay Toothache and Tooth Care
  • Essay Top Golfing Accessories
  • Essay Tracking Software
  • Essay Trafficand SEO
  • Essay Traffic Generation
  • Essay Travel Tips To European Countries
  • Essay Travel Leisure
  • Essay Travel Tips
  • Essay Trucks SUVS
  • Essay Universal Studio Tours
  • Essay Vacations
  • Essay Vacuum Cleaners
  • Essay Valentines Day
  • Essay Vehicles
  • Essay Video Sites
  • Essay Video streaming
  • Essay VideoSites
  • Essay Vitamins
  • Essay Vitamins and Supplements
  • Essay WAHM
  • Essay Wart Removal
  • Essay Wealth Building
  • Essay Weather
  • Essay Web Design
  • Essay Web Traffic
  • Essay Web Design
  • Essay Web Development
  • Essay Web Hosting
  • Essay Wedding Favors
  • Essay Wedding Games Activities
  • Essay Weddings
  • Essay Weight Loss
  • Essays Weight Loss
  • Essay Wine
  • Essay Wine And Spirits
  • Essay Women s Issues
  • Essay Writing
  • Essay Writing Speaking
  • Essay YEAR OF CONTENT
  • Essay Yoga
  • Essay YouTube
  •  
    Free Essay
    streaming | essay online snowmobiling essayonlinean | shopping | gift ideas | Petrela castle | contact form | Essay about cultism in the society | the sony family | groom jewelry | groom | laptops | free essay archive | live video streaming | different between Adwareand spyware | garment accessories | gament accessories | accessories | Arts | domoniterisation paragraph | MONICA ASHLEY | apina hrbek | easy essay on the topic of Demonitisation | anything | essay on importance of demonitisation | write a paragraph on demonitisation | paragrapha on demonitisation | Demonitisation eassy word easy | a short paragraph on demonitisation | paragraph of demonitisation | argumentative essay on demonitisation
     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
      Free Essay Archive BloguinHos