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    Free Essay
    9.4 of 10 on the basis of 1964 Review.
     

     

     

     

     

     

         
     
    The 7 undeniable rules of forex trading

     

    Before we go into 7 rules of Forex Trading, that have been approved by a number of full time and successful traders, I’d like to narrate this story. There was a lion, a donkey and a fox all keen to go out rabbit hunting together. After a productive day of hunting, the three of them sit around the pile of rabbits and the lion asks the Donkey, “Mr Donkey, would you please divide the pile into equal shares for the 3 of us?”. The Donkey obliges and counts the rabbits into three equal piles for each of them. The Lion immediately roared and pounced him. He then piled all the rabbits on top of the donkey and asked the Fox “Mr Fox, would you please divide the rabbits up evenly between us?”. The Fox takes out 1 scrawny rabbit from the pile and puts it in a pile for himself then say “There you go, Mr Lion, that’s your pile” pointing to the large pile of rabbits. The lion says “Mr Fox, where did you learn to divide so equally?” and the fox says “The Donkey taught me.” The moral of the story is to learn from others’ mistakes. Now we proceed to our 7 rules. These are for you benefit as mentioned earlier, from experienced, successful traders. Rules #1 Never risk any more than you can afford to lose, you will lose money, all traders do, make sure you’re not sacrificing anything else important in the process Rule #2 Never risk any more than 2% of your margin trading account on a simple trade. For mini account holders, 2% of $300 would be $6 so realistically you would need around $15 so you can make this 5%. As soon as your account size is big enough, make this 2%. Rule #3 Always use a stop loss order. If you haven’t figured out where your stop loss order and limit order should be at the start of your trade then you shouldn’t be trading. Rule #4 Know your exit point before you enter a trade. Rule #5 Demo Trade First: Become successful with paper trading when there’s nothing on the line before you open a real account. Rule #6 Take a breather when your equity has taken a dive. Rule #7 Don’t let your emotions call the shots: Stay cool, calm and collected. Patience and a clear head will win the game.

         
    The basics of forex trading

     

    Forex Trading, also known as FX Trading or Foreign Exchange Trading, is what happens when you trade one nation's currency for another. For example, if I go to the bank and exchange ten United States dollars for 15 Australian dollars, I have completed a simple Forex trade. The forex trading market is the largest trading market in the world. According to a study done in 2004, approximately two trillion dollars are traded each day in markets across the globe. The forex trading market is very unique in several aspects, one of which is its international presence. Unlike the stock exchange, which is largely located in New York and has set hours, the foreign exchange market is open twenty four hours a day. In between the united states, European, Asian, and other markets, there is always at least one market open. Other factors that make the forex market unique are the high liquidity of the market, the wide variety of traders and institutions involved, and the wide variety of factors which affect prices. In the forex market, there is the ask price (the price at which currency is sold) and the bid price (the price at which the currency is bought. Usually, these prices are very close together, often about one-hundredth of a cent apart. The United States dollar is by far the most traded currency. Approximately eighty nine percent of transactions involve the United States Dollar. Other highly traded currencies include the Euro, Yen (Japanese), Sterling (British), Franc (Swiss), and the Australian Dollar. The forex market includes many types of traders. The largest traders are banks. Actually, about fifty-three percent of forex transactions are in between two banks. Other traders include non-bank financial institutions, other corporations, retail exchange brokers, investment firms, hedge funds, and speculators. The forex marketing is the largest, and arguably most complex market in the world.

         
    The benefits of fx trading

     

    Many people are looking at getting into day trading, and start with studying the Stock Market, and the different stock exchanges. What many don’t realize is that there are different markets and financial instruments that one can profit from. One market that has recently become available to the public to trade is the Foreign Currency Exchange, the FOREX. The foreign exchange market is the largest financial market in the world. It trades upwards of 2.5 trillion dollars per day, which is approximately 1000 times the volume of the New York Stock Exchange. Quite easily, the foreign exchange market dwarfs the stock market of any country. So, where is the foreign currency market? Well, unlike the stock exchanges of the world. The foreign currency market is a virtual market that is connected by the internet, phones, and fax. The advantage of having a worldwide currency market is that it is open 24 hours a day, 5 days a week. Living in the USA, one could trade 24 hours per day Sunday 5pm to Friday 4pm EST. One can only trade stocks during normal market hours, so for those that have jobs during the day, the FOREX market is much more accessible as trading can be done at night or early in the morning before going to work. Other benefits of the foreign currency exchange include: 1. High Leverage: Currency brokers usually give their traders 100:1 leverage, meaning that if there is $1000.00 in ones account, they will let one control $100,000.00, which allows currency traders to reap large gains from relatively small price movements in the market. 2. High Liquidity: Because the currency market is the largest market in the world with huge daily volumes, one is always able to get in and out of trades as liquidity is never an issue. 3. Stops are always honored: Except in extremely volatile markets, which is rare, limits and stops are always honored. Because of the market’s liquidity and 24 hour continuous trading periods, dangerous trading gaps are eliminated altogether. Orders are executed very quickly, without slippage. In the stock market, it is much more frequent that stops get skipped over as stock prices plummet, but in the FOREX, one can be much more confident that the stops are honored. 4. Entry orders are instant: There is no lag time in placing an order. Orders are processed instantly at the current market price, or the price at which you set the order to enter the market in the future. 5. No Commissions: There are no commissions in currency trading, the broker just takes a small difference between the bid price and the ask price as its fee for the transaction. As currency markets are some of the most volatile markets, many fundamental variables such as weather, and war affect the price of the currency, however, since there is no one apparent reason much of the time for price movement, the fundamentals get discounted and one can use an almost purely technical approach to trading. This is why the FOREX is considered one of the most predictable trending markets that follows technical analysis methods more than any other market. As one can see, there are many great benefits to using the FOREX as a highly profitable financial instrument. One can trade from home in their spare time, but first it is important to get a solid education in learning specific FX trading methods. Before trading in a live account, it is important to first get educated using books, or online courses. There are many courses online selling for upwards of $3000.00, but it is not necessary to spend that kind of money to get a good education. Usually the expensive courses come with DVD’s and other expensive items that raise the price. Much of the time one can find a course for under $500 that teaches the exact same content for much less money. Wishing You Success in Trading! David Molina

         
    The benefits of trading the forex market

     

    : Historically, the FX market was available most to major banks, multinational corporations and other participants who traded in large transaction sizes and volumes. Small-scale traders including individuals like you and I, had little access to this market for such a long time. Now with the advent of the Internet and technology, FX trading is becoming an increasingly popular investment alternative for the general public. The benefits of trading the currency market: It is open 24-hours and it closes only on the weekends; It is very liquid and efficient; It is very volatile; It has very low transaction costs; You can use a high level of leverage (borrowed money) with ease; and You can profit from a bull or a bear market. Continuous, 24-Hour Trading The currency exchange is a 24-hour market. You may decide to trade after you come home from work. Regardless of what time-frame you want to trade at whatever time of the day, there would be enough buyers and sellers to take the other side of your trade. This feature of the market gives you enough flexibility to manage your trading around your daily routine. Liquidity And Efficiency When there are a lot of buyers and a lot of sellers, you can expect to buy or sell at a price that is very close to the last market price. The currency market is the most liquid market in the world. Trading volume in the currency markets can be between 50 and 100 times larger than the New York Stock Exchange (Source: Oanda.) When you are trading stocks, you may have experienced events where one piece of news accelerates or decelerates the price of the underlying stock you may have bought into. Perhaps a director has been kicked out by the shareholders of a company or the company has just released a new product and big investors are buying the shares of a particular company. Share prices can be drastically affected by the actions or inactions of one or a few individuals. So if you are relying on television reports and newspapers to get your news, most of the opportunities or warnings will have come too late for you to take advantage by the time you get them. The value of currencies on the other hand is affected by so many factors and so many participants that the likelihood of any one individual or group of individuals drastically affecting the value of a currency is minute. Because of its sheer size, the currency market is hard to manipulate. The ability for people to engage in ‘insider trading' is virtually eliminated. As an average trader, you are less disadvantaged. You are likely to be playing on relatively equal ground along with all the other traders and investors whom you are competing against. Note about price gaps: For those people who have already traded other markets, you probably know about price ‘gaps'. ‘Gaps' occur when prices ‘jump' from one price level to another without having taken any incremental steps to get there. For example, you may be trading a share that closes at $10 at the end of today but due to some event that happens overnight; it opens tomorrow at $5 and continues to go downwards for the rest of the day. Gaps bring about another degree of uncertainty that may meddle with a trader's strategy. Probably one of the most worrying aspects of this is when a trader uses stop-losses. In this case, if a trader puts a stop-loss at $7 because he no longer wants to be in a trade if the share price hits $7, his trade will remain open overnight and the trader wakes up tomorrow with a loss bigger than he may have been prepared for. After looking at a couple of forex charts, you will realize that there are little price ‘gaps' or none at all, especially on the longer-term charts like the 3-hour, 4-hour or the daily charts. Volatility Trading opportunities exist when prices fluctuate. If you buy a share for $2 and it stays there, there is no opportunity to make a profit. The magnitude of level of this fluctuation and its frequency is referred to as volatility. As a trader, it is volatility that you profit from. Large volume transactions and high liquidity combined with fewer trading instruments generate greater intra-day volatility in the currency market that can be exploited by day-traders. The high volatility of the currency market indicates that a trader can potentially earn 5 times more money from currency trading than trading the most liquid shares. Volatility is a measure of maximum return that a trader can generate with perfect foresight. Volatility for the most liquid stocks are between 60 to 100. Volatility for currency trading is 500. (Source: Oanda.) In this respect, currencies make a better trading vehicle for day-traders than the equity markets. Low Transaction Costs A currency transaction typically incurs no commission or transaction fees. For a forex trader, the spread is the only cost he or she needs to cover in taking on a position. In addition, because of the currency market's efficiency, there is little or no ‘slippage' costs. ‘Slippage' is the cost involved when traders enter the market at a price worse than the level they wanted to get into. For example, a trader wants to buy a share at $2.00 but by the time, the order gets executed, his gets to buy the shares at $2.50. That fifty cents difference is his slippage cost. Slippage cost affects large-volume traders a lot. When they buy large quantities of a commodity, it oversupplies the market with buy orders. This applies a pressure for the price to go up. By the time they get to buy all the quantities they wanted, the average price they got their commodities would be higher than the price they intended to get them for. Conversely, when they sell large quantities of a commodity, they oversupply the market with sell orders. This applies a pressure for the price to go down. By the time they finish selling all their commodities, their average selling price is less than what they initially intended to sell them for. Due to lower transaction costs, minimum slippage and strong intra-day volatility, individuals can trade frequently at small costs. As an approximate, you may only expect to have a spread of 0.03% of your position size. To give you an example, you can buy and sell 10,000 US Dollars and this will only incur a 3-point spread, equivalent to $3. Leverage There are not a lot of banks or people who would lend you money so that you can use it to trade shares. And if there are, it would be very hard for you to convince them to invest in you and in your idea that a certain share is going to go up or down. Therefore, most of the time, if you have a $10,000 account, you can only really afford to buy $10,000 worth of stocks. In currency trading however, because you use ‘borrowed money', you can trade $10,000 of a currency and you only need anywhere between fifty (For a margin lending ratio of 200:1) to two hundred dollars ( For a margin lending ratio of 50:1) in your trading account. This makes it possible for an average trader with a small trading account, under $10,000 to be able to profit sufficiently from the movements of the currency exchange rates. This concept is explained further in The Part-Time Currency Trader. Profit From A Bull And Bear Market When you are trading shares, you can only profit when the price of a stock goes up. When you suspect that it is about to go down or that it is just going to be moving sideways, then the only thing you can do is sell your shares and stand aside. One of the frustrations of trading shares is that an individual cannot profit when prices are going down. In the currency market, it is easy for you to trade a currency downward so that you can profit when you think it is going to lose value. This is easy to do because currency trading simply involves buying one currency and selling another, there is no structural bias that makes it difficult to trade ‘downwards'. This is why the currency market has been occasionally referred to as the eternal bull market. This is an excerpt, modified from the book: The Part-Time Currency Trader .

         
    The evolution of the giant turtle

     

    You know, it’s true what they say. “The more things change, the more they stay the same!” It has been just about three years now, since January of 2003, that I wrote my now classic “I Was Wrong” article, admitting that trend following was not dead after all. And in the past couple of years, we have seen some good trending markets and some nice returns, with the Turtle computer model being up between 50% and 100% for 2003 and 2004 respectively. And while the current final yearly results are not quite in yet, although 2005 got off to a pretty rough start, it looks like a late rally in many of the markets is going to wind up giving us another profitable year. But the truth of the matter is, if you look very closely, as I have, at both the Turtle system in particular as well as other trend following systems in general, there are some things that have changed slightly. An examination of ‘rolling’ five or ten year periods will show some smaller deteriorating statistics since the ‘formal’ origination of the trading method back in the early 1980’s. The total returns are slightly lower, the drawdowns are a little deeper, and the recovery periods are a little longer. There are several reasons for this, most of which can be summed up under the wide umbrella of natural progression. On the one hand, we have the good old fashioned Darwinistic “survival of the fittest model”. Hey, trading is basically still one big zero sum game, where somebody has to win, and somebody else has to lose. The winners are the smarter combatants, the losers will tap out and fall by the wayside (or even become ‘brokers’). As with any competition, this means that eventually, you will have the winners competing against other winners, thus raising the bar for the entire level of competition, and making the whole damn game harder to begin with. At least that is the philosophical argument for what happens. The technical argument is a lot more cut and dried, but it is basically the same story. In the ‘old’ days, whoever was the first and quickest to figure things out while they were still changing had a huge edge. But then along came that crutch to human thought, the computer. By the early 1990’s everybody had one sitting on his desk, and the playing field had been greatly leveled. Information still flowed, but now it flowed faster, and everyone became more quickly aware of it. Which meant that all the traders on the outside were now able to more quickly adjust their positions and come back into line with whatever sudden new information had become available. I have spoken at great lengths before about how and why trend following works, and the fundamental reasons that trends come about in the first place. Simply put, when something happens to either the supply or demand of a commodity (or stock), the equilibrium fair market value shifts, and the price moves to a new level. In the old days, sometimes it took a while for the market mechanism to find this new level, but nowadays, thanks to more powerful computer speed and efficiency, everything is all happening a lot faster. The end result as far as we are concerned is two fold. First of all, the trends that do occur are more explosive coming out of the box, which means the trader has to be both quicker and more nimble, both jumping on board, and holding on. Secondly, and more importantly, is the fact that these trends don’t run as far, or last as long, as they used to, before all the players have had a chance to adjust their positions, and the market (any market) comes back into balance. To put it in Turtle terms, a good freeze or heat wave or embargo used to cause a market like Coffee or Soybeans or Crude Oil to run for months, and give us maybe a 40 N move before it was over. I remember a hot dry Summer in 1988 when Beans ran 40 N. I also remember that Crude Oil during the first Gulf War in 1991 ran for just about a 40 N profit as well. Hell, there was even a nice 40 N run in the Stock Indexes during the dot bubble of the mid 1990’s. But in the past five years or so, I am hard pressed to think of any market that has had such a big super trend. Back in the 1980’s, these were the kinds of moves we got excited about, and we got one or two of them almost every year. 20 N moves were fairly common place, and 10 N was nothing that much to get excited about. But since the turn of the century, I think 20-25 N moves are about the largest I can recall seeing. I think Feeder Cattle last year at 23 N was the largest trend of the year, and a further problem is that not too many people even follow that (relatively) small market. But remember, we still need these few big home run trades every year to pay for all the small losses and whipsaws and slippage and other costs of doing trading on a daily basis. The basic problem during the ‘difficult’ periods is not that we don’t get any trends, but that the trends we do get are not big enough or long enough to pay for all the other stuff. We are still trading in a distribution that has more losing trades than winning ones, so at least some of the few winners we do hit still have to be large enough to cover all the losses. The question we face as continually evolving traders becomes, what, if anything, are we supposed to do about this kind of stuff. In the past, I have been a large advocate of the school of thought that says, “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”. Sure, the Turtles, or any other trend followers, were not getting the easy triple digit returns from two decades ago. But hey, we were still doing better than anybody else around, and I for one did not see a lot of reason to complain, or even get upset about it. But my thinking has changed in the past couple of years. I’m no longer holding out for the 40 N outliers, because they just don’t come around that often any more. I have not gotten to the point where if I see a trend approaching 20 N profit, I start putting one foot out the door, and looking around for warning signs to get me to duck out quickly. Those warning signs will come in the form of some other types of indicators I have learned to pay attention to. But keep in mind that all of this is still just a math and probability decision, not one of fear or emotion or just ‘wanting’ to take a profit. Without getting into too much of the detail, let’s just say that at some point it can still be obvious that if you have a reasonable minimum probability of catching a big move, you should try to hold out for it. On the other hand, if the chances are lower of that big move occurring, then at some point it has to become better to take the smaller but surer profit. And while the odds are not always so quantifiable, and this is as much art as it is science, let’s just say I have been getting better at it with more experience over the years. The bottom line is that where I used to hold out as long as possible, often times after the trend had reversed on me, now I am quicker to exit first and ask questions later. And to be sure, I have left some money on the table when the trend kept going and I had gotten out prematurely. But I have also saved a lot more by recognizing when the party was over and getting out before everybody else ran for the door. And the funny thing is that one of my brokers thinks I have become a better trader, because he has always been an advocate of locking up a profit and putting some money in your pocket. But that is not the reason I do what I do, my criteria are technical and unemotional in nature. Of course, Richard Dennis was always an advocate of using personal discretion to override mechanical technical criteria, the trick has been getting good at knowing how and when to do this. And I think this is something that cannot be taught, even by me, but just comes with experience. I can now look at half a dozen different things, including stochastics, market profiles, sentiment indicators, and even news reports, and somehow assimilate that all in my mind and decide when it ‘feels right’ to make a discretionary move. Last year at Thanksgiving, I exited some Currency trends right near the top of the market. And this year, I got out of the Energies right after Hurricane Katrina, two days off the top. As I have gotten better at this, I have also been able to strengthen the courage of my convictions to stick to my guns and not second guess myself. In the past, if I would get out of a trade too early and it kept on going, I would think I made a mistake and then try to jump back in, ostensibly at a worse price than when I got out. Now, once I’m out, I have the patience and discipline to stay out, and fight the temptation to jump back in and whip myself around. It seems when I am wrong, I am wrong by a little, because even if the move keeps going, it doesn’t go too far before it eventually peters out and turns around. I got out of the Yen last week, and have left about 1 N on the table so far. And I just got out of some Gold the other night, and right now it is sharply higher again (also by about 1 N). But when I’m right, as in Unleaded Gas this past August, I was able to save myself close to 10 N before the market reversed enough for the computer model to finally give a liquidation signal. So that seems like a pretty fair tradeoff for me. And it is also the big reason that my personal trading account is outperforming the Turtle computer model so far in 2005. Russell Sands

         
    The first truth about trading

     

    Take two traders, give them the same starting capital, the same trading platform, the same market and the same trading system with precise rules for entry and exite back a month later and what will you find? One trader will be up 20% and the other down 40%. It’s amazing isn’t it, how two people can have the same opportunities in life and yet get very different results. The answer to success in trading lies within each of us. Whatever happens it’s your fault, plain and simple, it’s not your trading system or some other factor, it’s you. Yes, you! Therefore, understanding the truth about trading, the ability to see the big picture is vitally important, especially for the beginner or the trader who is loosing money. Once you understand the foundational truth about trading then you are on your way to success. This is the first step. Trading is a game of probabilities! Let’s flip a coin. Heads I win one dollar, tails you win one dollar. Heads should come up half the time and tails the other and we are both even. However, unknown to me you have a loaded coin. For every 100 throws, heads comes up 49 times, and tails comes up 51 times. You have a license to print money. Let’s call it the Tails Trading System. All you have to do is sit back and bet on tails all the time and eventually you would win all my money and anybody else’s one bet against you. The only thing any trading system does is give you an edge, a favorable bias, something that is more likely to happen than not. Whatever trading system you use be it pattern breakouts, trend-following, Fibonacci, moving averages, channel following, oscillator signals, Bollinger bands, swing trading, opening gaps or any of the myriad of other systems about the place, you are essentially relying on a positive bias. Your system says when I see “x” then “y usually follows”. Big emphasis on usually. Sometimes it works sometimes it doesn’t. Most of the time it does. All your trading system does is help you identify high probability trades, enter them correctly, and protect yourself while allowing your profits to grow. Some trading systems are better than others. Find a system you are comfortable with, paper trade it, test it in real time with small amount, then stick to it. Don’t waste time looking for the perfect system. It does not exist. A cool disciplined trader will take an average system and make money with it. An unsure, lacking confidence Trader will take a great system and wreck it. All traders have good days and bad days. Some days you will make small profits and others you will make small losses. A couple times a month you will make some big profits. Problem is you never know when. You have to keep playing the game to score the big winner. If you are not in the game you don’t have a chance. You must see the big picture. Realize that the current trade is only one of many. On that basis the current trade hardly matters. It’s like a little piece of plankton in a very large ocean. Trading is all about managing risk and then surrendering yourself to the oldest law in the Universe: The ancient law of probability. That my friend is the first truth about trading.

         
    The forex market

     

    * This article is divided into three sections. The first section is for beginners. The second section is for advanced traders. The third section is for everyone. Section #1. For beginners . . . On this article I will briefly describe what the Forex Market is for those who don’t know about this subject. Also I will describe other trading opportunities that exist today on the Internet. I think that trading is one of those dream businesses that many people rush into, but to start trading online without the required knowledge could be a big mistake. What’s appealing about this business opportunity is the financial freedom it can bring to your life. Successful traders make lots of money working from home with their computers. Keep in mind that on this business . . . 1) You don’t have to create any product. 2) You don’t have to advertise anything. 3) Basically you just invest some money and multiply it more and more. There are different trading opportunities on the Internet nowadays. I think that the hottest of them right now is The Forex Market. I will explain you why. Currencies from many different countries were backed up by gold about one hundred years ago. It was called The Gold Standard. This basically meant that to print certain amount of paper money a predetermined amount of gold was needed. Also you could walk into the bank and request that your currency bills would be converted to gold. Then you could leave the bank with the gold. This was a treaty between many countries and it lasted a few decades. Suddenly something happened that changed everything. Due to economic circumstances The Gold Standard was changed into a more flexible economic system. Now, most countries were not required to back up their currencies with gold anymore, as long as they backed up their currencies with US dollars, everything was OK. Eventually this didn’t work well either. So, at the beginning of the 70's decade this rule was totally abandoned and currencies started to float freely on the market. This means that since that era until present time world currencies are not backed up by gold anymore, nor are they backed by any other particular type of money either. There are exceptions though. For example, some currencies of European countries are pegged to the Euro. Their exchange rate is fixed. The same happens with the US dollar in relationship with other no so popular currencies. That’s another story that I won’t explain right now. The point is that most currencies change in value freely on the Forex Market today. Forex is an acronym for Foreign Exchange Market. For a long time this market was reserved only for ‘BIG BROTHERS’. In order for you to access this market you needed astronomical amounts of investment capital. Everything changed with the computer age. As I have always said, everything is easier on the Internet. So, new online brokers emerged that allowed ‘the little guys’ play this game. Now you can open an account with as little as $300 when you needed millions just to think about starting on this business a few years ago. The good thing about this market is the huge leverage you get. The brokers usually lend you up to 100 times as much as you have for trading. What does this mean? For example, if you open an account with 1,000 US dollars, you can control, as much as 100,000 units of the foreign currency. Let’s say that the EUR/USD pair is trading at 1.2000. In that case with 1,000 US dollars you can purchase approximately 80,000 Euros. The broker lends you the money to do it! Anyway this is a very interesting topic but it is also wide. I can’t give you all the details in here. So, I will proceed to share some advanced ideas for advanced traders and then I will tell you about other trading opportunities on the Internet. Section #2. For advance traders . . . Many traders are looking for the perfect trading system. They want to find the Holy Grail of Trading, which is an entry strategy that allows them to win, win, win and never lose. Even advanced traders fail because of this. They can’t realize where the money is made. Online trading can be regarding and profitable but you have to take it seriously. One of the biggest trading secrets of all is that you should use proper money management techniques as well as trading sizing strategies. That’s how the BIG DOGS make the money. Small traders know that they can’t be always right. There is not such a thing as the perfect win, win, win and never lose strategy. If something like that exists then very few people know about it. Still, how do you think that many traders can be profitable month after month, year after year? How can they be consistently profitable? I already gave you the answer above. The secret is on your money management techniques and your trading sizing strategies. Also, it is important to find a good entry and exit trading system. If you combine these three aspects of trading above, you are almost guaranteed to succeed at it. This is easy once someone teaches you how to do it. Moreover, if you like this business you will have plenty of time to practice your strategies before you start trading with real money. In my book Easy Web Riches you can find valuable information about this subject. Section #3. For everyone . . . What else can you do to make money on the Internet without creating anything and without selling other people’s stuff? You will find many other trading opportunities out there. For example, there are advance techniques to trade on the Stock Market that most people don’t know. These are strategies that allow you to trade like a real professional. Also there are other markets where you can make a lot of money. Many people don’t know about The Futures Market. They have never even heard about it. I find that some traders are also interested in the options markets. You see, it is a matter of choosing what is right for you. The Futures Markets is a market where farmers, big corporations, financial institutions and small traders, trade contracts on commodities, which will be executed at some time in the future. This market has existed for hundreds of years but today people trade commodities on the Internet like stocks and currencies. Options are derivative financial contracts. They derive their value from the underlying securities, commodities, Futures contracts, etc. Options can explosively multiply your buying power, but they are dangerous too. They are always recommended for advanced traders only, not for the novice. As you can see, there are different trading opportunities for you on the Internet. In fact there are others that I have not mentioned here. There is money to be made on these markets. Once you learn the details, profiting from this business becomes quick and easy. Remember that this is a business in which you don’t have to create anything nor sell anything either. All you do is to invest your money and multiply it. Copyright © 2005 - EasyWebRiches

         
    The forex market and its success potential

     

    : The Forex market (or Foreign Exchange market) has become one of the most lucrative forms of stock trading in history. Until recently, this market was limited to government banks and lending institutions. Today, any investor can take advantage of this profitable market easily. The Forex market is a sector of the stock market where someone can buy and sell foreign currency by phone, online or other methods 24 hours a day. It is now one of the most profitable and largest markets in the world, with over $2 trillion worth of currency being traded daily! In this unique market, currency is bought and sold based on the fluctuation of exchange rates. You're actually buying one type of currency with another type of currency and profiting from the difference if you buy and sell at the right time. For instance, someone who buys Euro dollars with U. S. dollars will profit if U. S. dollars are worth even more at the time of selling (exchanging Euros back into U. S. dollars). It works similar to other stock market ventures except the broker makes money from the difference in the buy/sell amounts for the two countries. There are three factors that can affect the value of currency and the exchange rate between two countries. Interest rates can change on a daily basis depending on the country's currency value. These interest rates affect the lending rates used to buy foreign currency when borrowing to do so. The unemployment rate also affects a nation's currency value. The economy is usually very weak at times of high unemployment, thus causing the value of the currency to decrease. A third factor is when major political events take place in a country such as elections, national disasters, wars, etc. These three factors alone can cause the exchange rates among countries to fluctuate tremendously, and they are worth watching if you're planning to invest in the Forex market. The Forex market offers plenty of earning potential once you understand how it works. One reason this market is so lucrative is because you are able to trade any time of the day. It's not limited by corporate schedules or anything else. Another reason you can profit is because brokers will lend you the money to get started - up to 100 times of your cash on hand! So, you'll have tremendous trading power right from the start. The Forex market is a great business opportunity where you don't have to buy and sell a product, advertise your business or spend endless hours trying to implement new business strategies. You just invest and keep a sharp eye on foreign happenings! Disclaimer: There is risk involved when you invest in the Forex market as there is with any other stock transaction.

         
    The forex market exposed wait until you see what s inside

     

    Dear Friend, Forex traders are raking in big profits with low risk high yield, investment strategies that exist only in the foreign currency market. Especially those who have a trained eye that can see excessive profit points that explode when done correctly. The forex market has created many millionaires who understand the exceptional leverage that is provided by trading currency. To be exact a 100:1 leverage ratio, this means you can leverage your money 1x100 so $100 leverages $10,000 and $10,000 leverages $100,000. This extraordinary benefit of the currency market allows you to realize windfall profits in a short period of time and can quickly make you a lot I mean a whole lot of money. Big Businesses, banks, and wealthy investors have been making billions for years from foreign currency exchange, and now the little guy with a few hundred bucks has the same opportunity to profit from this supercharged money making forex machine. My friend the forex boom is just beginning and I have a secret weapon that neither the newbie nor professional forex fanatics possess. Let me put this in perspective for you, lets say you could have been friends with Warren Buffet before he became a billionaire and he was willing to show you all his techniques and insight into the markets. Would you have listened? I hope you answered yes, because every investor that got involved with Warren Buffet before he became a household name has since become super multi millionaires. Now you have a similar opportunity, but there is one problem (a good problem) the leverage that is available to you through the forex market will speed up the amount of time it takes to make substantial gains that made those select few multi millionaires. There is a little known multi millionaire forex trading champion that I discovered online who has been dumping his number crunching brain power and secret proprietary forex strategies which have made millions for everyone to see. You would not believe some of the simple yet powerful techniques this forex fiend was revealing. I mean I was floored at the sight of some the stuff this guy was showing me because I knew it meant the difference between making millions of dollars, or still trying to figure out what a pip was (forex jargon). I had to put this in writing so everyone could A. (know about the forex market) and B. (get access to this forex fortune teller). The forex market has opened up new doors for everyday Joe Schmoes such as myself and will continue to grow and give new opportunities to those who want to discover a new way to wealth. The fact of the matter is when you combine a market like foreign currencies and a Warren Buffet like forex genius that equals profits, period.

         
    The function of money and its future

     

    Originally exchange took place without the use of money, by barter. Long before money had come into the commercial world people exchanged goods for goods. This system of barter made it possible to satisfy many wants that would otherwise have gone unsatisfied. Barter raised the standard of living, but under such a system the exchange of goods was greatly hampered. To barter requires that both buyer and seller need each other's goods. Again, indivisible quantities hindered the exchange, since half a canoe or half a cow could not enter into barter. Nor was there under the barter system any standard of value. A ratio was expressed between canoes and arrows if they were traded for each other, but such an exchange gave no hint as to the ratio of bread to meet, or even of canoes to meet. Because of these disadvantages money was introduced into the commercial system as an intermediary, for which all goods could be sold and with which all goods could be bought. Thus money serves its first function, as a medium of exchange. Money is a medium of exchange universally acceptable for goods and services. Originally the medium was the commodity most common in the trade of the time and place. Cattle served in Greece in the days of Homer. Grain, furs (in the Hudson Bay region), oil, salt, ivory, tea, wampum (among the American Indians), tobacco (in the colony of Virginia), and many other commodities served in various parts of the world as media of exchange. For them all things were sold; with them all things can be purchased. They were the money of the time. But gradually a tendency developed to use the metals, iron, copper, silver, and gold. When first used the metal was not in the form of coins, but consisted of a certain weight. To guarantee the weight (and later the fineness) it became customary to stamp the metal with a government seal. We still have as the British standard coin, the pound, originally a pound of silver. But this stamp piece did not prevent "sweaters" from clipping off bits, and making the money short in weight. To prevent this, the seal or stamp was then affixed to both top and bottom of the piece. Sweaters then clipped the sides. Now coins are milled; that is, the sides are marked with corrugations to prevent clipping. Today money has come to consist of coins and cash that perform a function as a medium of exchange. Under barter there is no standard of value, no least common denominator of values. With money we have a medium in which all values may be expressed, and money enters into its second function, to serve as a standard of value. Under a money regime we express all values in the commercial world in terms of a standard coin, in the United States in terms of dollars. With all goods related to one common standard, we know it wants the relation to one another of all commodities whose value is stated in money. If one product has its value stated as one dollar and the second as five dollars, we know that the ratio value of one to the other is one to five. Money performs a further service. Borrowing and paying of debts has always constituted an important phase of commerce. The difficulty that we experience in using money as the standard of deferred payment is due to its instability and the change in its purchasing power. People are not interested in money, but in what it will buy. The purchasing power of money depends upon price level, which depending on government stability, changes drastically over periods of time. The future for money in the global economy will enable quicker and more seamless transactions. Those with goods and services in countries worldwide will efficiently be able to process exchanges. As money continues to evolve so will its availability. The Internet is rapidly changing the face of money and with this change will come new opportunity to profit from it.

         
    The history of previous currency unions

     

    I. The History of Monetary Unions "Before long, all Europe, save England, will have one money". This was written by William Bagehot, the Editor of "The Economist", the renowned British magazine, 120 years ago when Britain, even then, was heatedly debating whether to adopt a single European Currency or not. A century later, the euro is finally here (though without British participation). Having braved numerous doomsayers and Cassandras, the currency - though much depreciated against the dollar and reviled in certain quarters (especially in Britain) - is now in use in both the eurozone and in eastern and southeastern Europe (the Balkan). In most countries in transition, it has already replaced its much sought-after predecessor, the Deutschmark. The euro still feels like a novelty - but it is not. It was preceded by quite a few monetary unions in both Europe and outside it. What lessons does history teach us? What pitfalls should we avoid and what features should we embrace? People felt the need to create a uniform medium of exchange as early as in Ancient Greece and Medieval Europe. Those proto-unions did not have a central monetary authority or monetary policy, yet they functioned surprisingly well in the uncomplicated economies of the time. The first truly modern example would be the monetary union of Colonial New England. The four kinds of paper money printed by the New England colonies (Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire and Rhode Island) were legal tender in all four until 1750. The governments of the colonies even accepted them for tax payments. Massachusetts - by far the dominant economy of the quartet - sustained this arrangement for almost a century. The other colonies became so envious that they began to print additional notes outside the union. Massachusetts - facing a threat of devaluation and inflation - redeemed for silver its share of the paper money in 1751. It then retired from the union, instituted its own, silver-standard (mono-metallic), currency and never looked back. A far more important attempt was the Latin Monetary Union (LMU). It was dreamt up by the French, obsessed, as usual, by their declining geopolitical fortunes and monetary prowess. Belgium already adopted the French franc when it became independent in 1830. The LMU was a natural extension of this franc zone and, as the two teamed up with Switzerland in 1848, they encouraged others to join them. Italy followed suit in 1861. When Greece and Bulgaria acceded in 1867, the members established a currency union based on a bimetallic (silver and gold) standard. The LMU was considered sufficiently serious to be able to flirt with Austria and Spain when its Foundation Treaty was officially signed in 1865 in Paris. This despite the fact that its French-inspired rules seemed often to sacrifice the economic to the politically expedient, or to the grandiose. The LMU was an official subset of an unofficial "franc area" (monetary union based on the French franc). This is similar to the use of the US dollar or the euro in many countries today. At its peak, eighteen countries adopted the Gold franc as their legal tender (or peg). Four of them (the founding members of the LMU: France, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland) agreed on a gold to silver conversion rate and minted gold and silver coins which were legal tender in all of them. They voluntarily limited their money supply by adopting a rule which forbade them to print more than 6 franc coins per capita. Europe (especially Germany and the United Kingdom) was gradually switching at the time to the gold standard. But the members of the Latin Monetary Union paid no attention to its emergence. They printed ever increasing quantities of gold and silver coins, which constituted legal tender across the Union. Smaller denomination (token) silver coins, minted in limited quantity, were legal tender only in the issuing country (because they had a lower silver content than the Union coins). The LMU had no single currency (akin to the euro). The national currencies of its member countries were at parity with each other. The cost of conversion was limited to an exchange commission of 1.25%. Government offices and municipalities were obliged to accept up to 100 Francs of non-convertible and low intrinsic value tokens per transaction. People lined to convert low metal content silver coins (100 Francs per transaction each time) to buy higher metal content ones. With the exception of the above-mentioned per capita coinage restriction, the LMU had no uniform money supply policies or management. The amount of money in circulation was determined by the markets. The central banks of the member countries pledged to freely convert gold and silver to coins and, thus, were forced to maintain a fixed exchange rate between the two metals (15 to 1) ignoring fluctuating market prices. Even at its apex, the LMU was unable to move the world prices of these metals. When silver became overvalued, it was exported (at times smuggled) within the Union, in violation of its rules. The Union had to suspend silver convertibility and thus accept a humiliating de facto gold standard. Silver coins and tokens remained legal tender, though. The unprecedented financing needs of the Union members - a result of the First World War - delivered the coup de grace. The LMU was officially dismantled in 1926 - but expired long before that. The LMU had a common currency but this did not guarantee its survival. It lacked a common monetary policy monitored and enforced by a common Central Bank - and these deficiencies proved fatal. In 1867, twenty countries debated the introduction of a global currency in the International Monetary Conference. They decided to adopt the gold standard (already used by Britain and the USA) following a period of transition. They came up with an ingenious scheme. They selected three "hard" currencies, with equal gold content so as to render them interchangeable, as their legal tender. Regrettably for students of the dismal science, the plan came to naught. Another failed experiment was the Scandinavian Monetary Union (SMU), formed by Sweden (1873), Denmark (1873) and Norway (1875). It was a by-now familiar scheme. All three recognized each others' gold coinage as well as token coins as legal tender. The daring innovation was to accept the members' banknotes (1900) as well. As Scandinavian schemes go, this one worked too perfectly. No one wanted to convert one currency to another. Between 1905 and 1924, no exchange rates among the three currencies were available. When Norway became independent, the irate Swedes dismantled the moribund Union in an act of monetary tit-for-tat. The SMU had an unofficial central bank with pooled reserves. It extended credit lines to each of the three member countries. As long as gold supply was limited, the Scandinavian Kronor held its ground. Then governments started to finance their deficits by dumping gold during World War I (and thus erode their debts by fostering inflation through a string of inane devaluations). In an unparalleled act of arbitrage, central banks then turned around and used the depreciated currencies to scoop up gold at official (cheap) rates. When Sweden refused to continue to sell its gold at the officially fixed price - the other members declared effective economic war. They forced Sweden to purchase enormous quantities of their token coins. The proceeds were used to buy the much stronger Swedish currency at an ever cheaper price (as the price of gold collapsed). Sweden found itself subsidizing an arbitrage against its own economy. It inevitably reacted by ending the import of other members' tokens. The Union thus ended. The price of gold was no longer fixed and token coins were no more convertible. The East African Currency Area is a fairly recent debacle. An equivalent experiment, involving the CFA franc, is still going on in the Francophile part of Africa. The parts of East Africa ruled by the British (Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika and, in 1936, Zanzibar) adopted in 1922 a single common currency, the East African shilling. The newly independent countries of East Africa remained part of the Sterling Area (i. e., the local currencies were fully and freely convertible into British Pounds). Misplaced imperial pride coupled with outmoded strategic thinking led the British to infuse these emerging economies with inordinate amounts of money. Despite all this, the resulting monetary union was surprisingly resilient. It easily absorbed the new currencies of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in 1966, making them legal tender in all three and convertible to Pounds. Ironically, it was the Pound which gave way. Its relentless depreciation in the late 60s and early 70s, led to the disintegration of the Sterling Area in 1972. The strict monetary discipline which characterized the union - evaporated. The currencies diverged - a result of a divergence of inflation targets and interest rates. The East African Currency Area was formally ended in 1977. Not all monetary unions ended so tragically. Arguably, the most famous of the successful ones is the Zollverein (German Customs Union). The nascent German Federation was composed, at the beginning of the 19th century, of 39 independent political units. They all busily minted coins (gold, silver) and had their own - distinct - standard weights and measures. The decisions of the much lauded Congress of Vienna (1815) did wonders for labour mobility in Europe but not so for trade. The baffling number of (mostly non-convertible) different currencies did not help. The German principalities formed a customs union as early as 1818. The three regional groupings (the Northern, Central and Southern) were united in 1833. In 1828, Prussia harmonized its customs tariffs with the other members of the Federation, making it possible to pay duties in gold or silver. Some members hesitantly experimented with new fixed exchange rate convertible currencies. But, in practice, the union already had a single currency: the Vereinsmunze. The Zollverein (Customs Union) was established in 1834 to facilitate trade by reducing its costs. This was done by compelling most of the members to choose between two monetary standards (the Thaler and the Gulden) in 1838. Much as the Bundesbank was to Europe in the second half of the twentieth century, the Prussian central bank became the effective Central Bank of the Federation from 1847 on. Prussia was by far the dominant member of the union, as it comprised 70% of the population and land mass of the future Germany. The North German Thaler was fixed at 1.75 to the South German Gulden and, in 1856 (when Austria became informally associated with the Union), at 1.5 Austrian Florins. This last collaboration was to be a short lived affair, Prussia and Austria having declared war on each other in 1866. Bismarck (Prussia) united Germany (Bavarian objections notwithstanding) in 1871. He founded the Reichsbank in 1875 and charged it with issuing the crisp new Reichsmark. Bismarck forced the Germans to accept the new currency as the only legal tender throughout the first German Reich. Germany's new single currency was in effect a monetary union. It survived two World Wars, a devastating bout of inflation in 1923, and a monetary meltdown after the Second World War. The stolid and trustworthy Bundesbank succeeded the Reichsmark and the Union was finally vanquished only by the bureaucracy in Brussels and its euro. This is the only case in history of a successful monetary union not preceded by a political one. But it is hardly representative. Prussia was the regional bully and never shied away from enforcing strict compliance on the other members of the Federation. It understood the paramount importance of a stable currency and sought to preserve it by introducing various consistent metallic standards. Politically motivated inflation and devaluation were ruled out, for the first time. Modern monetary management was born. Another, perhaps equally successful, and still on-going union - is the CFA franc Zone. The CFA (stands for French African Community in French) franc has been in use in the French colonies of West and Central Africa (and, curiously, in one formerly Spanish colony) since 1945. It is pegged to the French franc. The French Treasury explicitly guarantees its conversion to the French franc (65% of the reserves of the member states are kept in the safes of the French Central Bank). France often openly imposes monetary discipline (that it sometimes lacks at home!) directly and through its generous financial assistance. Foreign reserves must always equal 20% of short term deposits in commercial banks. All this made the CFA an attractive option in the colonies even after they attained independence. The CFA franc zone is remarkably diverse ethnically, lingually, culturally, politically, and economically. The currency survived devaluations (as large as 100% vis a vis the French Franc), changes of regimes (from colonial to independent), the existence of two groups of members, each with its own central bank (the West African Economic and Monetary Union and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community), controls of trade and capital flows - not to mention a host of natural and man made catastrophes. The euro has indirectly affected the CFA as well. "The Economist" reported recently a shortage of small denomination CFA franc notes. "Recently the printer (of CFA francs) has been too busy producing euros for the market back home" - complained the West African central bank in Dakar. But this is the minor problem. The CFA franc is at risk due to internal imbalances among the economies of the zone. Their growth rates differ markedly. There are mounting pressures by some members to devalue the common currency. Others sternly resist it. "The Economist" reports that the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - eight CFA countries plus Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, the Gambia, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, and Liberia - is considering its own monetary union. Many of the prospective members of this union fancy the CFA franc even less than the EU fancies their capricious and graft-ridden economies. But an ECOWAS monetary union could constitute a serious - and more economically coherent - alternative to the CFA franc zone. A neglected monetary union is the one between Belgium and Luxembourg. Both maintain their idiosyncratic currencies - but these are at parity and serve as legal tender in both countries since 1921. The monetary policy of both countries is dictated by the Belgian Central Bank and exchange regulations are overseen by a joint agency. The two were close to dismantling the union at least twice (in 1982 and 1993) - but relented. II. The Lessons Europe has had more than its share of botched and of successful currency unions. The Snake, the EMS, the ERM, on the one hand - and the British Pound, the Deutschmark, and the ECU, on the other. The currency unions which made it have all survived because they relied on a single monetary authority for managing the currency. Counter-intuitively, single currencies are often associated with complex political entities which occupy vast swathes of land and incorporate previously distinct - and often politically, socially, and economically disparate - units. The USA is a monetary union, as was the late USSR. All single currencies encountered opposition on both ideological and pragmatic grounds when they were first introduced. The American constitution, for instance, did not provide for a central bank. Many of the Founding Fathers (e. g., Madison and Jefferson) refused to countenance one. It took the nascent USA two decades to come up with a semblance of a central monetary institution in 1791. It was modeled after the successful Bank of England. When Madison became President, he purposefully let its concession expire in 1811. In the forthcoming half century, it revived (for instance, in 1816) and expired a few times. The United States became a monetary union only following its traumatic Civil War. Similarly, Europe's monetary union is a belated outcome of two European civil wars (the two World Wars). America instituted bank regulation and supervision only in 1863 and, for the first time, banks were classified as either national or state-level. This classification was necessary because by the end of the Civil War, notes - legal and illegal tender - were being issued by no less than 1562 private banks - up from only 25 in 1800. A similar process occurred in the principalities which were later to constitute Germany. In the decade between 1847 and 1857, twenty five private banks were established there for the express purpose of printing banknotes to circulate as legal tender. Seventy (!) different types of currency (mostly foreign) were being used in the Rhineland alone in 1816. The Federal Reserve System was founded only following a tidal wave of banking crises in 1908. Not until 1960 did it gain a full monopoly of nation-wide money printing. The monetary union in the USA - the US dollar as a single legal tender printed exclusively by a central monetary authority - is, therefore, a fairly recent thing, not much older than the euro. It is common to confuse the logistics of a monetary union with its underpinnings. European bigwigs gloated over the smooth introduction of the physical notes and coins of their new currency. But having a single currency with free and guaranteed convertibility is only the manifestation of a monetary union - not one of its economic pillars. History teaches us that for a monetary union to succeed, the exchange rate of the single currency must be realistic (for instance, reflect the purchasing power parity) and, thus, not susceptible to speculative attacks. Additionally, the members of the union must adhere to one monetary policy. Surprisingly, history demonstrates that a monetary union is not necessarily predicated on the existence of a single currency. A monetary union could incorporate "several currencies, fully and permanently convertible into one another at irrevocably fixed exchange rates". This would be like having a single currency with various denominations, each printed by another member of the Union. What really matters are the economic inter-relationships and power plays among union members and between the union and other currency zones and currencies (as expressed through the exchange rate). Usually the single currency of the Union is convertible at given (though floating) exchange rates subject to a uniform exchange rate policy. This applies to all the territory of the single currency. It is intended to prevent arbitrage (buying the single currency in one place and selling it in another). Rampant arbitrage - ask anyone in Asia - often leads to the need to impose exchange controls, thus eliminating convertibility and inducing panic. Monetary unions in the past failed because they allowed variable exchange rates, (often depending on where - in which part of the monetary union - the conversion took place). A uniform exchange rate policy is only one of the concessions members of a monetary union must make. Joining always means giving up independent monetary policy and, with it, a sizeable slice of national sovereignty. Members relegate the regulation of their money supply, inflation, interest rates, and foreign exchange rates to a central monetary authority (e. g., the European Central Bank in the eurozone). The need for central monetary management arises because, in economic theory, a currency is never just a currency. It is thought of as a transmission mechanism of economic signals (information) and expectations (often through monetary policy and its outcomes). It is often argued that a single fiscal policy is not only unnecessary, but potentially harmful. A monetary union means the surrender of sovereign monetary policy instruments. It may be advisable to let the members of the union apply fiscal policy instruments autonomously in order to counter the business cycle, or cope with asymmetric shocks, goes the argument. As long as there is no implicit or explicit guarantee of the whole union for the indebtedness of its members - profligate individual states are likely to be punished by the market, discriminately. But, in a monetary union with mutual guarantees among the members (even if it is only implicit as is the case in the eurozone), fiscal profligacy, even of one or two large players, may force the central monetary authority to raise interest rates in order to pre-empt inflationary pressures. Interest rates have to be raised because the effects of one member's fiscal decisions are communicated to other members through the common currency. The currency is the medium of exchange of information regarding the present and future health of the economies involved. Hence the notorious "EU Stability Pact", recently so flagrantly abandoned in the face of German budget deficits. Monetary unions which did not follow the path of fiscal rectitude are no longer with us. In an article I published in 1997 ("The History of Previous European Currency Unions"), I identified five paramount lessons from the short and brutish life of previous - now invariably defunct - monetary unions: To prevail, a monetary union must be founded by one or two economically dominant countries ("economic locomotives"). Such driving forces must be geopolitically important, maintain political solidarity with other members, be willing to exercise their clout, and be economically involved in (or even dependent on) the economies of the other members. Central institutions must be set up to monitor and enforce monetary, fiscal, and other economic policies, to coordinate activities of the member states, to implement political and technical decisions, to control the money aggregates and seigniorage (i. e., rents accruing due to money printing), to determine the legal tender and the rules governing the issuance of money. It is better if a monetary union is preceded by a political one (consider the examples of the USA, the USSR, the UK, and Germany). Wage and price flexibility are sine qua non. Their absence is a threat to the continued existence of any union. Unilateral transfers from rich areas to poor are a partial and short-lived remedy. Transfers also call for a clear and consistent fiscal policy regarding taxation and expenditures. Problems like unemployment and collapses in demand often plague rigid monetary unions. The works of Mundell and McKinnon (optimal currency areas) prove it decisively (and separately). Clear convergence criteria and monetary convergence targets. The current European Monetary Union is far from heeding the lessons of its ill fated predecessors. Europe's labour and capital markets, though recently marginally liberalized, are still more rigid than 150 years ago. The euro was not preceded by an "ever closer (political or constitutional) union". It relies too heavily on fiscal redistribution without the benefit of either a coherent monetary or a consistent fiscal area-wide policy. The euro is not built to cope either with asymmetrical economic shocks (affecting only some members, but not others), or with the vicissitudes of the business cycle. This does not bode well. This union might well become yet another footnote in the annals of economic history.

         
    The iraqi dinar in a nutshell

     

    The Iraqi dinar (pronounced: di-'nдr) is the legal currency of Iraq. Old Iraqi dinar The Iraqi dinar was introduced into circulation in 1931 and was at par with the Pound sterling. The Iraqi dinar replaced the Indian rupee that was the official currency at the time of the British occupation in World War I. After the 1958 coup d'etat, the Iraqi dinar was dissociated from the Pound sterling, but continued to have a very high value. After the Gulf War in 1991 and due to the economic blockade and unrestricted printing of banknotes by the government, the dinar devalued fast, and in late 1995, $1 equaled 3000 dinars. Banknotes issued between 1990 and October 2003, along with a 25-dinar note issued in 1986, bear an idealized engraving of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Following the 1991 Gulf War, Iraq's currency was printed using poor grade wood pulp paper (rather than cotton or linen) and inferior quality lithography. Counterfeited banknotes often appeared to be of better quality than real notes. Despite the collapse in the value of the Iraqi dinar, the highest denomination printed until 2002 was 250 dinars. Currency printed before the Gulf War was often called the Swiss dinar. It got its name from the Swiss printing technology that produced banknotes of a considerably higher quality than those later produced under the economic sanctions that were imposed after the first Gulf War. After a changeover period, the Iraqi government disendorsed this currency. However, this old currency still circulated in the Kurdish regions of Iraq until it was replaced with the new dinar after the second Gulf War. New Iraqi dinar Between October 15, 2003 and January 15, 2004, the Coalition Provisional Authority issued the new Iraqi dinar to "create a single unified currency that is used throughout all of Iraq. The Hampshire-based Company "De La Rue" printed the New Iraqi dinars, also known as the "Post - Saddam" dinars, in England, in six denominations: 50, 250, 1000, 5000, 10,000 and 25,000 Dinars. In November of 2004 the new 500-dinar note was issued by the Central Bank of Iraq to facilitate market transactions. The banknotes are beautiful and of "Swiss" quality with many security features rendering them very hard to counterfeit, features include, watermarks, metallic inks, security thread, ultraviolet images and raised lettering. Value of the new dinar Iraq has the second largest oil reserves in the Middle East and the largest reserves of natural gas. The new Iraq will be able to take full advantage of exporting these resources with sanctions no longer in place. As Iraq is welcomed back into the International Community the value of the New Iraqi Dinar should rise. How high? That is what you speculate on when buying Iraqi Dinars! (And nobody dares to predict!)

         
    The new world currency

     

    : The New World Currency Do you ever consider the possibility that the money you work so hard for could be gone from your pocketbook in the next few years? Quicker then you might think, currency as we know it, is changing. Necessity for efficiency is transforming the flow of cash into a digital form. The use of e-currency is quickly spreading throughout the world. Everyday, more and more people are making purchases online. These purchases are being facilitated by companies like Paypal, E-Bullion, E-Gold and Net Pay. The digital age is definitely upon us, and with the new forms of commerce, comes new forms of opportunity. With the advent of these E-currency companies, trade between different countries is suddenly becoming easier and more profitable. New products and services are quickly filling the need for the flow of money. The one constant still remaining is the ever present, currency exchange rates. To avoid these fluctuations and exchange fees, companies have facilitated their transactions with the global currency of gold. Some online e-currency companies now tout that their holdings are 100% backed by gold. This no longer is true for any of the national currencies now in existence. The United States for example, has not had 100% of their currency backed by gold, since the end of the gold standard in 1914. The value of the U. S dollar continues to decline, as the value of gold rises steadily. Due to national inflation, the cash you hold in your hand will continue to lose value. Unfortunately, there is not nearly enough gold to cover all of the paper money holdings. That money you hold in your hand is basically a loan from the government. The tenet of many governments, when they fall on hard times, is to print more money. This fact has led to the desire for more worldwide corporations to embrace the idea of a worldwide currency. To accommodate the demand to trade goods and services between Countries, many companies have been created. The increased need for exchanging has created lucrative opportunities within the e-currency exchanging markets. A global currency exchange is evolving that knows no boundaries or national borders. While gold remains the standard for many worldwide transactions, there still exists a need to transfer funds from, existing national currency, into gold and vice versa. There also exists the need for different e-currencies to be exchanged among themselves. This need has created a void that has enabled average people to cash in on. Trading e-currency has filled the demand for these transactions to be completed efficiently, while enabling certain people in the know, a lucrative business opportunity. Those people who understand the system can leverage their funds to facilitate the transactions while pocketing a sizable commission. The future is unknown for paper money as we know it. However, one thing is certain, those who are the market-makers of the new system that evolves will be the biggest winners of the new millennium. Yours for success Matthew Sherborne Copyright (c) 2005 by M. Sherborne. All rights reserved. The author authorizes you to post the above article on your Web Site or E-zine solely for personal and non-commercial use. A link to author's website dxingold is very much appreciated  

         
    The philosophy of winning in trading the forex market the sure way to become a successful trader

     

    Everyone who enters into the forex market to trade always starts off with good intentions. They will invariably aim to win. They are there to make gigantic profits in the market. After all, it is a keen interest in trading that has led to their involvement in trading the forex market. In all my years of trading, I have yet to meet a complete newbie who is in the forex market to trade without spending at least some time to learn how to trade. At worst, the newbie to forex trading has at least learned the technical terms to trading, and has at least entered his trading account to look at the trading platform and the trading interface provided by his broker. In the quest to become a better trader, most forex traders I know would have learnt the use of many tools, usually technical tools. To them, the tools are their weapons of war. Many use technical trading systems to help them get a more accurate analysis of price movements, and to study price trends. Some use simple trend trading methods such as trendlines, others use price patterns of congestion and outbreaks, some use the more sophisticated Elliot wave counting and WD Gann squaring of price and time, and some even neural networks forecasting and astronomy. Yet, with the help of many trading tools, a big majority of traders are still unprofitable. Herein lies the problem with many traders. In forex trading, like in all forms of market trading, the amount of tools you use, whether singly or in synergy, will not guarantee your success. Having a battery of technical indicators to provide you a technical reading will not ensure your success in trading. At best, these technical indicators will help you understand the market trend more, or might even serve to confuse you especially if they generate conflicting signals. Forex trading, is just like fighting a battle, and the following principle holds true: "It's not the sword that wins the battle. It's the Warrior who’s wielding it.” It's the warrior who's wielding the sword that will determine the outcome of the battle. In other words, if you are a forex trader, it is your trading discipline, and the proper use of the trading tool or method that will ensure your success. It is you, the trading warrior, who wields the trading tool correctly that can ensure the battle is won. Therefore to become a successful trader, you will need to master your self - to follow a set trading method and to execute the trades based on a trading plan, where you will follow stringently to the best trading setups and exit at pre-determined stop losses. Without trading discipline, you will not be able to master your trades, and you will find profits hard to come by. It is only when you master yourself to conduct discipline trading and also master your trades by following a proven trading methodology with a timely and suitable entry and exit strategy that you can become a profitable trader.

         
    The pros and cons of trading a forex trading demonstration account

     

    Trading is a skill that takes time to learn. Think of it like Boxing it’s also a skill that takes time to learn. If you get into a professional boxing ring without any training, you’ll get beat up physically! If you get into the Forex ring without any training, you’ll get beat up financially! The similarities are that both the examples are Skills, and both require psychological preparation. The difference is that one is physical and the other is financial. We can get over a physical beating usually in a few days or weeks, BUT a financial beating can be devastating and easily affect us for the rest of our lives, not only does it hurt our hip pocket but it can cause problems with our relationships and family. So when we get into the Forex ring we have to be prepared. The Professional Boxer When a professional boxer gets in the ring he has already been practicing in a safe environment usually for years, this safe environment is where he can make mistakes without having medical treatment. He can also spar with other opponents that have more skills and experience then he does and he learns from them. He also has someone there to watch him and give advice and guidance. Then when he is ready, he gets into the ring and boxes for real, he’s accepted the risk and KNOWS that he can get hurt, but he’s also studied his opponent and done his home work, so he KNOWS he has a good chance. He can still lose this round but if he wins most of them he will take the money home. BUT! What about the psychological side? Does he fear getting into the ring? Sometimes! But he’s aware of it and he can control how it affects him in a way that is beneficial. Will he be thinking about the money he’ll make? Or will he be thinking about the fight as is happens and planning his next moves during the breaks? He’ll be analyzing the results from the previous rounds and making changes in his strategy for the next round. The professional Trader Can you see what’s coming next? If so than, you’ve learnt to analyze what you read and form a projection into the future. (A very valuable skill for the FOREX Trader) A forex trader, like the professional boxer, will not get into the Forex trading ring without being prepared first. He might not spend years practicing in the Demonstration Account, but he will at least have spent a month or two or three, sparing with the Forex Market in a safe environment that he won’t get beat up in. He’ll practice trading forex against all the other traders and learn from them, and he’ll also have someone watching him and giving advice, and guidance. Then when he is ready, he’ll get into the Forex trading ring and trade forex for real, he’s accepted the risk and KNOWS that he can get hurt, but he’s also studied the Forex market and done his home work, so he KNOWS he has a good chance. He can still lose on this trade but if he wins most of the trades he will take the money home. BUT! What about the psychological side? Does he fear getting into the forex trading ring? Sometimes! But he’s aware of this fear, but he can control how it affects him, in a way that is beneficial to his forex trading. Will he be thinking about the money he’ll make? Or will he be thinking about the things that are influencing the market as is happens and planning his next trades while he waits for the results? He’ll be analyzing the results from the previous trades and making changes in his strategy or continuing with the one that’s working, and planning for the next Forex Trade. So it's easy to see that trading with a Forex Trading Demonstration account is something everyone should do before getting into a live Forex Trading account. The practice account will give the trader MOST of the skills necessary, to be able to trade profitably, giving them the training ring to spar in. BUT A BIG WARNING!!! Like the Boxer the Forex trader has learnt to manage his emotions, this is often overlooked by new Forex Traders. BUT is probably what separates the successful investor from the ones that keep getting beat up! If you are considering getting into the Forex trading Ring, then be sure to practice first, and find all the information you can about controlling your emotions. Fear, greed, impatience, are the main culprits of financial bashings, so keep an eye out for them, and learn how to beat them before you get in the ring with them. Understanding these emotions will enable you to use them to your advantage in understanding the market, the market is influence by these emotions and if you understand them you can have them on your side, thus giving you an advantage.

         
     
         
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