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    Free Essay
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    Bad breath 1

     

    BAD BREATH Causes of bad breath ? Bad breath is a common health problem which greately affects the daytoday activities of somany people. The offenssive odor from the mouth is unpleasent to those who come in close contact with bad breathers. The problem will be doubled by psychological trauma leading to depression. The sufferers from this problem wil be isolated from the society. This can even lead to marital disharmony. Literally speaking all humanbeings are badbreathres. Oral cavity contains millions of anaerobic bacteria like fusobacterium and actinomyces which acts on the protein of food materials and putrifies them. This process results in the formation of offenssive gases like hydrogen sulphide, methyl mescaptan, cadaverin, skatol, putrescine ect causing bad odor. If oral hygiene is not maintained properly all will suffer from bad breath. Most of us control this by regular brushing, tongue cleaning and gargling. Even after maintining cleanliness in the mouth some individuals suffer from offenssive smell due to various causes which has to be diagnosed and treated properly. Some common causes of bad breath. 1) Poor oral hygiene: If oral hygiene is not maintained properly the mouth becomes the seat for millions of bacteria which produce offenssive gases by degrading the food debris. Bad breath is severe in those who do not brush their teeth regularly and clean their mouth after every food. Snacks taken inbetween meals can also produce bad breath because of improper cleaning. Badbreath is common in almost all people in the morning on waking. During sleep there is less production of saliva. Saliva has got some antibacterial properties which help to keep the mouth clean. Saliva conains oxygen molecules which is needed to make oral cavity aerobic. So the reduction in it's quantity during sleep makes a favourable condition for anaerobic bacteria. 2) Food habits: The main cause of bad smell is due to degradation of protein by the bacteria and hence all food products rich in protein favours bad breath. Meat, fish, milk products, eggs, cakes, nuts, pear and ect can cause bad breath. Some food articles can produce particular type of smell which may be unpleasent. Raw onion can produce typical bad smell. It is said that an apple a day keeps the doctor away, a raw onion a day keeps everybody away. Eating groundnuts can also produce bad smell. However if proper cleaning is done smell can be reduced irrespective of the nature of food. Irregularity in timing of food can also produce bad breath. Small food articles taken in between the meals can also produce bad smell. 3) Biofilm: There is formation of a thin sticky coating called biofilm on the tongue and oral mucosa. This coating is thick on the posterior aspect of the tongue where millions of gram negative bacteriae are seen. The thick coating on the tongue is always associated with badbreath. Even a thin biofilm can make anaerobic condition favourable for bacterial proliferation. 4) Dental caries: This is a destructive process causing decalcification with distruction of enamel and dentine resulting in cavitisation of the tooth. These are produced mainly by the lactobacilli . Food particles are deposited inside these cavities and are putrified by the anaerobic bacteria producing bad smell. Normal brushing will not remove the food debris easily and hence they are putrified completely. Caries are common in schoolgoing children and in those who donot maintain proper oral hygiene. Calcium and vitamin deficiency can also predispose caries. 5) Gingivitis: Gum is a mucus membrane with supporting connective tissue covering the tooth bearing borders of the jaw. The main function of gum is protection. Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gum. Due to various causes gum tissue get infected resulting in swelling, pain and discharge. If the condition become worse the infection spread towards peridontal area leading to continuous discharge called pyorrhoea. Some times the infection goes deep producing alveolar abscess with discharge of pus. Infection can even reach the bone causing osteomyelitis. All these conditions can produce offenssive smell. 6) Gum retraction: When the gums retract from the teeth a gap is developed which will lodge food particles and cause bad breath. 7) Dental plaques and tartar deposits; Plaques and tartar is deposited mainly in the gaps between the teeth and gum. This will provide shelter for the food debris and bacteria causing bad breath. 8) Ulcerative lesions& coatings: Almost all ulcerative lesions of the mouth are associated with bad breath. These lesions may be caused by bacteria, viruses, food allergies or due to autoimmune disorders. Apthous ulcer is the commonest amoung ulcerative lesions. Others are herpes, fungal infections, vincents angina, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, drug reactions and ect. Cancerous ulcers produce severe bad breath. All fungal infections produce white coating(candidiasis). Leucoplakia is a white thick patch on the mucus membrane of the mouth & tongue. It is considered as a precancerous condition. Offenssive breath is associated with these conditions. 9) Diseases of the salivary glands: Saliva is very useful to supply oxygen to all parts of the oral cavity. Even a thin film of coating called biofilm can provide an anaerobic condition in the mouth. Saliva can wet these layers and make an aerobic condition which is unfavourable for the bacteria. Any condition which reduces the production of saliva can increase bacterial activity. Some times the salivary duct is obstructed by stones or tumors. Cancer of the salivary gland is associated with offenssive odor. In suppurative parotitis purulant dischrge in to the mouth causes bad breath. 10) Tonsillitis: Tonsils are a pair of lymphoid tissue situated in the lateral wall of oropharynx. Inflammation of the tonsil is called tonsillitis. Bad breath is seen in both acute and chronic tonsillitis. Quinsy or peritonsillar abscess can also produce bad breath. 11) Tonsillar plaques & tonsillar fluid: If bad breath persists even after maintaining proper oral hygeine there is possibility of this condition. Serous fluid secreated from the folds of tonsil is very offenssive. Some patients complain that they hawk some cheesy materials from the throat;which are very offenssive in nature. These are formed inside the tonsillar crypts which contain thousands of bacteriae. In such conditions tonsillectomy gives noticiable relief from bad breath. 12) Pharyngitis& pharyngial abscess: Pharynx is a fibromuscular tube which forms the upper part of the digestive & respiratory tract. Inflmmation of the pharynx is called pharyngitis, caused mainly by bacteria and viruses. Bad breath is present in pharyngitis along with other signs like cough and throat irritation. Abscesses in the wall of pharynx can also produce offenssive discharge of pus in to the throat. 13) Dentures: Denture users may complain about bad smell due to lodgement of small food debris in between. Proper brushing may not be possible in denture users especially fixed dentures. 14) Tobacco: Tobacco chewing is associated with bad breath. The smell of tobacco itself is unpleasent for others. Tobacco can irritate the mucus membrane and cause ulcers and coatings. Gingivitis and pyorrhoea are common in tobacco chewers. Tartar is deposited on the teeth mainly near the gums. Tobacco chewers get gastric acidity with eructations. All these causes offenssive smell. 15) Smoking: Smokers always have bad smell. It can also produce lesions in the mouth & lungs causing bad breath. Smoking increases carbon dioxide in the oral cavity & reduces oxygen level, causing a favourable condition for bacteria. Smoking reduses appetite & thirst hence acid peptic disease is common in chain smokers. 16) Lesions in the nose & ear: Bad breath is occasionally seen in sinusitis(infection of para nasal sinuses). In case of post nasal dripping bad breath is common due to the presence of protein in the discharges. These proteins are degraded by the bacteria. Infection in the middle ear with discharge of pus in to the throat through the eustachian tube(passage from middle ear to the throat)can also cause offenssive odor. Chronic rhinitis(infection of mucus membrane of nose) and forign bodies in the nose can also produce bad smell in the expired air. 17) Diabetes mellitus: Mostly all diabetic patients suffer from bad breath. Coated tongue, ulcers &coatings in the mouth, increased sugar level in tissues ect are responsible for bad breath. Bacterial growth in diabetic patient is very faster than non diabetic individuals. 18) Fevers: Bad breath is common in almost all fevers. Even an acute fever can produce bad breath. Severe bad breath is seen in typhoid. Other infectious diseases like Tuberculosis , AIDS ect produce bad smell. 19) Fasting & dehydration: Dry mouth favours bacterial activity. So any condition which produce dryness in the mouth makes the breath offenssive. Eventhough the food particles are known to produce bad breath, fasting can also produce the same. Production of saliva is also reduced during fasting. Chewing and swallowing also helps to keep the mouth clean. 20) Bedridden patients: Bedridden patients suffer from offenssive breath due to thick coating on the tongue. water intake is also limited in these patients. Regurgitation of food aggravates the condition. Since they talk less aeration in the oral cavity is reduced which favours anaerobic bacteria to become active. 21) Diseases of stomach & esophagus: Eructation of gas and food produce unpleasent smell. Abnormality in the function of lower sphincter can allow the food to regurgitate upwards causing bad breath. Bad breath is also common in gastritis, gastric ulcer and cancer of stomach. 22) Intestinal diseases: Bad breath is common in patients suffering from ulcerative lesions of intestine like ulcerative collitis..Other diseases are malabsorption syndrome intestinal tuberculosis, peritonitis ect. 23) Diseases of lungs: Lung diseases like pneumonia, lung abscess, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, lung cancer ect can produce bad odor during expiration. 24) Liver disorders: Liver diseases like hepatitis, cirrhosis, can cause bad breath. Gall bladder diseases with vomiting also causes unpleasent odor. 25) Psychiatric patients: Bad breath is common in psychotic patients due to poor hygiene, irregular food habits, less water intake and ect. 26) Somatisation disorder: This is a psychiatric disorder charecterised by the presence of a physical symptom that suggest a medical illness. These patients come with physical complaints like pain, nausea difficult respiration, bad smell ect. This condition is diagnosed after detailed examination of the patient with all investigations. Since this is a psychiatric disorder it has to be managed with a psychological approach. [ THE POINTS MENTIONED IN THIS ARTICLE IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION. ANY PERSON HAVING BAD BREATH SHOULD CONSULT A QUALIFIED DOCTOR ]

         
    Bad breath 2

     

    CURE OF BAD BREATH Bad breath is a common health problem in the society. Offenssive smell from the mouth may be due to various reasons. The main reason is the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the biofilm formed on the tongue. These bacteria degrades the proteins present in the food resulting in the production of some offenssive gases like hydrogen sulphide, skatol ect. Bad odor from the mouth in the early morning is seen in almost all individuals. This can be controlled by maintaining oral hygiene. Even after cleaning the mouth some individuals may suffer from bad breath due to some problem in the mouth or in the nearby areas. Some general disease condition can also produce bad breath. Exact cause has to be identified and should be treated accordingly. Some common measures to cure or reduce bad breath are discussed here. 1) Oral hygiene: Mouth should be kept clean every time to reduce the bacterial action. After food gargling with lukewarm water is very essential. Even after small food articles like snacks, sweets, buscuits cleaning with water is needed. Brushing should be done twice daily. It is said that early morning brushing is for beauty and bed time brushing is for good health. 2) Brushing techniques: Normal brushing technique should be followed for better result. Many people brush vigorously causing damage to the gums. Brushing after every food and drink can damage the enamel. Bristles of the tooth brush should be smooth but hard enough to remove the food particles from the gaps. The direction of brushing is the most important thing. The upper teeth should be brushed in a downward direction and the lower in upward direction. This is applicable to both inner and outer surfaces. Next comes the crown of the teeth;here brushing is done in anterior and posterior direction keeping the brush in same direction. This applicable to both upper and lower set of teeth. 3) Tongue cleaning: White or yellowish coating on the tongue can cause bad breath. This is more well marked in the morning and should be removed twice daily with the healp of a tongue cleaner. Tongue cleaner must be used gently without damaging the taste buds on the tongue. 4) Tooth pick: Tooth pick is a small strip of wood or plastic with a pointed end. This is used to remove food particles lodged between the gaps. Very useful after eating meat and fish. Should be used gently to avoid damage to gums. 5) Gargling: After every meal gargling with lukewarm water is useful. For better result little common salt is dissolved in the lukewarm water. Different types of mouth wash is available in the market in different trade names. Gargling with mouth wash can also reduce bad breath. 6) Food habits: Protein containing food articles are known to produce bad breath. Example; meat, milk, fish, egg etc. If these food articles are taken proper cleaning is essential. Some food articles are known to produce particular smell which may be unpleasent for others. Raw onion is the best example. It is said that an apple a day keeps the doctor away and a raw onion a day keep every body away. Small food articles taken in between can also cause bad smell(nuts, fried items etc).Maintaining regularity in food timing is the most important thing. 7) Water intake: Dryness in the mouth can make a favourable condition for the bacterial activity resulting in bad odor. saliva is needed to keep the mouth moist and to reduce the bacterial proliferation. Production of saliva is closely related with water balance of the body and hence sufficient quantity of water should be taken to maintain the production of saliva. 8) Mouth freshners: Natural and artificial mouth freshners can reduce the intensity of bad breath to some extent. Spicy articles are commonly used for this purpose. Chewing spices like clove, cumin seed, cardomom, cinnamon, ginger ect are useful. All citrus fruits can reduce bad odor. Mouth freshners and chewing gums are available in the market. these products are also helpful, but some may cause damage hence should be used with caution. If the above things doesn't work then what to do ? Consider the following:- 1) Remove the cause: Bad breath is common in some general and systemic diseases like diabetes, fevers, gastric disorders, liver diseases and ect. By removing or reducing the primary cause the bad breath will go automatically. 2) Modern medicine: If bad breath is due to any infection suitable antibiotics, anti fungal or anti viral medicines will help. If it is due to any autoimmune or chronic inflamatory conditions steroids may also be used. Saliva producing tablets can also be used. 3) Dental cleaning: Dental cleaning done by a dentist can remove the dental plaques and tartar. This can reduce the severity of bad breath. Visit your dentist atleast once in a year. 4) Filling of caries: Since caries are one of the main cause for bad breath it should be filled by a dentist. Earlier silver amalgam was used, nowadays it is replaced by synthetic materials. If the pulp cavity is affected by the caries root canal treatment can be done. 5) Tooth extraction: If caries are deep with destruction of teeth with bad smell extraction is the better choice and a dental implant can be kept in the gap. 6) Tonsillectomy: Patients with recurrent tonsillitis can have bad breath due to offenssive discharges and release of pasty materials from the crypts of tonsils. Such patients get great relief after tonsillectomy(removal of tonsils). 7) Psychological counselling: Those who suffer from bad breath may be very much depressed and they be away from the public. This isolation hampers their daytoday activities. Such people should understand the fact that all humanbeings are having bad breath, but with slight differences in intensities. Mostly all people control it by taking personal care. Every human body has got it's own smell, that may or may not be tolerable for others. They should be adviced to do all hygienic meashures to reduce the intensity of smell. Improving the quality of life by all possible means can also help. Moral support from friends and family members are needed for such people. Some individuals visit the doctor for bad breath without any real problem. It is included under somatisation disorder. They usually complain about pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort, bad smell ect. proper diagnosis is needed to rule out any real causes. These patients should be managed with a psychological approach. 8) Homoeopathy: In Homoeopathy medicines are selected on the basis of physical, mental, emotional, and social aspects of the diseased person. Considering the whole aspects a constitutional homoeopathic medicine is selected and given in suitable potency and dose. By this all health related problems including bad breath will be solved. On the basis of coating on the tongue, type of smell, cause for bad breath, and other associated complaints a medicine can be given to get relief from bad breath. In the homoeopathic medical repertory by Dr Robin Murphy there are 140 homoeopathic drugs mentioned for bad breath. On the basis of signs and symptoms of the individual a suitable medicine is givenmonly used drugs are arnica, antim crud, pulsatilla, sulphur, psorinum, nux vomica, ars alb, merc sol, kreosot, hekla lava, silicea, asafoitida, graphites, kali bich, acid nitric etc. Homoeopathic mother tinctures like cinnamon Q, kreosot Q, zingiber Q, rhus glabra Q, menthol Q and ect can be used for gargling after diluting in water. [POINTS MENTIONED IN THIS ARTICLE IS FOR GENERAL AWARENESS. ANY BODY SUFFERING FROM BAD BREATH SHOULD CONSULT A DOCTOR.]

         
    Bad breath 3

     

    Homoeopathy for bad breath Offenssive smell from the mouth is a common complaint in the day to day medical practice. It mainly affects those who mingle with others very closely. Bad breath is noticed mainly by the friends & family members or some times person himself feel it and come to the doctor. Many badbreathers develop depression which forces them to be away from the society which in turn hampers their activities. The protein in the food debris are degraded by the anaerobic bacteria present in the mouth. Offenssive odor is produced due to release of some gases like hydrogen sulphide, skatol ect due to bacterial activity. Formation of a thin sticky membrane on the tongue favoures bacterial growth. Bactrera are also seen in the crypts of tonsils, dental caries, dental pockets ect. Bad breath is associated with oral hygiene, caries, gingivitis, tonsillitis, tonsillar plaques, food habits, water intake, tobacco chewing, stomach and liver diseases and ect. Homoeopathy is a system of medicine introduced by a german physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann. Homoeopathy treats the diseased individual as a whole rather than treating diseased parts or organs. The physical, mental, emotional, social spheres of a person is considered for a permanent cure. This system believes that the diseases are caused due to the derangement of vital force which is an invisible power in every individual. In a healthy state the vital force maintains the equilibrium of mind body and soul. During this man will have normal sensations and functions. When the vital force gets affected there will be external manifestations in the form of signs and symptoms. The imbalance in the body functions makes a shelter for forign organisms(bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa ect) and allow them to proliferate &produce so called diseases. Homoeopathy believes thet the real desease comes before the bacteria & viruses, hence the root cause of the disease has to be treated for a permenent cure. The antibacterial and antiviral agents only remove the secondary causes mentioned above. Diseases are produced by noxious morbific agents called Miasms which are dynamic influences which affect the vital force. There are mainly three miasms PSORA, SYPHILIS&SYCOSIS. These three causes are accepted by other schools of medicine but called by different names. Psora causes functional disturbances, syphilis cause structural changes in the form of destructions and sycosis causes changes in the form of overgrowth. These three miasms can act individually or in combined form producing different disease conditions. To treat bad breath with homoeopathic medicine is easy if correct remedy in suitable dose is given. In the homoeopathic medical repertory by Dr Robin Murphy there are 140 homoeopathic drugs mentioned for bad breath. So just giving one drug for bad breath may not give good result. To come to a correct remedial diagnosis we should have the symptomatology of the person. It is the total symptoms of a person which includes mental generals, physical generals, particular symptoms ect. Bad breath is considered as a physical general symptom. Eventhough it comes only from a part of the body it affects the whole individual. Symptoms related with appetite, thirst, bowels ect are included in physical generals. All signs and symptoms (mental&physical)of the person is taken in detail. Knowledge about past illneses, family history of diseases, food & bowel habits, relation to climatic changes and constitution ect are noted down in a systematic order. Mental symptoms: example: fear, anxiety, depression, anger, jealousy and ect.... Physical symptoms: example: Body makeup, appetite, thirst, desires, aversions, bowels, urination, sleep, taste, nature of smell, discharges any abnormal sensations like pain, burning, climatic changes, thermal relations, and ect.... Peculiar uncommon symptoms: This is the speciality of homoeopathic system of medicine. For the selection of a suitable remedy these symptoms are very importantmon symptoms which are seen almost in all patients are least important. particular/local signs&symptoms: This include signs &symptoms related to body parts &organs. example: Coating on the tongue, nature of mucus membrane of oral cavity, tonsils, gums, teeth, ulcers, discolourations ect are considered here. Systemic & general physical examination:- Bad breath can be due to various systemic and disorders. Hence all systems ( respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, cardio vascular system and ect )and parts from head to foot should be examined. provisional disease diagnosis; Here probable diseases are diagnosed. In homoeopathy disease diagnosis is not that much important for the selection of a remedy, but needed for general management and to know the prognosis. Investigations: This includes lab investigations and other methods to find out any other major illnesses. Final disease diagnosis: After doing all investigations the disease is diagnosed. Remedial diagnosis: This is the most importnant part as far as homoeopathy is concerned. For this the selected symptoms are arranged in a systematic order on the basis of importance. symptoms are analysed to find out the importance of each symptom for the selection of a remedy. Remedies are selected on the basis of similarity.[the basic principle of homoeopathy is 'similia similibus curenter' means like cures like. A medicine which can produce some symptoms in a healthy man can be used as a remedy to trea the similar symptoms in a diseased person. Each homoeopathic drug is proved on healthy human beings and the symptoms collected by this process(drug proving) is written in meteria medica.] Suitable remedies are diagnosed by a process called repertorisation. Here books called repertories are used. Repertory is the index of symptoms of materia medica(books which contain the symptoms of drugs).Nowadays computer softwares are used for repertorisalion. By this process we will get the remedies covering maximum important symptom of the patient. Amoung this group of remedies the most suitable remedy is selected by referring various books and history of the patient..The selected medicine is given in suitable potency & dose. ANTI MIASMATIC TREATMENT: The root cause of disease is miasms which should be eradicated using suitable anti miasmatic drugs. Every drug can eradicate the miasm if there is symptom similarity. there are anti psoric drugs, anti syphilitic drugs and anti sycotic drugs. After diagnosing the miasm suitable anti miasmatic drug has to be given to complete the cure. [In homoeopathy medicines are prepared from different sources like minerals, plants, animals, toxins, diseased parts ect. Medicines are prepared from these substances by a special process called potentisation. Here the soluble substances are potentised by diluting with spirit and insoluble substances by grinding with sugar of milk. The crude drug substance is first mixed with a calculated quantity of spirit and water and kept for few days. From this mixture extract is taken and is called mother tincture(denoted as Q).From this mother tincture dilutions are prepared by potentisation. Potentisation is a mathematical process by which the quantity of original drug substance reduces but medicinal power increases. Depending upon the ratio of quantity of drug substance and vehicle(spirit or sugar of milk)there are different scales for this process. Each scale has got different potencies which indicate power of medicine. Example in decimal scale 3x,6x.12x ect. in centisimal scale there is 30c,200c ect, in LM poteny there are 0/1,0/2,0/3 ect. potency is written after the name of every medicine] Same medicine is available in different potencies. Suitable potency is selected according to so many facters like sevearity, depth of disease, condition of the patient, nature of disease, type of symptoms, age of patient and ect. Some useful homoeo drugs for bad breath. Arnica montana, Antim crude, Ars alb, Asafoetida, Aurum met, Baptisia, Bryonia, Borax, Calc carb, Carbo veg, Cinchona, Chelidonium, Graphites, Kali bich, Kreosotum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Merc sol, Natrum mur, Nitricum acidum, Nux vomica, Plantago, Pulsatilla, Phos, Pyrogen, Sulphur etc. 1) Arnica montana: This medicine is useful for fetid breath. Mouth is very dry with thirst for water. Bad breath associated with fever. There is bleeding from the gum, may be after tooth extraction or after injury. Offenssive gas pass upwards and downwards from stomach. Petient is very sensitive to touch with sore and bruised feeling allover the body. 2) Antim crude: Useful for bad breath with gastric complaints and coated tongue. This medicine act mainly on filthy persons with aversion to bathing. Tongue is coated white like fur. Nostrils and lips are cracked. Eructations are putrid. Very useful for badbreath in children 3) Ars alb: All discharges are having cadeveric smell. Saliva is bloody with bad odor. Thirst for warm water is well marked. This medicine act well in debilitated and emaciated persons. Bad breath associated with gastric disorders. Vomiting from slightest food or drink and intolerance of vegetables and watery fruits. Mentally these patients are fastidious with an insecurity feeling. They are having fear of death or serious disease with restlessness and anxiety. 4) Asafoetida: Useful for bad breath associated with eructations. Great distension of abdomen with sensation of a ball rising in throat. All discharges are offenssive. Reverse peristalsis with loud eructations. This medicine act well on hysterical persons. 5) Aurum met: Useful for bad breath in girls at puberty. There is ulceration in gums with putrid or bitter taste. Destruction in body tissues like bone is noticed in these patients. This medicine act well on persons who are tired of life with suicidal thoughts. They also have a feeling that they have done an unpardonable crime. 6) Baptisia: Breath fetid with bitter taste. Gums sore and ulcerated. Yellowish brown coating on centre of tongue with glistening edges. Surface of the tongue is cracked. These patients feel difficult to swallow solid food. Tonsils are enlarged without pain. Useful for painless tonsillitis & pharyngitis with putrid smell. All discharges are offenssive. This medicine act well on persons having besoted look. There is a tendency for stupor and delirium in these persons. 7) Borax: Useful for bad breath associated with apthous ulcer in the mouth. Also effective for fungal infection of the mouth. Mouth is very hot and tender. Ulcers bleed on touch. Very useful for bad breath in children with ulcers in the mouth. Child is having fear of doward motion. 8) Bryonia: Irritable persons who always talk about business. Lips parched dry and cracked. Tongue coated dark brown with bitter taste in the mouth. Thirst for large quantity of cold water is well marked. Heaviness in abdomen after eating. Usually constipated with hard dry stools. 9) Calcarea fluor: Plugs of mucus are continually forming in the crypts of the tonsils. Unnatural looseness of the teeth with or without pain. Prone to get caries with discolouration. Tonsils are enlarged with recurrent infection. 10) Carbo veg: These patients are weak and debilitated. All body discharges are profuse with cadeveric smell. Gums are retracted and bleed easily. Frequent putrid eructations with distention of abdomenplaints ameliorted by passing flatus. Can't tolerate meat and fat. Involuntary diarrhoea at night. Wants to be fanned from a close distance. 11) Chelidonium: Tongue yellow with imprint of teeth. Bad odor with bitter taste in the mouth. Useful for bad breath with liver complaints. Thirst for hot liquids. Patient feels better by eating. Constipation with hard round stools. Constipation alternating with diarrhoea. 12) Graphites: This medicine act well on obese patients with skin troubles. Breath smells like urine. Rotten odor with salivation and blisters in the mouth. Sour eructations with gastric complaints. Skin complaints with sticky discharges. Gastric pain ameliorated by eating . 13) kali bich: Bad breath with gastric ulcer. There are round ulcers in the mouth. Saliva viscid. Vomiting with bitter taste. Tongue is smooth. Craves bear. Gastric complaints alternating with rheumatism. 14) kreosotum: Teeth dark and crumbly. Bitter taste in the mouth with putrid odour. Very rapid decay of teeth. All discharges are very offenssive. Gums spongy and bleed easily. Bad breath associated with caries and gastric complaints. 15) Lachesis: This medicine act on dark restless patients with jelousy. Tongue is black colouredplaints are aggravated during sleep. Wants fanning from a long distance. Cannot tolerate tight cloathing around bodyplaints aggravated in hot climate. 16) Lycopodium: Act well on intelligent people who are physically weak. They have lack of self confidence. Useful for badbreath associated with sour eructations with burning in throat. Teeth excessively painful to touch. There are blisters on the tongue. Wants warm food and drinks. These people are usually constipated. Craving for sweets well marked. 17) Merc sol: Sweetish metallic taste in the mouth with bloody viscid saliva. Gum is spongy and bleed easily. Mouth is moist with increased thirst. Teeth indented. Crown of the teeth decay. Fetid odor from the mouth can be felt all over the room. Ulcerations in the mouth with bleeding. All body discharges are offenssive. All complaints are aggravated at night. 18) Nux vomica: This medicine act well on people who lead a sedentery life. They are very short tempered and become angry very easily. They are very busy in their occupation and enjoy modern civilised life with all types of food and drink. Bad breath is more after meals and in the morning. Posterior part of the tongue is coated and anterior part is clean. Sour taste in the mouth with nausea in the morning. They have got frequent urge for stool. Heavy feeling in abdomen after food is noticed. 19) Plantago: Dental caries with severe toothache. Pain better by eating. Salivation is better by eating. Toothache with swelling of gums. Gargling plantago Q is useful to get relief from toothache due to caries. 20) Pulsatilla: Act well on mild and gentle ladies with a yielding disposition. Patient is very timid with a weeping tendency. Bad breath is noticed mainly in the morning. Mouth is very dry but dosn't want to drink water. Yellow or white tongue covered with a tenacious mucus. Taste is altered. Taste of food remains in the mouth for a long time. Patient wash the mouth frequently. 21) Psorinum: Act well on unclean patients with bad odor. Hawking up of cheesy, pea like balls of disgusting smell and taste is the main cause for bad breath in these patients. Tonsils are swollen with profuse offenssive saliva. Quinsy with tough mucus in throat. All body secretions are filthy. Eructations taste like bad eggs. Very hungry and getup even at midnight for food. Swallowing is painful with pain in ears. 22) Pyrogen: Bad breath of septic origin is cured with this medicine. Taste terribly fetid with horrible breath, tongue red, dry, smooth asif varnished. Bad breath associated with high fever and coffeground vomiting. In general patients body is very sensitive to touch, can't rest on bed because of bruinsed pain. All discharges are offenssive. 23) Sulphur: This medicine act best on dirty & filthy people with offenssive odor and a tendecy for skin diseases. Lips dry bright red with burning sensation..Tongue white with red tip & borders. Bitter taste in the morning. Eructations are putrid. Burning in all parts of the body. Aversion to bathing is well marked. Not bothered about hygiene, still they believe that they are having superhuman powers. These individuals are very selfish. Some homoeo mother tinctures (Q) useful for bad breath. [mother tincture should not be taken directly because it can produce burning sensation, hence 10 drops should be mixed in half glass of water and taken internally or used for gargling] 1) Cinnamon Q : This mother tincture can be used for gragling after diluting with water. Also useful for bleeding from gums. 2) Eucalyptus Q : This tincture can be used as a mouth wash after mixing with water. Internal use of this medicine can remove mucus from the respiratory tract. Also useful for cold and coryza. 3) Zingiber Q : Useful for bad breath associated with gastric complaints. This medicine can improve digestion. Also used for gargling. 4) Rhus glabra Q : Gargling of this tincture is very useful for ulcerative lesions in the mouth like aphthous ulcer. Internal use of this tincture can reduce the bad smell of stool & flatus. 5) Oleum caryophyllum Q : Gargling of this tincture can reduce toothache. Due to it's fregrant quality very useful to reduce bad breath. 6) Balsamum peru Q : This medicine can remove the mucus from respiratory tract hence very useful in chronic bronchitis and lung abscess. Can heal the ulcers in the mouth by gargling this tincture, it can also produce pleasent smell from the mouth. 7) Menthol Q : This is a main ingradient in tonics and syrups. Gargling of this tincture reduces bad breath.

         
    Cerebral palsy

     

    CEREBRAL PALSY It is a non progressive neuromuscular disorder causing mild to severe disabilities throughout life. This condition is manifested as a group of persisting qualitative motor disorders which appear in young children due to damage to the brain during delivery or due to some pathological conditions in the intrauterine life. The neuroligical problems are multiple but non progressive in nature. Approximately 2 per 100 live birth is having this problem. This disease is having no hereditary tendency. Causes of cerebral palsy: 1) Injury to the brain during delivery. 2) As a complication of forceps delivery. 3) Lack of oxygen supply to the baby during delivery. 4) Infections during delivery. Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy:-- The signs and symptoms may not be similar in all babies affected. Depending upon the damage to the brain there may be mild to severe lesions. Mild cases:- 20% children will have mild disability. Moderate cases:-50% cases are having moderate disability. The affected children require self help for assisting their impaired ambulation capacity. Severe cases:-About 30% of the affected children are totally incapacited and bedridden and they allways need care from others. Abnormal findings in cerebral palsy:- 1,Abnormal neonatal reflexes. 2,Stiffness of all muscles with awkward motion. 3,Extention of extremities on vertical suspension of the infant. 4,Scissoring of the lower limbs due to spasm of the adductor muscles of the thigh. 5,In severe cases the back bend backwards like and arch. 6,May have total or partial paralysis. 7,Arrest of neurological and behavioral developement. 8,Swallowing may be difficult in some cases. 9,Drooling of saliva. 10,Mild to severe mental retardations. 11,Abnormal movements are seen in some cases. 12,Tremors with typical movements. 13,If cerebellum is affected there will be loss of muscle tone with difficulty in walking. 14,Complete or partial loss of hearing. 15,Speech may be affected. 16,Squint and other visual problems may be associated. 17,Convulsions may be seen in some children. Cerebral palsy is diagnosed by detailed clinical examination and by eliminating other similar diseases like brain tumour, progressive atrophy ect. All investigations like CT scan, MRI and routine investigations are needed to ruleout other diseases. Management of carebral palsy:-- General management: This includes proper nutrition and personal care. Symptomatic medicines are needed to reduce convulsions and muscle stiffness. Diazepam can reduce spasticity and athetosis. Dantrolene sodium helps to relax skeletal muscles. Physiotherapy: Here massage, exercise, hydrotherapy and ect are needed. Special training is given to train walking, swallowing and talking. The affected children are also trained to hold articles for routine activities. Rehabilitation: Moral and social support should be given to these children. They should be send to special schools where special training can be given by trained staff. Mentally retarded children need special training. Depending up on the disabitity special instruments and machines are given for locomotion and to assist their daytoday activities. Occupational therapy: This is given by occupational therapists. They train the disabled people to do some suitable works so that these people can have their own income.

         
    Combing hair

     

    Precautions to be taken while combing hair Hair combing is a routine activity of almost all people. Some people keep a particular hair style throughout their life and some especially younger generation adopt new styles according to new trends and fashion. Hair styles has got close relation with the personality of a person. The hair of an unhygeinic person is usually tangled and dirty because of lack of washing and combing. To have a healthy scalp hair proper nutrition is needed. General health has got direct relation with the quality and quantity of hair. Regular washing, use of hair oil, proper combing ect are also needed to make the hair beautiful. General hints for combing is discussed here. 1) Different varieties of combs are available in the market. The best comb is selected by considering the nature of hair(hard or soft, long or short),style and convenience. 2) Combing should be done with utmost care and concentration. Some people especially gents think about some other matters and comb without any care which may be harmful to the hairs. 3) Combing should be gentle. A vigorous combing can increase hairfalling. 4) Do not comb if the hair is wet. First dry it with a towel and then put some oil and gently massage it. Now the combing will be easy and harmless. 5) Should not be combed in the opposite direction of hairs. This can increase hair falling. 6) Vigorous combing in backward direction can produce traction baldness. 7) Frequent combing can damage the scalp and the hair follicles. Those who carry pocket comb use it frequently and make it a habitbing two or three times in a day is sufficient. 8) The tooth of the comb should not be sharp and it should not be pressed too tightly on the scalp. 9) Always clean the comb before and after use because hair and dirt deposited in the gap will make combing diffucult and painful. 10) Others comb should not be used. This helps to prevent fungal and bacterial infections. Head lice can also spread from one person to other by sharing the combs. 11) Combing the tangled hair is difficult and painful. Hence use some shampoo for cleaning and after drying put oil and make the hairs free for an easy combing.

         
    Effect of alcohol on the blood

     

    EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE BLOOD. Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given both in England and America, speaking of the action of this substance on the blood after passing from the stomach, says: "Suppose, then, a certain measure of alcohol be taken into the stomach, it will be absorbed there, but, previous to absorption, it will have to undergo a proper degree of dilution with water, for there is this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it is separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid like the blood, that it will not pass through the membrane until it has become charged, to a given point of dilution, with water. It is itself, in fact, so greedy for water, it will pick it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it until, by its saturation, its power of reception is exhausted , after which it will diffuse into the current of circulating fluid." It is this power of absorbing water from every texture with which alcoholic spirits comes in contact, that creates the burning thirst of those who freely indulge in its use. Its effect, when it reaches the circulation, is thus described by Dr. Richardson: "As it passes through the circulation of the lungs it is exposed to the air, and some little of it, raised into vapor by the natural heat, is thrown off in expiration. If the quantity of it be large, this loss may be considerable, and the odor of the spirit may be detected in the expired breath. If the quantity be small, the loss will be comparatively little, as the spirit will be held in solution by the water in the blood. After it has passed through the lungs, and has been driven by the left heart over the arterial circuit, it passes into what is called the minute circulation, or the structural circulation of the organism. The arteries here extend into very small vessels, which are called arterioles, and from these infinitely small vessels spring the equally minute radicals or roots of the veins, which are ultimately to become the great rivers bearing the blood back to the heart. In its passage through this minute circulation the alcohol finds its way to every organ. To this brain, to these muscles, to these secreting or excreting organs, nay, even into this bony structure itself, it moves with the blood. In some of these parts which are not excreting, it remains for a time diffused, and in those parts where there is a large percentage of water, it remains longer than in other parts. From some organs which have an open tube for conveying fluids away, as the liver and kidneys, it is thrown out or eliminated, and in this way a portion of it is ultimately removed from the body. The rest passing round and round with the circulation, is probably decomposed and carried off in new forms of matter. "When we know the course which the alcohol takes in its passage through the body, from the period of its absorption to that of its elimination, we are the better able to judge what physical changes it induces in the different organs and structures with which it comes in contact. It first reaches the blood; but, as a rule, the quantity of it that enters is insufficient to produce any material effect on that fluid. If, however, the dose taken be poisonous or semi-poisonous, then even the blood, rich as it is in water and it contains seven hundred and ninety parts in a thousand is affected. The alcohol is diffused through this water, and there it comes in contact with the other constituent parts, with the fibrine, that plastic substance which, when blood is drawn, clots and coagulates, and which is present in the proportion of from two to three parts in a thousand; with the albumen which exists in the proportion of seventy parts; with the salts which yield about ten parts; with the fatty matters; and lastly, with those minute, round bodies which float in myriads in the blood (which were discovered by the Dutch philosopher, Leuwenhock, as one of the first results of microscopical observation, about the middle of the seventeenth century), and which are called the blood globules or corpuscles. These last-named bodies are, in fact, cells; their discs, when natural, have a smooth outline, they are depressed in the centre, and they are red in color; the color of the blood being derived from them. We have discovered that there exist other corpuscles or cells in the blood in much smaller quantity, which are called white cells, and these different cells float in the blood-stream within the vessels. The red take the centre of the stream; the white lie externally near the sides of the vessels, moving less quickly. Our business is mainly with the red corpuscles. They perform the most important functions in the economy; they absorb, in great part, the oxygen which we inhale in breathing, and carry it to the extreme tissues of the body; they absorb, in great part, the carbonic acid gas which is produced in the combustion of the body in the extreme tissues, and bring that gas back to the lungs to be exchanged for oxygen there; in short, they are the vital instruments of the circulation. "With all these parts of the blood, with the water, fibrine, albumen, salts, fatty matter and corpuscles, the alcohol comes in contact when it enters the blood, and, if it be in sufficient quantity, it produces disturbing action. I have watched this disturbance very carefully on the blood corpuscles; for, in some animals we can see these floating along during life, and we can also observe them from men who are under the effects of alcohol, by removing a speck of blood, and examining it with the microscope. The action of the alcohol, when it is observable, is varied. It may cause the corpuscles to run too closely together, and to adhere in rolls; it may modify their outline, making the clear-defined, smooth, outer edge irregular or crenate, or even starlike; it may change the round corpuscle into the oval form, or, in very extreme cases, it may produce what I may call a truncated form of corpuscles, in which the change is so great that if we did not trace it through all its stages, we should be puzzled to know whether the object looked at were indeed a blood-cell. All these changes are due to the action of the spirit upon the water contained in the corpuscles; upon the capacity of the spirit to extract water from them. During every stage of modification of corpuscles thus described, their function to absorb and fix gases is impaired, and when the aggregation of the cells, in masses, is great, other difficulties arise, for the cells, united together, pass less easily than they should through the minute vessels of the lungs and of the general circulation, and impede the current, by which local injury is produced. "A further action upon the blood, instituted by alcohol in excess, is upon the fibrine or the plastic colloidal matter. On this the spirit may act in two different ways, according to the degree in which it affects the water that holds the fibrine in solution. It may fix the water with the fibrine, and thus destroy the power of coagulation; or it may extract the water so determinately as to produce coagulation."

         
    Effect of alcohol on the membranes

     

    EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE MEMBRANES. The parts which first suffer from alcohol are those expansions of the body which the anatomists call the membranes. "The skin is a membranous envelope. Through the whole of the alimentary surface, from the lips downward, and through the bronchial passages to their minutest ramifications, extends the mucous membrane. The lungs, the heart, the liver, the kidneys are folded in delicate membranes, which can be stripped easily from these parts.

    If you take a portion of bone, you will find it easy to strip off from it a membranous sheath or covering; if you examine a joint, you will find both the head and the socket lined with membranes. The whole of the intestines are enveloped in a fine membrane called peritoneum . All the muscles are enveloped in membranes, and the fasciculi, or bundles and fibres of muscles, have their membranous sheathing.

    The brain and spinal cord are enveloped in three membranes; one nearest to themselves, a pure vascular structure, a network of blood-vessels; another, a thin serous structure; a third, a strong fibrous structure. The eyeball is a structure of colloidal humors and membranes, and of nothing else. To complete the description, the minute structures of the vital organs are enrolled in membranous matter." These membranes are the filters of the body. "In their absence there could be no building of structure, no solidification of tissue, nor organic mechanism. Passive themselves, they, nevertheless, separate all structures into their respective positions and adaptations." Membranous deteriorations. ------------------------- In order to make perfectly clear to your mind the action and use of these membranous expansions, and the way in which alcohol deteriorates them, and obstructs their work, we quote again from Dr. Richardson: "The animal receives from the vegetable world and from the earth the food and drink it requires for its sustenance and motion. It receives colloidal food for its muscles: combustible food for its motion; water for the solution of its various parts; salt for constructive and other physical purposes. These have all to be arranged in the body; and they are arranged by means of the membranous envelopes. Through these membranes nothing can pass that is not, for the time, in a state of aqueous solution, like water or soluble salts. Water passes freely through them, salts pass freely through them, but the constructive matter of the active parts that is colloidal does not pass; it is retained in them until it is chemically decomposed into the soluble type of matter. When we take for our food a portion of animal flesh, it is first resolved, in digestion, into a soluble fluid before it can be absorbed; in the blood it is resolved into the fluid colloidal condition; in the solids it is laid down within the membranes into new structure, and when it has played its part, it is digested again, if I may so say, into a crystalloidal soluble substance, ready to be carried away and replaced by addition of new matter, then it is dialysed or passed through, the membranes into the blood, and is disposed of in the excretions. "See, then, what an all-important part these membranous structures play in the animal life. Upon their integrity all the silent work of the building up of the body depends. If these membranes are rendered too porous, and let out the colloidal fluids of the blood the albumen, for example the body so circumstanced, dies; dies as if it were slowly bled to death. If, on the contrary, they become condensed or thickened, or loaded with foreign material, then they fail to allow the natural fluids to pass through them. They fail to dialyse, and the result is, either an accumulation of the fluid in a closed cavity, or contraction of the substance inclosed within the membrane, or dryness of membrane in surfaces that ought to be freely lubricated and kept apart. In old age we see the effects of modification of membrane naturally induced; we see the fixed joint, the shrunken and feeble muscle, the dimmed eye, the deaf ear, the enfeebled nervous function. "It may possibly seem, at first sight, that I am leading immediately away from the subject of the secondary action of alcohol. It is not so. I am leading directly to it. Upon all these membranous structures alcohol exerts a direct perversion of action. It produces in them a thickening, a shrinking and an inactivity that reduces their functional power. That they may work rapidly and equally, they require to be at all times charged with water to saturation. If, into contact with them, any agent is brought that deprives them of water, then is their work interfered with; they cease to separate the saline constituents properly; and, if the evil that is thus started, be allowed to continue, they contract upon their contained matter in whatever organ it may be situated, and condense it. "In brief, under the prolonged influence of alcohol those changes which take place from it in the blood corpuscles, extend to the other organic parts, involving them in structural deteriorations, which are always dangerous, and are often ultimately fatal."

         
    Food poisoning

     

    FOOD POISONING Introduction: Food poisoning is an acute gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of a food material or a drink which contains the pathogenic micro organism or their toxins or poisonous chemicals. Food poisoning is common in hostels, hotels, communal feedings, and festivel seasons. A group of persons will be affected with same type of symptoms, and they give a history of consumption of a common food before few hours. Types of food poisoning 1) Bacterial food poisoning: Here the micro organisms called bacteria are responsible. The food material may contain the pathogenic bacteriae or their toxin and will be ingested along with the food. 2) Non bacterial food poisoning: Due to the presence of toxic chemicals like fertilizers, insectisides, heavy metals and ect. Since bacterial food poisoning is common it is discussed here. Bacterial food poisoning: All bacteria are not harmful. There are some pathogenic bacteria which secrete toxins and cause clinical manifestations. These organisms enter the human body through food articles or drinks. How food poisoning occures: 1) Presence of bacteria in the water. 2) The raw materials for the food may contain toxins. 3) Premises where the food is prepared may contain micro organisms or toxins. 4) Food handlers may have some infectious diseases. 5) Some animals like dogs, rats may contaminate the food. 6) If prepared food is kept in the room temperature for a long time and heated again can make a chance for food poisoning. 7) Purposely some body mixing toxins in the food. Some common bacterial food poisonings. 1) Salmonella food poisoning: There are three different varieties of salmonella bacteria.(salmonella typhimurium, salmonella cholera suis, salmonella enteritidis) These bacteria are present in milk, milk products and eggs. Symptoms of this food poisoning include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Fever is also common. 2) Botulism: This is the dangerous type of food poisoning caused by clostridium botulinum. The spores of these organisms are seen in the soil and enters the human body through pickles and canned fish ectpared to other food poisonings here vomiting and diarrhoea are rare Mainly the nervous system is affected. The symptoms starts with double vision, numbness with weakness. Later there will be paralysis with cardiac and respiratory failure ending in death. 3) Staphylococcal food poisoning: It is caused by staphylo coccus aureus. These organisms usually cause skin troubles like boils and eruptions. It causes mastitis in cow. Through the milk and milk products it enders and causes gastroenteritis. There will be vomiting, abdominal cramps with diarrhoea. 4) Closteridium food poisoning: This is caused by closteridium perfringens. They are present in stool, soil and water. They enter the body through, meat, meat dishes and egg ect. If food articles are cooked and kept in room temperature for a long time and heated again before eating can result this food poisoning. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps. 5) Bacillus cereus: The spores of these organisms can survive cooking and causes enteritis. Diarrhoea and vomiting is common in this infection. How to investigate food poisoning? 1) Examine each and every person affected. 2) Water sample should be tested. 3) Kitchen, store room and food samples should be examined. 4) The cook and food handlers should be questioned and examined. 5) Samples of vomitus and stool of all victims should be tested to identify the bacteria. How to prevent food poisoning:- 1) Only purified water should be used. 2) Hygiene should be maintained by all persons keeping contact with food. 3) Workers should use masks, cap and gloves during cooking and serving. 4) Sick individuals should not come in contact with food materials. 5) Kitchen and premises should be neat and clean. 5) Vessels should be washed with soap and hot water. 6) Should not keep the prepared food for a long time in room temperature. 7) All food materials should be kept in closed containers. 8) Animals like dog, cat, rat ect should not come in contact with food materials. 9) Vegetables should be washed before cooking. 10) Meat should be fresh and should be purchased from recognised slaughter house.

         
    Hernia

     

    HERNIA Introduction Hernia is an abnormal protrusion of internal organs through an abnormal opening in the wall of the cavity. A combination of increased pressure inside the body with weakness in the wall is responsible for this condition. In this condition internal organs or parts of organs are protruded out forming a swelling which will increase the size with coughing and lifting weight, and while passing stool and urine. In lying down position the swelling goes inside except in strangulated and irreducible hernia. Causes:- 1, Weakness in the body wall:-- a) Congenital weakness. b) Acquired weakness due to injuries, wasting of muscles, suppurative lesions in the wall and presence of weak natural openings, obesity, lack of exercise, repeated pregnancy. c) Surgical operation with improper suturing or sepsis of operated site. 2) Increased pressure inside the body. a) Chronic constipation. b) Recurrent cough. c) Weight lifting. d) Stricture of urethra. Common sites for hernia:-- Hernia can occure anywhere in the body. However there are some common sites for hernia. Due to the presence of hard bony covering chest wall is normally not affected. Hernia in the lower back is also rare due to spine and back muscles and tough ligaments and sheeths. The common site for hernia is abdominal wallpared to other parts the abdominal wall is weak due to the presence of some natural orifices. There are some areas wherein the abdominal muscles are weaker and thin and all these factors make a chance for herniation. The common sites for hernia are following. a) Inguinal hernia: Here the abdominal contents protrude through the inguinal canal (passage in the lower abdominal wall just above the inguinal ligament. It is seen on either side).This type is common in males. Initially the swelling comes only while straining and goes back while lying down. Later the large portion of intestine may come out which may not go back easily. b) Femoral hernia: This type of hernia is more in females. Here the abdominal contents pass through the femoral canal which is seen just below the junction between the thigh and lower abdominal wall(Inside the femoral triangle).The contents pass downwards and comes out through saphenous opening in the thigh and forms a swelling under the skin. c) Umbilical hernia: This is common in children. The umbilicus is the weaker part of the abdomen. The contents of the abdomen may protrude as a bulb like swelling while crying and defecating. d) Incisional hernia: These hernias are seen in operated sites. Due to improper suturing or sepsis the operated site becomes weak resulting in hernia. e) Epigastric hernia: Here the hearniation occures in the epigastrium. It is a rare type. f) Lumbar hernia: Here the hernia appear in the lumbar area on either side of the lumbar spine(in the lumbar triangle).This is also a rare type. g) Obturator hernia: This is a rare type of hernia. Here the contents pass through obturator foramen in the pelvic bone. Complications of hernia:-- 1) Strangulation: If the hernial orifice is narrow the abdominal contents may not go back easily, and later the blood flow to the herniated tissues may be blocked due to constricition. This can cause death of protruded intestine. 2) Intestinal obstruction: This occures when the whole portion of the intestine is protruded in to the hernial sac. The narrow hernial orifice will block the passage of bowels. 3) Infection and peritonitis: If there is strangulation with death of a portion of intestine there will be spread of infection to the abdomen resulting in peritonitis. Treatment of hernia:-- Initial treatment: In the initial stages of hernia the following steps may be useful 1) Use of hernia belt: Special types of hernia belts are available for each type of heania. This will prevent the protrusion and will reduce pain. 2) Constipation, recurrent cough, urinary obstruction ect should be treated. 3) Fat reduction will increase the strength of abdominal wall. 4) Abdominal exercises to increase the muscle tone. 5) Take plenty of leafy vegetables, fruits and fibrous diet for easy bowel movements. 6) Try other systems like Homoeopathy, Herbal medicine and ect If no relief by the above steps consult a general surgeon for surgical management. Surgical treatment. The following operations are done depending up on the type and nature of hernia. 1) Hertniotomy : In this operation the contents of hernial sac is pushed in to the abdomen and neck of the sac is ligated with transfixion ligature and the sac is cut off. 2) Herniorrhaphy: Here along with herniotomy the posterior wall is repaired. 3) Hernioplasty: This operation is done if herniotomy is not possible due to wide neck of the sac. Here the repair is done with the healp of non absorbable materials like tantalum gauze, polypropylene mesh or stainless steel mesh.

         
    Homoeo

     

    HOMOEOPATHY - Introduction Homoeopathy is a system of medicine introduced by a german physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann. He was basically an allopathic doctor who has left the practise because of side effects and temporary relief of symptoms of allopathy. For his bread and butter he started translating the medical books to different languages. While he was translating cullen's materia medica he came across a herbal medicine called cinchona. It was written that cinchona can cure malaria and it can also produce symptoms similar to malaria on healthy individuals. This point clicked hahnemann's brain and he prepared an extract of cinchona bark and taken himself. To his surprise he developed some symptoms of malaria like chills and achings. He started doing the same experiment on different individuals and the result was the same. By this experiment hahnemann came to know that any drug which can produce a set of symptoms on a healthy humanbeing can be used to cure the similar symptoms in a diseased person. He gave cinchona to various malaria patients and the result was wonderful and a system called homoeopathy originated. The word homoeo means similar, pathy means suffering. The basic principle of homoeopathy is 'similia similibus curantur' means like cures cure. Hahnemann prepared some other drugs using alcohol as a vehicle and started experimenting on different age groups and noted down the symptoms produced in them. He proved nearly 30 drugs and the symptoms produced were noted down systematically. The symptoms collected by drug proving were categorised in the order in a book form named materia medica pura. Hahnemann noticed that by diluting the crude drug substences in spirit a dynamic power is developed and is responsible for producing the symptoms on healthy people. Hahnemann started giving treatement to somany diseased persons with the medicines prepared by him on applying the principle similia similibus curantur and got wonderful cures and homoeopathy started spreading all over the world. He gave medicines to some patients and noticed that symptoms are coming back again. So he understood that the cause for the disease should be treated. After doing experiments and observations he came to know that diseases are actually caused by some dynamic forces and he named them as miasms.[psora, syphilis, sycosis] He noticed that to cure a person completely these miasms should be eradicated using a similar dynamic force. This idea lead to antimiasmatic drugs which are drugs having disease producing power similar to miasms. He developed anti miasmatic drugs and experimented on diseased persons and got wonderful cures. Developement of homoeopathy The principles of homoeopathy was written in book form and he named it organon of medicine. Lateron he started publishing these works and six editions of organon were published. Right from the beginning of homoeopathy somany doctors of other system started working against homoeopathy. But those who were against homoeopathy lateron came to know the truth behind homoeopathy and started practising the same. Physicians like Dr J T Kent, Dr Hering, Dr Boenonghausen ect followed Dr hahnemann's mission and developed the system. They all started preparing somany other drugs on the basis of guidlines given by Hahnemann. Physicians came to know that by diluting the drug substance in spirit in a systematic way the medicinal power is increasing eventhough the quantity of drug decreases. Since diseases are due to dynamic causes the medicine also should be dynamic. By a process called potentisation same drug in different levels of potencies were made. They found that by increasing the potency the penetrating power of medicine is increased so that it act on a higher level than the usual material form of drugs used in other systems. This unique nature of homoeopathic medicine is the reason for the wonderful cures of even the mental diseases. General principles Homoeopathy treats the diseased individual as a whole rather than treating diseased parts or organs. The physical, mental, emotional, social spheres of a person is considered for a permanent cure. This system believes that the diseases are caused due to the derangement of vital force which is an invisible power in every individual. In a healthy state the vital force maintains the equilibrium of mind body and soul. During this man will have normal sensations and functions. When the vital force gets affected there will be external manifestations in the form of signs and symptoms. The imbalance in the body functions makes a shelter for forign organisms(bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa ect) and allow them to proliferate &produce so called diseases. Homoeopathy believes thet the real desease comes before the bacteria & viruses, hence the root cause of the disease has to be treated for a permenent cure. The antibacterial and antiviral agents only remove the secondary causes mentioned above. Diseases are produced by noxious morbific agents called Miasms which are dynamic influences which affect the vital force. There are mainly three miasms PSORA, SYPHILIS&SYCOSIS. These three causes are accepted by other schools of medicine but called by different names. Psora causes functional disturbances, syphilis causes structural changes in the form of destructions and sycosis causes changes in the form of overgrowth. These three miasms can act individually or in combined form to produce different disease conditions. Preperation of medicine in homoeopathy In homoeopathy medicines are prepared from different sources like minerals, plants, animals, toxins, diseased parts ect. Medicines are prepared from these substances by a special process called potentisation. Here the soluble substances are potentised by diluting(mixing with spirit with a downward stroke) with spirit and insoluble substances by grinding(trituration) with sugar of milk. The crude drug substance is first mixed with a calculated quantity of spirit and water and kept for few days. From this mixture extract is taken and is called mother tincture(denoted as Q).From this mother tincture dilutions are prepared by potentisation. Potentisation is a mathematical process by which the quantity of original drug substance reduces but medicinal power increases. Depending upon the ratio of quantity of drug substance and vehicle(spirit or sugar of milk)there are different scales for this process. Each scale has got different potencies which indicate power of medicine. Example in decimal scale the drug substance vehicle ratio is1/10 and the availables potencies are 3x,6x.12x ect. In centismal scale the ratio is 1/100 and the available potencies are 30c,200c ect, in LM potency the ratio is 1/50000 and the available potencies are 0/1,0/2,0/3 ect. Potency is written after the name of every medicine Same medicine is available in different potencies. Suitable potency is selected according to so many facters like severity, depth of disease, condition of the patient, nature of disease, type of symptoms, age of patient and ect. Subjects studied in homoeopathy:- History of medicine History & developement of homoeopathy Pioneers of homoeopathy Organon of medicine Homoeopathic philosophy Materia medica Homoeopathic pharmacy & pharmacognosy Homoeopathic repertory Homoeopathic case taking Homoeopathic therapeutics General medical subjects: ( Anatomy, physiology, pathology, microbiology, parasitology, toxicology, forensic medicine, social & preventive medicine, surgery, ENT, gynaecology & obstetrics, opthalmology, dentistry, orthopedics, surgery, general medicine, pediatrics, dermatology, psychiatry and ect) Homoeopathic case taking and prescription. Cure by a homoeopathic medicine is rapid, gentle and permenent if correct remedy in suitable dose is given. . Just giving one drug for one disease (specific drugs)may not give good result. To come to a correct remedial diagnosis we should have the symptomatology of the person. It is the total symptoms of a person which includes mental generals, physical generals, particular symptoms ect. All signs and symptoms (mental&physical)of the person is taken in detail. Knowledge about past illness, family history of diseases, food & bowel habits, notable causes, relation to climatic changes and constitution ect are noted down in a systematic order. Mental symptoms: Example: fear, anxiety, depression, anger, jealousy and ect.... Physical symptoms: Example: Body makeup, appetite, thirst, desires, aversions, bowels, urination, sleep, taste, nature of smell, discharges any abnormal sensations like pain, burning, climatic changes, thermal relations, and etc... Peculiar uncommon symptoms: This is the speciality of homoeopathic system of medicine. For the selection of a suitable remedy these symptoms are very importantmon symptoms which are seen almost in all patients are least important. This is the reason for giving different medicines to different individuals suffering from same disease. Example: Five people suffering from typhoid may get five different remedies because of changes of individual symptoms. Particular/local signs&symptoms: This include signs &symptoms related to body parts &organs. Example: Part affected, any swelling, discolouration ect. Systemic examination:- Different systems are examined in a systematic order.(Respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, cardio vascular system and ect....) Vital signs Pulse, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate ect are checked here. General physical examination: Here body parts are examined from head to foot to findout any changes. provisional disease diagnosis; Here probable diseases are diagnosed. In homoeopathy disease diagnosis is not that much important for the selection of a remedy, but needed for general management and to know the prognosis. Investigations : This includes lab investigations and other methods to find out any other major illnesses. Final disease diagnosis: After doing all investigations the disease is diagnosed. Remedial diagnosis: This is the most importnant part as far as homoeopathy is concerned. For this the selected symptoms are arranged in a systematic order on the basis of importance. Symptoms are analysed to find out the importance of each symptom for the selection of a remedy. Remedies are selected on the basis of similarity. Suitable remedies are diagnosed by a process called repertorisation. Here books called repertories are used. Repertory is the index of symptoms of materia medica(books which contain the symptoms of drugs).Nowadays computer softwares are used for repertorisalion. By this process we will get the remedies covering maximum important symptom of the patient. Amoung this group of remedies the most suitable remedy is selected by referring various books and considering the life space investigation of the patient..The selected medicine is given in suitable potency & dose. ANTI MIASMATIC TREATMENT: The root cause of disease is miasms which should be eradicated using suitable anti miasmatic drugs. Every drug can eradicate the miasm if there is symptom similarity. There are anti psoric drugs, anti syphilitic drugs and anti sycotic drugs. After diagnosing the miasm suitable anti miasmatic drug has to be given to complete the cure.

         
    How alcohol affects the brain

     

    HOW ALCOHOL AFFECTS THE BRAIN. I once had the unusual, though unhappy, opportunity of observing the same phenomenon in the brain structure of a man, who, in a paroxysm of alcoholic excitement, decapitated himself under the wheel of a railway carriage, and whose brain was instantaneously evolved from the skull by the crash. The brain itself, entire, was before me within three minutes after the death. It exhaled the odor of spirit most distinctly, and its membranes and minute structures were vascular in the extreme.

    It looked as if it had been recently injected with vermilion. The white matter of the cerebrum, studded with red points, could scarcely be distinguished, when it was incised, by its natural whiteness; and the pia-mater, or internal vascular membrane covering the brain, resembled a delicate web of coagulated red blood, so tensely were its fine vessels engorged. I should add that this condition extended through both the larger and the smaller brain, the cerebrum and cerebellum, but was not so marked in the medulla or commencing portion of the spinal cord. The spinal cord and nerves. -------------------------- The action of alcohol continued beyond the first stage, the function of the spinal cord is influenced. Through this part of the nervous system we are accustomed, in health, to perform automatic acts of a mechanical kind, which proceed systematically even when we are thinking or speaking on other subjects. Thus a skilled workman will continue his mechanical work perfectly, while his mind is bent on some other subject; and thus we all perform various acts in a purely automatic way, without calling in the aid of the higher centres, except something more than ordinary occurs to demand their service, upon which we think before we perform. Under alcohol, as the spinal centres become influenced, these pure automatic acts cease to be correctly carried on. That the hand may reach any object, or the foot be correctly planted, the higher intellectual centre must be invoked to make the proceeding secure. There follows quickly upon this a deficient power of co-ordination of muscular movement. The nervous control of certain of the muscles is lost, and the nervous stimulus is more or less enfeebled. The muscles of the lower lip in the human subject usually fail first of all, then the muscles of the lower limbs, and it is worthy of remark that the extensor muscles give way earlier than the flexors. The muscles themselves, by this time, are also failing in power; they respond more feebly than is natural to the nervous stimulus; they, too, are coming under the depressing influence of the paralyzing agent, their structure is temporarily deranged, and their contractile power reduced. This modification of the animal functions under alcohol, marks the second degree of its action. In young subjects, there is now, usually, vomiting with faintness, followed by gradual relief from the burden of the poison. Effect on the brain centres. ---------------------------- The alcoholic spirit carried yet a further degree, the cerebral or brain centres become influenced; they are reduced in power, and the controlling influences of will and of judgment are lost. As these centres are unbalanced and thrown into chaos, the rational part of the nature of the man gives way before the emotional, passional or organic part. The reason is now off duty, or is fooling with duty, and all the mere animal instincts and sentiments are laid atrociously bare. The coward shows up more craven, the braggart more boastful, the cruel more merciless, the untruthful more false, the carnal more degraded. ' In vino veritas ' expresses, even, indeed, to physiological accuracy, the true condition. The reason, the emotions, the instincts, are all in a state of carnival, and in chaotic feebleness. Finally, the action of the alcohol still extending, the superior brain centres are overpowered; the senses are beclouded, the voluntary muscular prostration is perfected, sensibility is lost, and the body lies a mere log, dead by all but one-fourth, on which alone its life hangs. The heart still remains true to its duty, and while it just lives it feeds the breathing power. And so the circulation and the respiration, in the otherwise inert mass, keeps the mass within the bare domain of life until the poison begins to pass away and the nervous centres to revive again. It is happy for the inebriate that, as a rule, the brain fails so long before the heart that he has neither the power nor the sense to continue his process of destruction up to the act of death of his circulation. Therefore he lives to die another day.

         
    How alcohol causes mental and moral changes

     

    HOW ALCOHOL CAUSES MENTAL AND MORAL CHANGES. The transforming power or alcohol is marvelous, and often appalling. It seems to open a way of entrance into the soul for all classes of foolish, insane or malignant spirits, who, so long as it remains in contact with the brain, are able to hold possession. Men of the kindest nature when sober, act often like fiends when drunk. Crimes and outrages are committed, which shock and shame the perpetrators when the excitement of inebriation has passed away. Referring to this subject, Dr. Henry Munroe says: "It appears from the experience of Mr. Fletcher, who has paid much attention to the cases of drunkards, from the remarks of Mr. Dunn, in his 'Medical Psychology,' and from observations of my own, that there is some analogy between our physical and psychical natures; for, as the physical part of us, when its power is at a low ebb, becomes susceptible of morbid influences which, in full vigor, would pass over it without effect, so when the psychical (synonymous with the moral ) part of the brain has its healthy function disturbed and deranged by the introduction of a morbid poison like alcohol, the individual so circumstanced sinks in depravity, and "becomes the helpless subject of the forces of evil, "which are powerless against a nature free from the morbid influences of alcohol." Different persons are affected in different ways by the same poison. Indulgence in alcoholic drinks may act upon one or more of the cerebral organs; and, as its necessary consequence, the manifestations of functional disturbance will follow in such of the mental powers as these organs subserve. If the indulgence be continued, then, either from deranged nutrition or organic lesion, manifestations formerly developed only during a fit of intoxication may become permanent , and terminate in insanity or dypso-mania. M. Flourens first pointed out the fact that certain morbific agents, when introduced into the current of the circulation, tend to act primarily and specially on one nervous centre in preference to that of another, by virtue of some special elective affinity between such morbific agents and certain ganglia. Thus, in the tottering gait of the tipsy man, we see the influence of alcohol upon the functions of the cerebellum in the impairment of its power of co-ordinating the muscles. Certain writers on diseases of the mind make especial allusion to that form of insanity termed 'dypsomania', in which a person has an unquenchable thirst for alcoholic drinks a tendency as decidedly maniacal as that of homicidal mania ; or the uncontrollable desire to burn, termed pyromania ; or to steal, called kleptomania. Homicidal mania. --------------- The different tendencies of homicidal mania in different individuals are often only nursed into action when the current of the blood has been poisoned with alcohol. I had a case of a person who, whenever his brain was so excited, told me that he experienced a most uncontrollable desire to kill or injure some one; so much so, that he could at times hardly restrain himself from the action, and was obliged to refrain from all stimulants, lest, in an unlucky moment, he might commit himself. Townley, who murdered the young lady of his affections, for which he was sentenced to be imprisoned in a lunatic asylum for life, poisoned his brain with brandy and soda-water before he committed the rash act. The brandy stimulated into action certain portions of the brain, which acquired such a power as to subjugate his will, and hurry him to the performance of a frightful deed, opposed alike to his better judgment and his ordinary desires. As to pyromania , some years ago I knew a laboring man in a country village, who, whenever he had had a few glasses of ale at the public-house, would chuckle with delight at the thought of firing certain gentlemen's stacks. Yet, when his brain was free from the poison, a quieter, better-disposed man could not be. Unfortunately, he became addicted to habits of intoxication; and, one night, under alcoholic excitement, fired some stacks belonging to his employers, for which, he was sentenced for fifteen years to a penal settlement, where his brain would never again be alcoholically excited. Kleptomania. ----------- Next, I will give an example of kleptomania . I knew, many years ago, a very clever, industrious and talented young man, who told me that whenever he had been drinking, he could hardly withstand, the temptation of stealing anything that came in his way; but that these feelings never troubled him at other times. One afternoon, after he had been indulging with his fellow-workmen in drink, his will, unfortunately, was overpowered, and he took from the mansion where he was working some articles of worth, for which he was accused, and afterwards sentenced to a term of imprisonment. When set at liberty he had the good fortune to be placed among some kind-hearted persons, vulgarly called teetotallers ; and, from conscientious motives, signed the PLEDGE, now above twenty years ago. From that time to the present moment he has never experienced the overmastering desire which so often beset him in his drinking days to take that which was not his own. Moreover, no pretext on earth could now entice him to taste of any liquor containing alcohol, feeling that, under its influence, he might again fall its victim. He holds an influential position in the town where he resides. I have known some ladies of good position in society, who, after a dinner or supper-party, and after having taken sundry glasses of wine, could not withstand the temptation of taking home any little article not their own, when the opportunity offered; and who, in their sober moments, have returned them, as if taken by mistake. We have many instances recorded in our police reports of gentlemen of position, under the influence of drink, committing thefts of the most paltry articles, afterwards returned to the owners by their friends, which can only be accounted for, psychologically, by the fact that the will had been for the time completely overpowered by the subtle influence of alcohol. Loss of mental clearness. ------------------------ Alcohol, whether taken in large or small doses, immediately disturbs the natural functions of the mind and body, is now conceded by the most eminent physiologists. Dr. Brinton says: 'Mental acuteness, accuracy of conception, and delicacy of the senses, are all so far opposed by the action of alcohol, as that the maximum efforts of each are incompatible with the ingestion of any moderate quantity of fermented liquid. Indeed, there is scarcely any calling which demands skillful and exact effort of mind and body, or which requires the balanced exercise of many faculties, that does not illustrate this rule. The mathematician, the gambler, the metaphysician, the billiard-player, the author, the artist, the physician, would, if they could analyze their experience aright, generally concur in the statement, that a single glass will often suffice to take , so to speak, the edge off both mind and body , and to reduce their capacity to something below what is relatively their perfection of work. A train was driven carelessly into one of the principal London stations, running into another train, killing, by the collision, six or seven persons, and injuring many others. From the evidence at the inquest, it appeared that the guard was reckoned sober, only he had had two glasses of ale with a friend at a previous station. Now, reasoning psychologically, these two glasses of ale had probably been instrumental in taking off the edge from his perceptions and prudence, and producing a carelessness or boldness of action which would not have occurred under the cooling, temperate influence of a beverage free from alcohol. Many persons have admitted to me that they were not the same after taking even one glass of ale or wine that they were before, and could not thoroughly trust themselves after they had taken this single glass. Impairment of memory. --------------------- An impairment of the memory is among the early symptoms of alcoholic derangement. "This," says Dr. Richardson, "extends even to forgetfulness of the commonest things; to names of familiar persons, to dates, to duties of daily life. Strangely, too," he adds, "this failure, like that which indicates, in the aged, the era of second childishness and mere oblivion, does not extend to the things of the past, but is confined to events that are passing. On old memories the mind retains its power; on new ones it requires constant prompting and sustainment." In this failure of memory nature gives a solemn warning that imminent peril is at hand. Well for the habitual drinker if he heed the warning. Should he not do so, symptoms of a more serious character will, in time, develop themselves, as the brain becomes more and more diseased, ending, it may be, in permanent insanity. Mental and moral diseases. -------------------------- Of the mental and moral diseases which too often follow the regular drinking of alcohol, we have painful records in asylum reports, in medical testimony and in our daily observation and experience. These are so full and varied, and thrust so constantly on our attention, that the wonder is that men are not afraid to run the terrible risks involved even in what is called the moderate use of alcoholic beverages. In 1872, a select committee of the House of Commons, appointed "to consider the best plan for the control and management of habitual drunkards," called upon some of the most eminent medical men in Great Britain to give their testimony in answer to a large number of questions, embracing every topic within the range of inquiry, from the pathology of inebriation to the practical usefulness of prohibitory laws. In this testimony much was said about the effect of alcoholic stimulation on the mental condition and moral character. One physician, Dr. James Crichton Brown, who, in ten years' experience as superintendent of lunatic asylums, has paid special attention to the relations of habitual drunkenness to insanity, having carefully examined five hundred cases, testified that alcohol, taken in excess, produced different forms of mental disease, of which he mentioned four classes: 1. Mania a potu , or alcoholic mania. 2. The monomania of suspicion. 3. Chronic alcoholism, characterized by failure of the memory and power of judgment, with partial paralysis generally ending fatally. 4. Dypsomania, or an irresistible craving for alcoholic stimulants, occuring very frequently, paroxysmally, and with constant liability to periodical exacerbations, when the craving becomes altogether uncontrollable. Of this latter form of disease, he says: "This is invariably associated with a certain impairment of the intellect, and of the affections and the moral powers ." Dr. Alexander Peddie, a physician of over thirty-seven years' practice in Edinburgh, gave, in his evidence, many remarkable instances of the moral perversions that followed continued drinking. Relation between insanity and drunkenness. ----------------------------------------- Dr. John Nugent said that his experience of twenty-six years among lunatics, led him to believe that there is a very close relation between the results of the abuse of alcohol and insanity. The population of Ireland had decreased, he said, two millions in twenty-five years, but there was the same amount of insanity now that there was before. He attributed this, in a great measure, to indulgence in drink. Dr. Arthur Mitchell, Commissioner of Lunacy for Scotland, testified that the excessive use of alcohol caused a large amount of the lunacy, crime and pauperism of that country. In some men, he said, habitual drinking leads to other diseases than insanity, because the effect is always in the direction of the proclivity, but it is certain that there are many in whom there is a clear proclivity to insanity, who would escape that dreadful consummation but for drinking; excessive drinking in many persons determining the insanity to which they are, at any rate, predisposed . The children of drunkards, he further said, are in a larger proportion idiotic than other children, and in a larger proportion become themselves drunkards; they are also in a larger proportion liable to the ordinary forms of acquired insanity. Dr. Winslow Forbes believed that in the habitual drunkard the whole nervous structure, and the brain especially, became poisoned by alcohol. All the mental symptoms which you see accompanying ordinary intoxication, he remarks, result from the poisonous effects of alcohol on the brain. It is the brain which is mainly effected. In temporary drunkenness, the brain becomes in an abnormal state of alimentation, and if this habit is persisted in for years, the nervous tissue itself becomes permeated with alcohol, and organic changes take place in the nervous tissues of the brain, producing that frightful and dreadful chronic insanity which we see in lunatic asylums, traceable entirely to habits of intoxication . A large percentage of frightful mental and brain disturbances can, he declared, be traced to the drunkenness of parents. Dr. D. G. Dodge, late of the New York State Inebriate Asylum, who, with. Dr. Joseph Parrish, gave testimony before the committee of the House of Commons, said, in one of his answers: "With the excessive use of alcohol, functional disorder will invariably appear, and no organ will be more seriously affected, and possibly impaired, than the brain. This is shown in the inebriate by a weakened intellect, a general debility of the mental faculties , a partial or total loss of self-respect, and a departure of the power of self-command; all of which, acting together, place the victim at the mercy of a depraved and morbid appetite, and make him utterly powerless, by his own unaided efforts, to secure his recovery from the disease which is destroying him." And he adds: "I am of opinion that there is a "great similarity between inebriety and insanity. "I am decidedly of opinion that the former has taken its place in the family of diseases as prominently as its twin-brother insanity; and, in my opinion, the day is not far distant when the pathology of the former will be as fully understood and as successfully treated as the latter, and even more successfully, since it is more within the reach and bounds of human control, which, wisely exercised and scientifically administered, may prevent curable inebriation from verging into possible incurable insanity." General impairment of the faculties. ----------------------------------- Dr. Richardson, speaking of the action of alcohol on the mind, gives the following sad picture of its ravages: "An analysis of the condition of the mind induced and maintained by the free daily use of alcohol as a drink, reveals a singular order of facts. The manifestation fails altogether to reveal the exaltation of any reasoning power in a useful or satisfactory direction. I have never met with an instance in which such a claim for alcohol has been made. On the contrary, confirmed alcoholics constantly say that for this or that work, requiring thought and attention, it is necessary to forego some of the usual potations in order to have a cool head for hard work. "On the other side, the experience is overwhelmingly in favor of the observation that the use of "alcohol sells the reasoning powers, "make weak men and women the easy prey of the wicked and strong, and leads men and women who should know better into every grade of misery and vice. If, then, alcohol enfeebles the reason, what part of the mental constitution does it exalt and excite? It excites and exalts those animal, organic, emotional centres of mind which, in the dual nature of man, so often cross and oppose that pure and abstract reasoning nature which lifts man above the lower animals, and rightly exercised, little lower than the angels. It excites man's worst passions. -------------------------------- Exciting these animal centres, it lets loose all the passions, and gives them more or less of unlicensed dominion over the man. It excites anger, and when it does not lead to this extreme, it keeps the mind fretful, irritable, dissatisfied and captious.... And if I were to take you through all the passions, love, hate, lust, envy, avarice and pride, I should but show you that alcohol ministers to them all; that, paralyzing the reason, it takes from off these passions that fine adjustment of reason, which places man above the lower animals. From the beginning to the end of its influence it subdues reason and sets the passions free. The analogies, physical and mental, are perfect. That which loosens the tension of the vessels which feed the body with due order and precision, and, thereby, lets loose the heart to violent excess and unbridled motion, loosens, also, the reason and lets loose the passion. In both instances, heart and head are, for a time, out of harmony; their balance broken. The man descends closer and closer to the lower animals. From the angels he glides farther and farther away. A sad and terrible picture. --------------------------- The destructive effects of alcohol on the human mind present, finally, the saddest picture of its influence. The most aesthetic artist can find no angel here. All is animal, and animal of the worst type. Memory irretrievably lost, words and very elements of speech forgotten or words displaced to have no meaning in them. Rage and anger persistent and mischievous, or remittent and impotent. Fear at every corner of life, distrust on every side, grief merged into blank despair, hopelessness into permanent melancholy. Surely no Pandemonium that ever poet dreamt of could equal that which would exist if all the drunkards of the world were driven into one mortal sphere. As I have moved among those who are physically stricken with alcohol, and have detected under the various disguises of name the fatal diseases, the pains and penalties it imposes on the body, the picture has been sufficiently cruel. But even that picture pales, as I conjure up, without any stretch of imagination, the devastations which the same agent inflicts on the mind. Forty per cent., the learned Superintendent of Colney Hatch, Dr. Sheppard, tells us, of those who were brought into that asylum in 1876, were so brought because of the direct or indirect effects of alcohol. If the facts of all the asylums were collected with equal care, the same tale would, I fear, be told. What need we further to show the destructive action on the human mind? The Pandemonium of drunkards; the grand transformation scene of that pantomime of drink which commences with, moderation! Let it never more be forgotten by those who love their fellow-men until, through their efforts, it is closed forever."

         
    How alcohol retards digestion

     

    HOW ALCOHOL RETARDS DIGESTION. And here, in order to give those who are not familiar with, the process of digestion, a clear idea of that important operation, and the effect produced when alcohol is taken with food, we quote from the lecture of an English physician, Dr. Henry Monroe, on "The Physiological Action of Alcohol." He says: "Every kind of substance employed by man as food consists of sugar, starch, oil and glutinous matters, mingled together in various proportions; these are designed for the support of the animal frame. The glutinous principles of food fibrine, albumen and casein are employed to build up the structure; while the oil, starch and sugar are chiefly used to generate heat in the body. "The first step of the digestive process is the breaking up of the food in the mouth by means of the jaws and teeth. On this being done, the saliva, a viscid liquor, is poured into the mouth from the salivary glands, and as it mixes with the food, it performs a very important part in the operation of digestion, rendering the starch of the food soluble, and gradually changing it into a sort of sugar, after which the other principles become more miscible with it. Nearly a pint of saliva is furnished every twenty-four hours for the use of an adult. When the food has been masticated and mixed with the saliva, it is then passed into the stomach, where it is acted upon by a juice secreted by the filaments of that organ, and poured into the stomach in large quantities whenever food comes in contact with its mucous coats. It consists of a dilute acid known to the chemists as hydrochloric acid, composed of hydrogen and chlorine, united together in certain definite proportions. The gastric juice contains, also, a peculiar organic-ferment or decomposing substance, containing nitrogen something of the nature of yeast termed pepsine , which is easily soluble in the acid just named. That gastric juice acts as a simple chemical solvent, is proved by the fact that, after death, it has been known to dissolve the stomach itself." It is an error to suppose that, after a good dinner, a glass of spirits or beer assists digestion; or that any liquor containing alcohol even bitter beer can in any way assist digestion. Mix some bread and meat with gastric juice; place them in a phial, and keep that phial in a sand-bath at the slow heat of 98 degrees, occasionally shaking briskly the contents to imitate the motion of the stomach; you will find, after six or eight hours, the whole contents blended into one pultaceous mass. If to another phial of food and gastric juice, treated in the same way, I add a glass of pale ale or a quantity of alcohol, at the end of seven or eight hours, or even some days, the food is scarcely acted upon at all. This is a fact; and if you are led to ask why, I answer, because alcohol has the peculiar power of chemically affecting or decomposing the gastric juice by precipitating one of its principal constituents, viz., pepsine, rendering its solvent properties much less efficacious. Hence alcohol can not be considered either as food or as a solvent for food. Not as the latter certainly, for it refuses to act with the gastric juice. "'It is a remarkable fact,' says Dr. Dundas Thompson, 'that alcohol, when added to the digestive fluid, produces a white precipitate, so that the fluid is no longer capable of digesting animal or vegetable matter.' 'The use of alcoholic stimulants,' say Drs. Todd and Bowman, 'retards digestion by coagulating the pepsine, an essential element of the gastric juice, and thereby interfering with its action. Were it not that wine and spirits are rapidly absorbed, the introduction of these into the stomach, in any quantity, would be a complete bar to the digestion of food, as the pepsine would be precipitated from the solution as quickly as it was formed by the stomach.' Spirit, in any quantity, as a dietary adjunct, is pernicious on account of its antiseptic qualities, which resist the digestion of food by the absorption of water from its particles, in direct antagonism to chemical operation."

         
    Medical testimony on alcohol

     

    MEDICAL TESTIMONY ON ALCOHOL. Dr. Ezra M. Hunt says: "The capacity of the alcohols for impairment of functions and the initiation and promotion of organic lesions in vital parts, is unsurpassed by any record in the whole range of medicine. The facts as to this are so indisputable, and so far granted by the profession, as to be no longer debatable . Changes in stomach and liver, in kidneys and lungs, in the blood-vessels to the minutest capillary, and in the blood to the smallest red and white blood disc disturbances of secretion, fibroid and fatty degenerations in almost every organ, impairment of muscular power, impressions so profound on both nervous systems as to be often toxic these, and such as these, are the oft manifested results. And these are not confined to those called intemperate." Professor Youmans says: "It is evident that, so far from being the conservator of health, alcohol is an active and powerful cause of disease, interfering, as it does, with the respiration, the circulation and the nutrition; now, is any other result possible?" Dr. F. R. Lees says: "That alcohol should contribute to the fattening process under certain conditions, and produce in drinkers fatty degeneration of the blood, follows, as a matter of course, since, on the one hand, we have an agent that retains waste matter by lowering the nutritive and excretory functions, and on the other, a direct poisoner of the vesicles of the vital stream." Dr. Henry Monroe says: "There is no kind of tissue, whether healthy or morbid, that may not undergo fatty degeneration; and there is no organic disease so troublesome to the medical man, or so difficult of cure. If, by the aid of the microscope, we examine a very fine section of muscle taken from a person in good health, we find the muscles firm, elastic and of a bright red color, made up of parallel fibres, with beautiful crossings or striae; but, if we similarly examine the muscle of a man who leads an idle, sedentary life, and indulges in intoxicating drinks, we detect, at once, a pale, flabby, inelastic, oily appearance. Alcoholic narcotization appears to produce this peculiar conditions of the tissues more than any other agent with which we are acquainted. 'Three-quarters of the chronic illness which the medical man has to treat,' says Dr. Chambers, 'are occasioned by this disease.' The eminent French analytical chemist, Lecanu, found as much as one hundred and seventeen parts of fat in one thousand parts of a drunkard's blood, the highest estimate of the quantity in health being eight and one-quarter parts, while the ordinary quantity is not more than two or three parts, so that the blood of the drunkard contains forty times in excess of the ordinary quantity." Dr. Hammond, who has written, in partial defense of alcohol as containing a food power, says: "When I say that it, of all other causes, is most prolific in exciting derangements of the brain, the spinal cord and the nerves, I make a statement which my own experience shows to be correct." Another eminent physician says of alcohol: "It substitutes suppuration for growth. It helps time to produce the effects of age; and, in a word, is the genius of degeneration." Dr. Monroe, from whom "Alcohol, taken in small quantities, or largely diluted, as in the form of beer, causes the stomach gradually to lose its tone, and makes it dependent upon artificial stimulus. Atony, or want of tone of the stomach, gradually supervenes, and incurable disorder of health results. Should a dose of alcoholic drink be taken daily, the heart will very often become hypertrophied, or enlarged throughout. Indeed, it is painful to witness how many persons are actually laboring under disease of the heart, owing chiefly to the use of alcoholic liquors." Dr. T. K. Chambers, physician to the Prince of Wales, says: "Alcohol is really the most ungenerous diet there is. It impoverishes the blood, and there is no surer road to that degeneration of muscular fibre so much to be feared; and in heart disease it is more especially hurtful, by quickening the beat, causing capillary congestion and irregular circulation, and thus mechanically inducing dilatation." Sir Henry Thompson, a distinguished surgeon, says: "Don't take your daily wine under any pretext of its doing you good. Take it frankly as a luxury one which must be paid for, by some persons very lightly, by some at a high price, but always to be paid for. And, mostly, some loss of health, or of mental power, or of calmness of temper, or of judgment, is the price." Dr. Charles Jewett says: "The late Prof. Parks, of England, in his great work on Hygiene, has effectually disposed of the notion, long and very generally entertained, that alcohol is a valuable prophylactic where a bad climate, bad water and other conditions unfavorable to health, exist; and an unfortunate experiment with the article, in the Union army, on the banks of the Chickahominy, in the year 1863, proved conclusively that, instead of guarding the human constitution against the influence of agencies hostile to health, its use gives to them additional force. The medical history of the British army in India teaches the same lesson." But why present farther testimony? Is not the evidence complete? To the man who values good health; who would not lay the foundation for disease and suffering in his later years, we need not offer a single additional argument in favor of entire abstinence from alcoholic drinks. He will eschew them as poisons.

         
    Mental disturbances caused by alcohol

     

    MENTAL DISTURBANCES CAUSED BY ALCOHOL. The physical disasters that follow the continued use of intoxicating beverages are sad enough, and terrible enough; but the surely attendant mental, moral and spiritual disasters are sadder and more terrible still. If you disturb the healthy condition of the brain, which is the physical organ through which the mind acts, you disturb the mind. It will not have the same clearness of perception as before; nor have the same rational control over the impulses and passions. Heavenly order in the body.

    -------------------------- In order to understand a subject clearly, certain general laws, or principles, must be seen and admitted. And here we assume, as a general truth, that health in the human body is normal heavenly order on the physical plane of life, and that any disturbance of that order exposes the man to destructive influences, which are evil and infernal in their character. Above the natural and physical plane, and resting upon it, while man lives in this world, is the mental and spiritual plane, or degree of life. This degree is in heavenly order when the reason is clear, and the appetites and passions under its wise control. But, if, through any cause, this fine equipoise is disturbed, or lost, then a way is opened for the influx of more subtle evil influences than such as invade the body, because they have power to act upon the reason and the passions, obscuring the one and inflaming the others. We know how surely the loss of bodily health results in mental disturbance. If the seat of disease be remote from the brain, the disturbance is usually slight; but it increases as the trouble comes nearer and nearer to that organ, and shows itself in multiform ways according to character, temperament or inherited disposition; but almost always in a predominance of what is evil instead of good. There will be fretfulness, or ill-nature, or selfish exactions, or mental obscurity, or unreasoning demands, or, it may be, vicious and cruel propensities, where, when the brain was undisturbed by disease, reason held rule with patience and loving kindness. If the disease which has attacked the brain goes on increasing, the mental disease which follows as a consequence of organic disturbance or deterioration, will have increased also, until insanity may be established in some one or more of its many sad and varied forms. Insanity. -------- It is, therefore, a very serious thing for a man to take into his body any substance which, on reaching that wonderfully delicate organ the brain, sets up therein a diseased action; for, diseased mental action is sure to follow. A fever is a fever, whether it be light or intensely burning; and so any disturbance of the mind's rational equipoise is insanity, whether it be in the simplest form of temporary obscurity, or in the midnight of a totally darkened intellect. We are not writing in the interest of any special theory, nor in the spirit of partisanship; but with an earnest desire to make the truth appear. You must not accept anything simply because we say it, but because he sees it to be true. Now, as to this matter of insanity, let him think calmly. The word is one that gives us a shock; and, as we hear it, we almost involuntarily thank God for the good gift of a well-balanced mind. What, if from any cause this beautiful equipoise should be disturbed and the mind lose its power to think clearly, or to hold the lower passions in due control? Shall we exceed the truth if we say that the man in whom this takes place is insane just in the degree that he has lost his rational self-control; and that he is restored when he regains that control? In this view, the question as to the hurtfulness of alcoholic drinks assumes a new and graver aspect. Do they disturb the brain when they come in contact with its substance; and deteriorate it if the contact be long continued? Fact, observation, experience and scientific investigation all emphatically say yes; and we know that if the brain be disordered the mind, will be disordered, likewise; and a disordered mind is an insane mind. Clearly, then, in the degree that a man impairs or hurts his brain temporarily or continuously in that degree his mind is unbalanced; in that degree he is not a truly rational and sane man. We are holding your thought just here that you may have time to think, and to look at the question in the light of reason and common sense. So far as he does this, will he be able to feel the force of such evidence as we shall educe in what follows, and to comprehend its true meaning. Other substances besides alcohol act injuriously on the brain; but there is none that compares with this in the extent, variety and diabolical aspect of the mental aberrations which follow its use. We are not speaking thoughtlessly or wildly; but simply uttering a truth well-known to every man of observation, and which every man, and especially those who take this substance in any form, should, lay deeply to heart. Why it is that such awful and destructive forms of insanity should follow, as they do, the use of alcohol it is not for us to say. That they do follow it, we know, and we hold, up the fact in solemn warning. Another consideration, which should have weight with every one, is this, that no man can tell what may be the character of the legacy he has received from his ancestors. He may have an inheritance of latent evil forces, transmitted through many generations, which only await some favoring opportunity to spring into life and action. So long as he maintains a rational self-control, and the healthy order of his life be not disturbed, they may continue quiescent; but if his brain loses its equipoise, or is hurt or impaired, then a diseased psychical condition may be induced and the latent evil forces be quickened into life.

         
     
         
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