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    Bird flu who is at greatest risk of dying

     

    Avian influenza or “bird flu” has now caused more than 60 deaths worldwide, with the most recent epidemic in Indonesia, where four people have died. On a global basis, 60 deaths are not very many. So why are health experts becoming alarmed about the H5N1 (“bird flu”) virus? People are concerned because the virus has demonstrated the ability to kill a high percentage of the humans it infects. In addition, it has spread from birds to many other species, which is very uncharacteristic of viruses. The spread of infection in birds increases the opportunities for direct infection of humans. If more humans become infected over time, the likelihood also increases that humans, if concurrently infected with human and avian-influenza strains, could serve as the “mixing vessel” for the emergence of a novel subtype—with sufficient human genes to be easily transmitted from person to person. Once the virus acquires the capability to “go human,” an influenza pandemic (that is, a worldwide epidemic) would likely ensue in a matter of weeks. To date, the vast majority of infections of bird flu in humans have been acquired by close contact with domestic poultry. However, there is one documented case of human-to-human transmission in Thailand. It remains a curious fact that most people who have worked with poultry infected with the bird-flu virus, culling infected birds for example, have not become infected—a fact that no one seems able to adequately explain. The antigenic changes (that is, changes in the exterior proteins—Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase) in bird and human influenza viruses go on year after year. Annual influenza outbreaks typically do not cause severe illness and death, because people have built up natural immunity to the viruses over a period of years. Rapid spread of H5N1 viruses between humans, on the other hand, will led to explosive global expansion in which everyone is at risk for infection, illness, and death because of a complete lack of natural immunity to the virus. Because avian influenza or “bird flu” is much more deadly than the regular annual flu in humans, coupled with the high infectiousness of influenza viruses in general, a bird-flu pandemic is potentially very deadly, causing many tens—or even hundreds—of millions of deaths across the globe. In September 2005, Dr. David Nabarro of the World Health Organization (WHO) stated, “A new pandemic would claim between 5 million and 150 million people.” Once a flu pandemic starts, everyone will be at risk of getting pandemic flu, because no one has natural immunity to the virus. However, certain groups may be at greater risk of dying than others. There are strong indications that the coming bird-flu pandemic may be similar to the influenza pandemic of 1918 and, if so, healthy adults would be most at risk of dying, along with pregnant women and the elderly. Why are healthy adults at greatest risk? It appears that the H5N1 bird-flu virus causes a massive immunological response against the virus in those with the strongest immune systems. Unfortunately, this causes the release of human enzymes called “cytokines,” which destroy lung cells along with viral particles. This, in turn, causes a deadly outpouring of fluids into the lung, which interferes with the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This reaction is frequently fatal. There are few effective treatments—one of the only treatments available is to place the patient on a ventilator, a mechanical respirator. Even with this treatment, patients often die from complications. Bradford Frank, M. D., M. P.H., M. B.A. The Frank Group P. O. Box 138 Lakewood, NY 14750 AvoidBirdFlu

         
    Bird flu and tamiflu making your supply of tamiflu go farther in an emergency situation

     

    I have discussed Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir) previously – see Bird Flu: Tamiflu and Relenza for Prevention and Treatment in the Articles section on our Web site, AvoidBirdFlu. This current article adds important information about making your supply of Tamiflu go farther in an emergency situation. First, as I noted in my previous article, it is important to be aware of the fact that the effectiveness of Tamiflu and Relenza has been studied against circulating strains of human influenza (so called seasonal influenza), not against the bird flu virus. In a study reported in the August 2005 issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases, Dr. Yen and others from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee found that in animal experiments eight-day regimens of Tamiflu were more effective than the suggested five-day regimen for treating infections with the H5N1 bird-flu virus. The authors concluded that a prolonged and higher-dose oseltamivir regimen may be required for the most beneficial antiviral effect. This possibility was recently underscored when two Vietnamese (one a 13 year old girl) died of bird flu—as reported in a December 2005 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine—even after receiving treatment within the required 48 hours after the start of infection with standard doses of Tamiflu. Let’s assume that you have one treatment course of Tamiflu (one 75 mg tablet taken twice a day for five days, for a total of 10 pills), that you either acquired on your own or that was given to you by your healthcare provider or by the government. Unfortunately you are still not home free yet, so to speak. You now may face one of two problems: Problem # 1: If preliminary scientific studies indicating that a course of treatment of bird flu using higher doses than those currently recommended by the FDA, for more than the current recommended five days of treatment are correct—as indicated by Dr. Yen’s research—you will need more that one dose pack. In fact, the best treatment might mean taking two pills (150 mg) twice a day for eight or even ten days. That would mean that you should have FOUR dose packs (40 pills) for the treatment of one person, not just one! Problem # 2: You have a dose pack—officially the amount need to treatment one person—but there are two people who just became infected with bird flu in your family. If you combine this problem with problem number one, you now actually need EIGHT dose packs, not just two! What can you do? There are two possible solutions: SOLUTION # 1: Take PROBENECID, a medicine approved for the treatment of gout, along with the Tamiflu. Probenecid interferes with the normal metabolism of Tamiflu, increasing the blood level of Tamiflu and keeping it in circulation longer—effectively doubling the amount of Tamiflu “exposure.” The precise dose is unclear. Until more scientific information becomes available, in an emergency situation, for otherwise healthy adults, I would recommend taking one 500 mg table twice daily. Probenecid is generally very safe. Nevertheless, I have included detailed information about it below. According to information about probenecid from the National Library of Medicine’s and the National Institutes of Health’s Web site Medline Plus (available at nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202480.html): Probenecid (proe-BEN-e-sid) is used in the treatment of chronic gout or gouty arthritis. These conditions are caused by too much uric acid in the blood. The medicine works by removing the extra uric acid from the body. Probenecid does not cure gout, but after you have been taking it for a few months it will help prevent gout attacks. This medicine will help prevent gout attacks only as long as you continue to take it. Probenecid is also used to prevent or treat other medical problems that may occur if too much uric acid is present in the body. Probenecid is sometimes used with certain kinds of antibiotics to make them more effective in the treatment of infections. Probenecid is available only with your doctor's prescription, in the following dosage form (tablets): a. Before Using This Medicine In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For probenecid, the following should be considered: Allergies—Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to probenecid. Also tell your health care professional if you are allergic to any other substances, such as foods, preservatives, or dyes. Pregnancy—Probenecid has not been shown to cause birth defects or other problems in humans. Breast-feeding—Probenecid has not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies. Children—Probenecid has been tested in children 2 to 14 years of age for use together with antibiotics. It has not been shown to cause different side effects or problems than it does in adults. Studies on the effects of probenecid in patients with gout have been done only in adults. Gout is very rare in children. Older adults—Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. There is no specific information comparing use of probenecid in the elderly with use in other age groups. Other medicines—Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking probenecid, it is especially important that your health care professional know if you are taking any of the following: • Antineoplastics (cancer medicine)—The chance of serious side effects may be increased • Aspirin or other salicylates—These medicines may keep probenecid from working properly for treating gout, depending on the amount of aspirin or other salicylate that you take and how often you take it • Heparin—Probenecid may increase the effects of heparin, which increases the chance of side effects • Indomethacin (e. g., Indocin) • Ketoprofen (e. g., Orudis) • Methotrexate (e. g., Mexate)—Probenecid may increase the blood levels of these medicines, which increases the chance of side effects • Medicine for infection, including tuberculosis or virus infection—Probenecid may increase the blood levels of many of these medicines. In some cases, this is a desired effect and probenecid may be used to help the other medicine work better. However, the chance of side effects is sometimes also increased • Nitrofurantoin (e. g., Furadantin)—Probenecid may keep nitrofurantoin from working properly • Zidovudine (e. g., AZT, Retrovir)—Probenecid increases the blood level of zidovudine and may allow lower doses of zidovudine to be used. However, the chance of side effects is also increased Other medical problems—The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of probenecid. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially: • Blood disease or • Cancer being treated by antineoplastics (cancer medicine) or radiation (x-rays) or • Kidney disease or stones (or history of) or • Stomach ulcer (history of)—The chance of side effects may be increased b. Proper Use of This Medicine If probenecid upsets your stomach, it may be taken with food. If this does not work, an antacid may be taken. If stomach upset (nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite) continues, check with your doctor. For patients taking probenecid for gout: • After you begin to take probenecid, gout attacks may continue to occur for a while. However, if you take this medicine regularly as directed by your doctor, the attacks will gradually become less frequent and less painful than before. After you have been taking probenecid for several months, they may stop completely. • This medicine will help prevent gout attacks but it will not relieve an attack that has already started. Even if you take another medicine for gout attacks, continue to take this medicine also. If you have any questions about this, check with your doctor. For patients taking probenecid for gout or to help remove uric acid from the body: • When you first begin taking probenecid, the amount of uric acid in the kidneys is greatly increased. This may cause kidney stones or other kidney problems in some people. To help prevent this, your doctor may want you to drink at least 10 to 12 full glasses (8 ounces each) of fluids each day, or to take another medicine to make your urine less acid. It is important that you follow your doctor's instructions very carefully. Dosing — The dose of probenecid will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of probenecid. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so. • For treating gout or removing uric acid from the body:  Adults: 250 mg (one-half of a 500-mg tablet) two times a day for about one week, then 500 mg (one tablet) two times a day for a few weeks. After this, the dose will depend on the amount of uric acid in your blood or urine. Most people need 2, 3, or 4 tablets a day, but some people may need higher doses.  Children: It is not likely that probenecid will be needed to treat gout or to remove uric acid from the body in children. If a child needs this medicine, however, the dose would have to be determined by the doctor. • For helping antibiotics work better:  Adults: The amount of probenecid will depend on the condition being treated. Sometimes, only one dose of 2 tablets is needed. Other times, the dose will be 1 tablet four times a day.  Children: The dose will have to be determined by the doctor. It depends on the child's weight, as well as on the condition being treated. Older children and teenagers may need the same amount as adults. Missed dose — If you are taking probenecid regularly and you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as possible. However, if you do not remember until it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses. Storage — To store this medicine: • Keep out of the reach of children. • Store away from heat and direct light. • Do not store this medicine in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. • Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed. Be sure that any discarded medicine is out of the reach of children. c. Precautions While Using This Medicine • If you will be taking probenecid for more than a few weeks, your doctor should check your progress at regular visits. Before you have any medical tests, tell the person in charge that you are taking this medicine. The results of some tests may be affected by probenecid. For diabetic patients: • Probenecid may cause false test results with copper sulfate urine sugar tests (Clinitest®), but not with glucose enzymatic urine sugar tests (Clinistix®). If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional. For patients taking probenecid for gout or to help remove uric acid from the body: • Taking aspirin or other salicylates may lessen the effects of probenecid. This will depend on the dose of aspirin or other salicylate that you take, and on how often you take it. Also, drinking too much alcohol may increase the amount of uric acid in the blood and lessen the effects of this medicine. Therefore, do not take aspirin or other salicylates or drink alcoholic beverages while taking this medicine, unless you have first checked with your doctor. d. Side Effects of This Medicine Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. The following side effects may mean that you are having an allergic reaction to this medicine. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur: • Rare Fast or irregular breathing; puffiness or swellings of the eyelids or around the eyes; shortness of breath, troubled breathing, tightness in chest, or wheezing; changes in the skin color of the face occurring together with any of the other side effects listed here; or skin rash, hives, or itching occurring together with any of the other side effects listed here Also, check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur: • Less common Bloody urine; difficult or painful urination ; lower back or side pain (especially if severe or sharp); skin rash, hives, or itching (occurring without other signs of an allergic reaction) • Rare Cloudy urine; cough or hoarseness; fast or irregular breathing; fever; pain in back and/or ribs; sores, ulcers, or white spots on lips or in mouth; sore throat and fever with or without chills; sudden decrease in the amount of urine; swelling of face, fingers, feet, and/or lower legs; swollen and/or painful glands ; unusual bleeding or bruising; unusual tiredness or weakness; yellow eyes or skin ; weight gain Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome: • More common Headache; joint pain, redness, or swelling ; loss of appetite; nausea or vomiting (mild) • Less common Dizziness; flushing or redness of face (occurring without any signs of an allergic reaction); frequent urge to urinate; sore gums Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your doctor. SOLUTION # 2: Unless you are a divine follower of the late Mahatma Gandhi, who used to drink his urine daily, this solution is not nearly as appealing as taking probenecid. However, it apparently would be very effective. Dr. Grattan Woodson, a specialist in internal medicine at the Druid Oaks Health Center in Decatur, Georgia, offers the following advice for emergency treatment of bird flu:* This is an advanced, potentially life-saving emergency strategy, that should only be done under medical supervision—unless none is available. Tamiflu Re-Administration Strategy: Tamiflu is excreted unchanged almost entirely in the urine. If Tamiflu supplies are limited, as they most certainly will be [during a bird-flu pandemic], consider giving the patient two Tamiflu tablets at the same time, collect the patient’s urine and re-administer it to the patient via naso-gastric (NG) tube or orally. If managed carefully, this approach means that you can completely treat a patient with only 2 Tamiflu tablets [by re-administering the patient’s urine daily for five to 10 days]. *Woodson G: Preparing for The Coming Influenza Pandemic. Fluwikie. Available at: fluwikie/annex/WoodsonMonograph. htm#_Toc116746508.

         
    Bird flu and you how will the flu affect you

     

    Flu is a common disease nowadays, with most people having developed the antibodies to fight against the disease. So the mention of "flu" doesn’t really create any alarm. However, say "bird flu" and there’s likely to be a pandemonium. Bird flu, or avian influenza, is a highly pathogenic virus of 15 types. The virus spreads to poultry through direct or close contact with nasal secretions, saliva and feces of infected birds. What is alarming about this virus is that it has the ability to rapidly mutate into different forms that can affect human beings. Believed to be worse than the SARS outbreak, the bird flu outbreak brought millions of dead birds worldwide and at least 70 people dead in Asia. From a not-so-harmful H5N2 virus strain, it can mutate into a killer virus with a low spread rate once the virus is transmitted to a bird. The virus has an incubation period of six to nine months before it becomes a full-blown, deadly pathogen. A bird that has been infected with the virus but has survived the disease continues to carry the virus in its body for more than week. When this happens, the bird passes on the disease to other birds that come in close contact with its secretions, saliva and feces. Bird flu and ordinary human flu have the almost the same symptoms. These symptoms are fever, muscle pains and cough. This is the reason that a person who is actually infected with bird flu may be mistakenly diagnosed as simply having ordinary flu. However, bird flu symptoms can escalate into several life-threatening conditions. Some of these life-threatening conditions are lung inflammation, eye infections and pneumonia. Because of the severity of symptoms of bird flu infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) is in the midst of a widespread effort to prevent the virus from infecting humans, particularly those whose who depend on poultry and livestock as their livelihood. Bird flu virus and its subtypes can easily mutate into other forms. For example, the virus that was transferred from one animal to another is the H5N2 strain. However, the virus mutated into the H5N1 strain, which has been responsible for the death of at least 50 people. It is a very surprising discovery how these viruses can mutate itself from pathogens that can harm humans as it had started with birds. In Asia, the countries plagued by the avian flu are Vietnam, Japan, Cambodia, South Korea, China, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Russia, Thailand. In Europe, Turkey, Romania and Croatia are the hardest hit by the disease. WHO has issued a warning to travelers to these countries to avoid going to live poultry markets, getting close contact to any farms and having direct exposure to feathers, feces or droppings, eggs and poultry meat products. Travelers need to know that most contamination occurs during the slaughtering of poultry and being in direct contact with fecal matter. No travel advisory has been issued restricting anyone from going to countries with the H5N2 strain. Travelers coming from afflicted countries are also not being screened. However, precautionary measures are in place, particularly in the media. Information is being disseminated in order to make people aware of the bird flu, its effects and what to do to avoid getting infected. To date, no vaccines have been developed or available to fight the illness. However, anti-viral medicines are being used as alternatives in helping alleviate the severity of symptoms on those infected. While M2 inhibitors would be helpful, the body tends to develop resistance to those, diminishing the efficiency and effectivity of inhibitors. The bird flu problem is both a government and global issue. Governments are in charge of making reliable declarations, initiating studies and putting objective measures in place. There is no reason to panic if the virus has not reached your area yet. The best thing you can do is to take practical steps in taking of your body and helping it build resistance to any kind of illnesses.

         
    Bird flu explained

     

    Bird Flu or more correctly, avian flu, is much in the news and causing a lot of anxiety. Many people are worried that they may get it, and the papers are full of horror scenarios. There are over 100 strains of avian flu, but most of them do not infect humans. The current strain H5N1 can infect humans, but not easily. The number of cases of avian flu in humans in the current outbreak is very small, and almost all have come about by direct contact with infected or dead birds – something that most of us are unlikely to experience. So far, the spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare and has not continued beyond one person. In fact according to The Times (London, 23rd March 2006) only 184 confirmed cases have been reported worldwide so far from this strain, with 103 deaths. These have been in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, and most recently, several cases in Turkey. What the authorities are much more concerned about is the strain mutating into a variation that can be transmitted between human beings, rather than just from bird to human. This has been designated as influenza A/H5N1. Humans do not have any resistance to this strain, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans. If a strain developed that could infect the human population, a pandemic would be likely with many people being infected and dying. The 1918 ‘Spanish flu’ is estimated to have killed 50 million people worldwide. At least four of the eight genes of H5N1 avian flu now contain mutations seen in that deadly strain. Jeffery K. Taubenberger, a molecular pathologist at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Rockville, USA has said: "These H5N1 viruses might be acquiring the ability to adapt to humans, increasing their pandemic risk ... there is a suggestion there may be some parallel evolution going on." Scientists still do not understand completely how a bird virus becomes a human virus, but H5N1 is already showing some of the mutations necessary for it to become a human flu, but at the moment, in spite off all the panic, there is no pandemic flu strain. Research in the Netherlands and the USA has shown that while human influenza viruses are able to bind with receptors in the windpipe, H5N1 binds only much deeper inside the lungs. This makes it more difficult for the virus to infect humans, because the virus is less likely to reach the inner lungs than the windpipe. The H5N1 virus is also less likely to spread from human to human. Coughing and sneezing easily transmits viruses that have multiplied in the windpipe, but not those located deep in the lungs. If H5N1 manages to mutate so that it can replicate in the upper respiratory tract, a pandemic becomes more likely. Scientists are constantly monitoring the virus for this mutation. So should we be concerned? There have been many scares over the years that have not come to anything, and this could turn out to be one of those too, but it is worth taking some sensible precautions rather than just relying on the scientists to find a powerful enough solution. Having a strong immune system has to be the first line of defence. Eating a good diet, taking exercise, getting plenty of sleep, and reducing stress can all lead to a stronger immune system that can fight more effectively against the bugs of this world and any dangerous mutations. References: Daily News Central: Bird Flu on Similar Evolutionary Path as 1918 Killer Virus Centers For Disease Control & Prevention: Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus The Times (London) 21 January 2006 and 23 March 2006 The Guardian (London) 1 March 2006

         
    Bird flu information and update

     

    Laboratory tests have confirmed that bird flu was the cause of death of a middle-aged Indonesian male in November 2005. The man was the 14th fatality of bird flu infections in Indonesia, and the ninth bird flu case confirmed by the World Health Organization after the case was sent by local health officials to Hong Kong for verification. The confirmation brings to 70 the number of people in Asia who have died in the last two years from the H5N1 strain, now considered the deadliest avian influenza virus subtype. Antiviral medications such as amantadine and rimantadine, which are usually given to treat influenza, do not work on the avian flu virus. Drugs are being developed and temporarily used on patients who appear to have succumbed to the avian flu disease. Although they appear to be responding to treatment and are showing improvements, further tests need to be done to ensure the effectivity of these new drugs. With avian influenza, birds could transmit the disease to humans. Birds carry the bird flu virus in their intestines when they migrate for the winter. The virus, which does not affect the carriers, is deadly to those who come in contact with birds carrying the virus. When chickens, birds or geese come in contact with a bird carrying the virus through the bird’s saliva, nasal secretions or feces, they can become infected, fall ill and die in 48 hours. Humans infected with the avian flu have symptoms that include a fever, sore throat or muscle pain, which are similar to symptoms of human influenza. Thus, it is easy to mistakenly diagnose an actual avian flu as human influenza. However, humans infected with avian flu would have worse symptoms – eye infections and respiratory problems that could become life threatening. It’s important to note that humans will not usually get avian flu unless they have been in close contact with infected poultry. Since the number of people that has been infected with the disease is still low and confined to a few children and adults, there is no serious cause of alarm yet. However, scientists and the health community are concerned that the disease, which usually affects poultry livestock, may evolve into something that will adversely affect humans. Before the bird flu, there was a disease that came from bovines, commonly known as mad cow disease. This disease came about from the practice of feeding cattle with processed foods. Later on, the cows developed an infection in the brain. The infection caused cows’ brains to produce sponges, which made the animals go wild and die. Humans who ate meat from infected cattle fell sick and died. To rid of the mad cow disease problem, entire livestock were slaughtered, killed and burned. This prevented the outbreak from reaching other farms. Slaughtering infected cattle was done in many countries in the Asian region, including parts of Eastern Europe and Russia. The bubonic plague killed millions of people in the 14th century. Transmitted by rats, the disease originated from China and spread on to Europe through merchants who came back from the long voyage from China. The same disease was also transmitted by fleas, which proved fatal when it was passed on to humans. The disease dragged on for years, killing millions more. The bubonic plague happened centuries ago, when medical science was not yet developed to cope with the epidemic and save lives of millions. However, with the advances in technology today, scientists will be able to study the avian flu disease further. By closely watching the migratory patterns of birds and understanding the disease, scientists may help prevent avian flu from becoming another global outbreak.

         
    Bird flu is in the u. s.

     

    In that great Hitchcock thriller, the birds start attacking Tippi Hedron (Melanie Griffith's mom, for trivia fans) in Mendocino for no particular reason. Today, Ms. Hedron works actively in films, international relief efforts and for animal causes. She may get an ironic opportunity to combine her charity works with birds again, because scientists around the world are looking nervously at the increasing possibility of a return of avian influenza, also known as the bird flu. First identified in Italy in 1900, it is the H5N1 virus implicated in the great Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918-1919 that killed about 40 million people. I say "implicated in" instead of "caused," because it was government policies that made the death toll much higher than it needed to be. But there is no doubt H5N1 is a major killer. There are three steps H5N1 has to go through in order to get to people. First, there needs to be a lot of infected birds. Almost 200 million chickens have been killed or died in Asia in the last year due to avian flu infection. Strike One. Next, unless someone eats diseased poultry, the flu has to cross species into an animal that can easily infect people. It has now crossed into pigs, which is where most human flu outbreaks begin. Pigs carry human influenza viruses. Viruses can combine (exchange DNA) in pigs, creating a variant of H5N1 that can spread as easily and rapidly as ordinary flu. Strike Two. Finally, it has to hit an unprepared populace, with lowered immune systems and no effective drugs. Lowered immune systems are caused by, among other factors, cold weather, lack of sleep, excess weight, stress, high sugar intake and caffeine. Hmmm. Sound like anyone you know? Serious scientists think H5N1 could kill as many people as the 1918 disaster, if only because there are now more than three times as many people in the world. The UN Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza recently said a bird flu pandemic could kill as many as 150 million people. Other scientists have projected up to 354 million deaths. And you thought $3 gasoline was a major problem! The H5N1 bird flu reappeared in Hong Kong in 1997.Eighteen people were infected, and six died. All the chickens in the area were slaughtered, and the outbreak was confined to Hong Kong. But it has now been found in Vietnam, Thailand, Japan, Mainland China, Malaysia and Indonesia. It then showed up in Russia, almost certainly carried by migratory birds. So much for banning chicken. In August 2005, it appeared in Mongolia and Kazakhstan, and then in western Russia, poised to enter Europe. Roumania found infected and dead swans in October. An infected parrot died in quarantine in the United Kingdom. The Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza in charge of a response to H5N1 says a pandemic could begin at anytime, and kill five million to 150 million people. He confirmed the virus is in migratory birds, and said an outbreak could start in Africa, where immune systems are chronically depressed, or the Middle East as well as southeast Asia. What he didn't say is that the same migratory birds, mainly ducks, swans and geese, also travel thousands of miles to Canada and the U. S.The H5N1 virus is almost certainly in the U. S. already - it just hasn't been found yet. December, Janaury and February are the "flu season" in both the U. S. and Asia. We have reviewed all the companies involved in bird flu vaccines, and found two stocks that should be bought immediately because they will make a fortune even if there is never a case of bird flu in the world again. Governments around the world are stocking up on vaccines just in case they are needed, and these stockpiles need to be replenished periodically. For the names of the two stocks, visit my website at NewWorldInvestor. net

         
    Bird flu no risk to poultry consumers

     

    News about avian influenza--often called bird flu--is everywhere these days. But American consumers needn't worry. Experts at the American Meat Institute in Washington, D. C., say they can continue to enjoy their meals with confidence because U. S. poultry is among the healthiest and safest in the world. "Multi-Firewall" Strategy Protects U. S. Poultry Multiple U. S. "firewalls" are in place to prevent the high pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus now making news from crossing our borders--and to detect, contain and destroy it rapidly if it does occur here. They include: • Import controls. Americans consume poultry from North America. Strict import restrictions prohibit imports of poultry from nations with the high pathogenic H5N1 virus. • Surveillance. The U. S. government and industry have aggressive surveillance programs in place that aim to detect the virus if it does enter the U. S. This surveillance is currently on "high alert." • Target and destroy. If the virus were to occur here, the U. S. Department of Agriculture would isolate and humanely destroy affected flocks. U. S. Production Methods Different U. S. poultry is produced in secure farms where bio-security is the top priority. These controlled systems protect poultry from a host of viruses that can threaten their health. In some regions of the world, however, community-raised poultry can move through towns and streets freely and come into contact with each other and with people. As a result, the high pathogenic H5N1 virus has spread rapidly from bird to bird and in some extreme cases, to people who have come into close contact with live birds. Americans rarely come into contact with live poultry and those who work in poultry facilities receive special training. Together, U. S. firewalls and secure production systems have helped keep the U. S. free of the high pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza strain. No Food Safety Issue Leading animal health experts say that the chance of an infected bird entering the food supply is virtually zero. Poultry that do become infected are detected through surveillance or become noticeably sick and cannot survive transportation to a processing plant. All birds that do arrive at plants undergo health screening by federal veterinarians, making the chance of infected poultry entering the food system extremely low, according to the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Consumers should be reassured, however, that ordinary safe handling practices--like handwashing, separating raw and cooked foods and cooking thoroughly as measured with a thermometer--destroy viruses like avian influenza in the same way they destroy bacteria. Experts say unequivocally that properly cooked and handled poultry products do not pose a risk of avian influenza.

         
    Bird flu vaccines what is taking so long

     

    With the current development of a vaccine for the H5N1 strain of the Bird Flu Virus still 2 to 3 years away. We don’t have much of a choice but to really be very cautious that the H5N1 strain does not mutate with a human flu virus. If the outbreak we fear does happen without the vaccines ready yet, all we can possibly do is just quarantine the geographical area where the virus is rampant. Give them the vaccines that have been developed and prevent them from spreading it further. This will only work if the outbreak is limited geographically. When the outbreak does happen to 10,000 places, we’re in Big S*%T. The development of a vaccine is so slow because we still use methods dating back 50 years ago. Ironically this is because they still use chicken eggs to develop the vaccines. New methods are on the horizon, instead of using chicken eggs, they may be able to use mammal cells. Scientist would be storing the mammal cells in large numbers. So that when a flu strain or threat develops, they can just inject it to the cells. The injected cells will then burst and die. The scientist will then harvest the proteins of the influenza and distribute them as vaccines already. Vaccines made from DNA are really appealing because they could be made and administered quickly. However this kind of vaccine is still being tested on humans. DNA vaccine works by attaching itself to a segment of our DNA. It contains the coded information of the flu virus’ protein. Now you would want to ask why we would vaccinate everyone instead of just treating them. This is because giving vaccines is cheaper compared to treating everyone. With a vaccine the person only needs one or two doses in totalpared to giving two doses a day for a period of time to treat the viral problem. It is also pretty stupid to wait for someone to suffer before treating the person. The person might not even live to see the day just to receive the medication. The current stand of some people however is that why waste precious money on a threat that may never materialize. The best answer here is it’s better to be prepared than be sorry. In the last 87 years we have had three pandemics. So it’s better to prepare for something that could be really catastrophic. The longer our world goes without a pandemic; there is more chance that it could occur in the upcoming years. That’s why we should be very thankful for every company out there trying to create a vaccine for a pandemic that might hit us. Rather than be worried of money that might get wasted.

         
    Blackjack learn how to become a champion

     

    : Learn How to Play and Win Blackjack after practicing some basic steps that can be learn easily. Blackjack is one of the more easier card games that you will come across, and its basic concept is simple: get 21 as the sum of your cards or get as close to 21 but higher than the sum of your opponent's cards. 1) Do not try and reach 21. Yes. Even though blackjack is also commonly called 21, trying to reach 21 with every hand is an amateurish move. You will, most certainly, lose the hand. Statistical research conducted has shown that the odds of reaching 21 is lesser than the odds of getting more than 21. 2) Try and Beat the Dealer. Since blackjack is a one on one battle: you versus the dealer, focus on beating the dealer. Instead of trying to get 21, try to guess what hand the dealer will receive and accordingly play your hand. Remember that the dealer at a regular casino or even at an online casino has to stop taking more cards if the cards on the table add up to 17. But if their cards add up to 16 or any number less, they will have to take another card. 3) Look at the dealer's card facing up. The only way to play is to look at the dealer's card facing up. If it is a low card like a two or anything up to a 6 or 7, try and get a high number combination. If it’s a 9 or 10, the odds are high that he has a 10 underneath or at least he will be forced to take another card. So, reach anything up to 20 or 21, but its better to even stop at a 18 or 19 and hope they will over-run the sum of 21. How Blackjack is Played at a Casino: 1) Place your bet on the table. Each blackjack table has a set beginning bet and this ranges from a dollar to ten or twenty for the high-rollers crowd. This is the amount of chips you will have to put down, and this signals to the dealer that you are taking part in the next round. 2) You will get a card. The dealer then deals a card to you and all the other players who have also placed a bet down. 3) The dealer places a face-up card in front. This is one of the cards of the dealer, and since its facing up, all the players have a chance to judge the outcome of his cards. 4) The dealer deals the second card. The dealer, then, deals you and all the players an additional card. This is the time to have a look at them and at the dealer's card and decide whether you wish to get another card. 5) The dealer asks. The dealer now turns to each player and asks them if they wish to receive another card. If you wish it, the dealer will give you a card. Then, the dealer will ask you again. Note that the dealer will be with you until you decide that you do not want to receive any more cards. Then, the dealer moves on to the next player, then, the next, and so on. 6) The dealer starts playing. Only when all the players have said that they do not want any more cards, does the dealer start playing. He takes cards until he has reached 17 or above. Then, he has to stop. 7) The dealer opens the cards. When he's done, the dealer first reveals all his cards. Then, he moves from one player to the other opening their cards. After revealing each player's hands, the dealer pays out the bet or takes the bet away according to who has won and who has lost.

         
    Blackjack strategy tips how to win in blackjack

     

    Blackjack is one of the few casino games that are beatable in the long run. It means that by using a basic blackjack strategy you can have an advantage over the casino and eventually step away from the blackjack table as a winner. Here you can find the basic blackjack strategy explained in a simplified manner. The blackjack strategy is based on the mathematical probabilities of the game and it provides you guidance on the best decisions to make at every possible situation during the game. It takes about an hour to memorize this strategy but it is worth every minute. This does not man you will win every single blackjack game from now on, but with the help of the blackjack strategy, patience and persistence, you can significantly improve your chances of beating the casino in the long run. Note that some blackjack rules vary from one casino to another. In some casinos, both brick and mortar and internet casinos, blackjack is played with one card deck while in others the blackjack game occupies four decks or more. In addition, in some of the casinos the dealer hits on a soft 17 while in others he is required to stand and doubling after splitting is allowed only in some of the casinos. Here you can find a basic strategy to a single deck blackjack game where the dealer hits on soft 17. Playing other blackjack variants would require you to make some adjustments for a few borderline occurrences. First, here is a short introduction to the terms mentioned here: Hard Hand: two initial cards that do not include an Ace. Soft Hand: two initial cards that one of them is an Ace Stand: when a player is not asking to be dealt more cards after the two initial cards. Hit: when a player calls for an additional card to be dealt Double: when a player doubles his initial bet after the initial deal, but it requires him to hit only one card. Split: when a player separates the initial two cards into two individual hands and plays them as 2 hands. Finally, here is a basic blackjack strategy: When your initial two card hand sums up to 8 or less: hit When your hand sums up to 9 and the dealer hand value is between 3 and 6: double if else: hit when your hand sums up to 10 and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 9: double; if else: When your hand sums up to 11 and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 10: double; if else hit. When your hand sums up to 13, 14, 15, or 16 and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 6: stand; if else hit. When your hand sums up to 17: stand. when your initial two card hand contains Ace 2 or Ace 3 and the dealer has either 5 or 6: double; if else: hit. When your hand contains Ace 4 or Ace 5 and the dealer has 4, 5 or 6: double; if else: hit. When your hand contains Ace 6 and the dealer has 3, 4, 5 or 6: double; if else: hit. When your hand contains Ace 7 and the dealer has 2, 7 or 8: stand; if he has 3, 4, 5 or 6: double; if else: hit. When your hand contains Ace 8 or Ace 9: stand When your hand contains a pair of 2s or 3s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 7: split; if else: hit When your hand contains a pair of 4s and the dealer has either 4 or 5: split; if else: hit When your hand contains a pair of 5s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 9: double; if else: hit When your hand contains a pair of 6s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 6: split; if else: hit When your hand contains a pair of 7s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 7: split; if else: hit When your hand contains a pair of 8s: split When your hand contains a pair of 9s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 7 and either 8 or 9: split; if else: stand When your hand contains a pair of 10s: stand When your hand contains a pair of 8s: split

         
    Bone breaking disease osteoporosis

     

    It is normal for the bones to erode as we age. But for some people, the bones become so fragile that they break down under the body’s own weight. This causes hip, spine and forearm fractures. This disease is known as osteoporosis. This disease is more common amongst women then men. This is due to the fact that the women have lighter bones and after menopause, they experience rapid bone loss due to decrease in estrogen. Also women opt for heavy dieting in order to lose weight, where they skip highly nutritious food items. This results in weaker bones in the body. Men too can suffer from this disease if they smoke, drink or take steroids. But there is no need to worry. It is possible for you to slow, stop or reverse this bone loss. Though women have used ERT or Estrogen Replacement Therapy to overcome this problem, you can follow the tips below to overcome or prevent this problem. • Build up your bones: It is highly recommended that you do aerobic exercises for about 20 minutes a day at least three days a week. Exercise has been shown to stimulate bones to lay down new tissues. It is advisable to do the exercise that you can continue doing over long periods of time. Walking is the best form of exercise but you can also choose biking, swimming or aerobics. • Walk in water: If you have suffered from fracture, walking in water is the best form of exercise. You can do this exercise three times a week for up to 30 minutes a day. The water will support body weight and ease the stress off the bones and joints. • Use a chair and the floor for exercise: Complement water walking by doing some muscle strengthening exercises like abdominal curls, shoulder blade squeezes and back extensions. You can do these exercises on a chair or on the floor. • Eat calcium: Doctors recommend that you get about 1000 milligrams of calcium a day, even though you have not yet reached menopause. If you are not getting an ERT treatment, increase your calcium intake by another 200 to 500 milligrams a day. This means that you can drink a quart of skim milk a day or have two cups of low-fat yogurt or four cups of low-fat cottage cheese to get 1000 milligrams. You can take the remaining requirements from supplements. • Go for maximum absorption: Spread out your calcium supplements throughout the day rather than take all at one go. Food supplements should be taken with a meal. Doctors recommend you to take calcium carbonate which is relatively inexpensive and is easily absorbed when taken in divided dosages at mealtimes. • Increase your Vitamin D: Get the maximum protection by consuming 400 international units of Vitamin D each day, especially if you do not get enough sunlight. Milk contains about 100 international units of Vitamin D, hence it is recommended that you take four cups a day. But other dairy products like cheese, yogurt etc cannot be taken into account since they are not fortified with Vitamin D. But do not exceed the recommended dosage of 400 international units since this vitamin is highly toxic in excess. • Eat different types of food products: Bones do not contain calcium alone but contain an amalgam of boron, zinc and copper along with other minerals. You can get these trace elements by eating variety of fruits, vegetables, nuts and other unprocessed foods. • Stop smoking: Smoking has been shown to accelerate bone loss. It accelerates the rate at which the body metabolizes estrogen and thus canceling the benefits of ERT. It has been shown to cause bone loss in men and postmenopausal women too. • Control your medicines: Some drugs have been shown to hasten bone loss. The most common types of drugs are corticosteroids taken for variety of conditions like rheumatic, allergic and respiratory disorders, L-thyroxine a thyroid medicine and furosemide which is a diuretic used against fluid retention associated with high blood pressure and kidney problems. • Avoid fizzy drinks: Cola and other carbonated soft drinks contain phosphoric acid, which contains phosphorus which is a mineral, when taken in excess, causes your body to excrete calcium. • Ease salt intake: Excess intake of salt throws the calcium out of the body. Hence do not include salt more than necessary. Avoid processed and junk foods.

         
    Bons plans pour mariage express

     

    Encore jeune et pas fortunй, pourquoi se privez de ce que la vie vus offre de plus prйcieux pour fonder une famille? Le mariage. Alors qu'un mariage sur le vieux continent s'йvalue entre 10 000 et 15 000 euros, las Vegas vous offre des prestations pour dix fois moins cher, et en plus sortant de l'ordinaire. Que vous faut il faire. Bon, d'accord, il faut acheter le billet, mais ensuite? Ensuite rien de plus simple, rendez vous au Bureau des Mariages (Clark County Marriage License - 201 Clark Avenue Las Vegas, NV 89155 - Tel. (702) 671-0600) munis des papiers suivants: carte d'identitй prouvant que vous avez plus de 18 ans, en cas de prйcйdent divorce, n'oubliez pas de prendre avec vous la copie de votre acte de divorce. Ensuite, c'est а vous de voir. Une simple cйrйmonie civile au Bureau des Mariages vous coыtera qu'une cinquantaine de dollars et ne durera qu'une demie heure. Les cйlиbres chapelles long du Las Vegas strip reconnaissables par leur jardins de roses vous offres des services pour une somme comprise entre $200 et 500 dollars qui regroupent un forfait de mariage comprenant l'utilisation de la chapelle, la cйrйmonie de mariage, des fleurs, de la musique et des photos. Les forfaits plus coыteux comprennent plus d'extras comme le transfert depuis votre hфtel en limousine ou Elvis Presley comme tйmoin. Ou encore, les casinos. Selon le thиme que vous dйsirez pour votre mariage, rendez-vous soit l'hфtel Excalibur pour un mйdiйval, sinon MGM Grand a un mariage en montagnes russes, Treasure Island offre un mariage de pirates а bord de son bateau HMS Brittania et le Las Vegas Hilton propose un mariage Star Trek а bord du vaisseau spatial Enterprise avec des tйmoins Klingon et des invitйs Ferengi. Les prix varient alors de de 350 $ а 3500 $, voir d'avantage. Mais vous йtes tout prets des salles de blackjack et des machines а sous. Pour la Lune de Miel, en panne d'idйes ou de sous? Pourquoi ne pas faire un tour du monde depuis Las Vegas? Las Vegas, autre ses casinos, vous permet en effet de dйcouvrir les sept merveilles du monde en un clin d'oeil. Vous voulez Paris et le charme de ses cafйs? Pas de problиme, rendez-vous au Paris Las Vegas! Ici, des votre arrivйe, la Tour Eiffel, l'Arc de triomphe sans oublier le cйlиbre opйra Garnier vous accueillent a bras ouverts! Dans une architecture trиs Franchie style Haussmannien, vous retrouvez toutes les spйcialitйs franзaises et europйennes au sein de ses fameux restaurants, sans oublier son casino. Envie subite de vous dйpayser. Rendez-vous Venetian! A Venise et ses gondoles... Quelle femme digne de ce nom ne souhaiterait pas passez sa lune de miel dans ce dйcor pittoresque, et rкvasser comme une jeune fille a l'aube de ses 20 ans, en attendant Casanova... Venez vous dйtendre au Venetian. Cet hфtel recrйe pour vous les fameux canaux, les gondoles, les palais vйnitiens et la rйplique de la Piazza San Marco. Elйgance et raffinement caractйrisent le Venetian et ses 3000 chambres. Le Venetian abrite йgalement une superbe galerie d'art avec le Guggenheim Hermitage Museum. Et pour dйcouvrir encore plus de l'Italie, direction le Tuscany Suites Casino Pour les nostalgiques d'Astйrix et Obelix et du fameux Ave Cйsar, prйcipitez vous vite au Caesar's Palace! Conзue sur le modиle de la Rome antique, le Caesar's Palace accueille йgalement des championnats du monde de boxe et des grands spectacles de vedette. Envie de vous retrouvez sur une оle paradisiaque? Essayer le Tahiti! Ses bananiers, les tropiques et les plages de sable fin, Pourquoi trop attendre. Alors, qu'attendez vous pour passer la bague au doigt?

         
    Borderline personality disorder treatment

     

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness characterized by the inability to regulate emotions. According to various online sources, this disorder affects women primarily with an onset during adolescence. Patients with BPD demonstrate constant emotional instability and distress that leaves them in a constant state of despair. The goal of Borderline Personality Disorder treatment is to help patients eventually gain stability over their illness and lead productive lives. Men and women who receive treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder usually require extensive mental health services throughout their lives, including regular psychotherapy sessions and periodic re-evaluation by a psychiatrist and adjustment of psychotropic medications when necessary. The most significant goal of Borderline Personality Disorder treatment is to help the patient gain control over urges to inflict self-harm or even commit suicide. These patients have great unstable emotional mood swings in response to stress or significant life events and should always be monitored closely during an episode. Often short periods of psychosis accompany the mood swings, and the patient loses touch with reality at this point. Narcissism is also a cardinal feature of Borderline Personality Disorder, and maintaining interpersonal relationships is difficult and self-esteem suffers greatly. BPD patients are very controlling and are constantly insecure and questioning of people they meet. They are quick to start relationships but soon become disappointed and make great demands, when threatened with abandonment the symptoms accelerate, which can lead to self-injury or suicide attempt. Borderline Personality Disorder treatment attempts to decrease number of episodes and stabilize mood swings and erratic behavior. The exact cause of Borderline Personality Disorder is unknown, but is thought to be the result of a combination of factors, such as a traumatic life event or genetic influences. Psychotherapy is an absolute for Borderline Personality Disorder treatment, which can be very difficult for the therapist at time because there is always the threat of self-mutilation or suicide. Successful Borderline Personality Disorder treatment also involves the right medications to control mood swings. Various anti-depressants have been shown to be effective, and at time, inpatient hospitalization may be required at times during an acute episode. For more information on BPD visit psychcentral or remedyfind, as well as the National Alliance on Mental Illness at nami. org. Borderline Personality Disorder treatment can be successful and patients can achieve stability in their lives with better medications and advanced therapies, but they can’t do it on their own.

         
    Can alzheimer s be prevented

     

    Alzheimer’s disease is a condition affecting up to 4.5 million Americans. While there is no known cure, studies have been conducted that indicate there may be ways of preventing the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as forgetfulness, memory loss, and reduced ability to concentrate, and in later stages the sufferer may display anxiety and delusions, loss of speech and inability to sit up or walk. It is a slow disease with symptoms manifesting and worsening over the period of many years. The now famous, groundbreaking “nun study” went a long way toward identifying characteristics that would indicate the likelihood of Alzheimer’s onset later in life. 100 nuns have been studied over a period of fifteen years, beginning in 1991. Over the course of those years, their genes have been tested and analyzed, physical balance and strength charted, and cognitive tests run to determine how many words the women could remember several minutes after reading them, how many animals they could name in a minute, and if they could correctly count coins. The research shows that people who scored lower on cognitive ability tests when young were more likely to develop Alzheimer’s later in life. Early cognitive ability was measured based on writings done by the nuns while in their early 20’s. Those showing more “idea density” – the number of ideas expressed in the fewest number of words – and better linguistic and grammar skills had a much lower incidence of Alzheimer’s later in life. Scientists are of the opinion that good cognitive skills early on creates a sort of “neurocognitive reserve” which will be drawn on later, effectively preventing Alzheimer’s. Exercising and improving cognitive skills via writing, reading and learning – anything that stimulates the brain – may go a long way toward active, clearheaded and graceful aging. There are a number of other things, as well, that you can do to help prevent the onset of Alzheimer’s. Many of these prevention techniques involve limbering the mind and working on memory skills long before Alzheimer’s onset is a danger. Just having a mentally stimulating job that involves creative thinking or manipulation of data is shown to have a connection to lower incidence of Alzheimer’s later in life. Doing crossword puzzles and playing card games were found to have a significant positive impact on later mental dexterity. Employ memorization techniques used by actors. Actors don’t merely memorize a series of words. They also combine appropriate movements, and evaluate the intent behind the words to be delivered. This “active-experiencing” method of memorization was shown to also improve the memory and cognitive skills in older people who were taught the technique. Limbering your mind now may promote a limber mind in your latter years. Proper diet and exercise promote good health in general and may ward off countless problems including Alzheimer’s onset. The addition of fish oils, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C to the diet have all shown to contribute to a lower incidence of Alzheimer’s. Keeping cholesterol at a healthy level prevents build-up of amyloid plaques in the brain – a characteristic in Alzheimer’s. Finally, physical activity has been shown to prevent deposits in the brain that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Exercise your mind and body, and make good lifestyle choices, as the only “cure” for Alzheimer’s as yet, is prevention. While there is believed to be a genetic component which would predispose someone to the risk of Alzheimer’s, awareness, early planning and mental exercise, and smart dietary choices may aid to reduce your likelihood of developing this mysterious and debilitating disease. A healthy mind and a healthy body now will make for a healthy mind and body later.

         
    Can periodontal gum disease be reversed

     

    Can periodontal gum disease be reversed? The answer is yes, if you begin early enough and are diligent. More advanced periodontal gum disease may still be reversed, but it will take some special cleaning provided by your dentist to give you a fighting chance. Adopting a strenuous daily oral hygiene routine now can go a long way to reversing periodontal gum disease. 1. Brush thoroughly when you get up in the morning and before you go to bed each night. Brushing or at least rinsing with water after meals and snacks will also help remove food and bacteria trapped between teeth, helping in reversing periodontitis. 2. Rinse your mouth with a good antibacterial mouthwash for at least a full thirty seconds twice each day. This will help reach bacteria trapped in pockets below your gum line, aiding in reversing periodontal gum disease. 3. Floss every single day. Pay special attention to flossing just below the gum line for reversing periodontal gum disease. 4. Even better than flossing or rinsing is the use of one of the powerful oral irrigators on the market, which blast food particles out from between your teeth and clean the gumline. High-end irrigators can be purchased with special tips to reach deeply into any pre-existing pockets and clean them out. These special tips are necessary for effective cleaning if your periodontitis has already established itself. While a conscientious oral hygiene routine can go a long way in aiding the reversal of periodontal gum disease, sometimes the infection is too far advanced, and it is necessary to get professional help. If the problem is becoming severe, your dentist may see fit to perform a periodontal cleaning. If x-rays show deep pockets of bacteria surrounding any of your teeth below the gum line, your dentist can choose from special procedures known as debridement, scaling or root planing to go in and scrape the bacteria out and make the tooth less hospitable to germs. He may also order a prescription antibacterial mouth wash to be used daily that will also help in reversing periodontal gum disease. If more is required, he may perform actual periodontal surgery, which involves lifting the flaps of the gum to enable deep cleaning and suturing them back in place. After the procedure, you will have several appointments to check on the success of the cleaning. Still, there's good news for patients that have to suffer through surgery -- a 2001 study found that roughly 50% of patients with moderate to severe periodontal disease showed measurable improvement from surgery, while those trying non-surgical options enjoyed less success. The important thing is to seek help as soon as you notice any signs of trouble with your gums. The good news is, periodontal gum disease can be reversed if it's caught early enough.

         
     
         
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