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    English grammar really does matter

     

    Whether we are talking about a five year old that is about to start learning to read or whether we are talking about a thirty year old woman who is attempting to write a thesis for her master's degree, we cannot deny the fact that taking time to learn proper English grammar is important. When we see or hear about English grammar, the immediate reaction of many people I know is to cringe. They are reminded of junior high and high school English class and the way that their English teachers made them to English grammar exercise after exercise. Because English grammar is usually seen in such a negative sense, it is all the more important that people replace those lies with the truth that learning English grammar really is important for anyone who wants to have a proper perspective of the English language. When we are speaking or hearing English, not too many of us take the time to think about the fact that English grammar is the very thing that allows us to communicate with and understand one another. It is not so much because we use the same words of the English language, but it is because we all put our words together in certain ways to form thoughts and sentences that we can understand each other. This, in short, is the purpose of English grammar. English grammar is the mechanics of the English langauge that allows for two people who use the same vocabulary to be able to communicate without misunderstanding. Certainly there will always be some level of misunderstaning that happens when two people communicate, but so much of our problems will be lessened if we all take some time to learn English grammar. Many schools today are moving away from making English grammar a part of the regular curriculum. So while students may learn how to read and write successfully, they will likely never learn the English grammar or the reasons why they are speaking and writing as they are. So if you or someone you know is struggling with any element of the English language, or if you know a child or someone who is attempting to learn English for the first time, then make sure English grammar is included as an important part of the learning process. Being able to speak, understand and write a language is an important part of being successful no matter what you do in life. And taking the time to learn even the basics of English grammar will go far in helping people communicate even better.

         
    English pronunciation for the esl learner

     

    What is an accent? An accent is the carryover of sounds from the speaker’s original language to the second language. When we are infants we literally have the ability to speak any language in the world. We are all born with the necessary speech mechanisms and the capability to learn any language. We end up speaking the language that we do solely by reinforcement. The sounds a baby hears and the speech patterns he is exposed to are the ones that she develops. Soon the baby gains the fine motor skill and control she needs to create sounds herself. The infant will begin by babbling and playing with sounds. Soon she is able to produce simple vowel/consonant combinations which maybe why mama and dada are often their first words, they can make the combination and the big reaction it elicits reinforces their efforts. By 18 months she will be able to produce about 20 words that have meaning and understand around 50 words. Now babies of course have the ultimate immersion experience. In order to obtain any control over their environment they must learn the language and they are surrounded by the language almost 24 hours a day. Of course the second language learner does not have these advantages. Even if you are now living in an English speaking country, and attending classes to learn English you will still have opportunity to speak and hear your first language with friends and family, this is especially true in America a county of immigrants where finding a community of people with the same language background is possible. Another challenge is the expectation factor. For many years you have heard a speech pattern and there is an expectation of what you will hear when others speak. You are predicting what sounds will come next based on your subconscious knowledge of language. I call this listening with an accent. It is necessary to break through this barrier, to really hear how others are speaking, to actively listen. To listen is to learn, and I don’t mean that in an existential way. I really mean that if you can’t hear the way the sounds are produced you cannot learn how to produce the sound. Maybe that is why ETS added speaking and listening sections to the TOEFL. The two skills are so closely linked. Once you can hear the sounds you must add them to your own phonetic library. This means that you have in your mind the knowledge and understanding of how to produce every sound or phoneme in you original language. Now you must add on some sounds that are in the American sound system that is not in your original language sounds system. Record your self reading a brief paragraph. Only 2-3 sentences in English. Then listen to the recording. Write down exactly what you hear on the recording. Not what you meant to say but what you really did say. How is it different from what was written? Did you say th, when it was written or did you say d? I would suggest sticking with the consonants at first because the differences are easier to pinpoint. If you would like to get help in improving your pronunciation it would be best to go to a speech therapist rather than an ESL teacher. Speech therapists are trained in physiology of the speech mechanisms and musculature. They understand what is involved in producing each sound and are trained to identify and work with articulation problems. Though an accent is not the same as an articulation problem they have similar characteristics. When a client has difficulty articulating specific sounds the speech therapist can hear and see what they are doing differently and describe and show how to do it correctly. When a client has an accent the speech therapist can see what the person is doing differently and show and describe how to make the sound so it more closely approximates the standard. The most important advice I can give you is to keep practicing. At first it may feel like you are exaggerating when you “speak with an American accent” but I am sure that the native American speakers around you will not even notice. They will merely be impressed with your great diction!

         
    Finding the best course to learn spanish

     

    Finding the best course to learn Spanish can be a daunting task, especially on the internet where there is so much to choose from. So, how do you find the best one? Here are a few things to consider when deciding which course is the best to help you learn Spanish: 1. Choose a Spanish course that offers interactive learning, where you actually participate and use your voice to repeat words and phrases out loud. This is important because it will help to reinforce the learning in your brain, and help you learn Spanish faster. 2. Choose a course that has Spanish learning games included. If you are doing something fun such as playing a game, you are much more likely to learn Spanish faster and easier because you are having fun. Anything is easier to learn when you're having fun doing it! 3. Make sure the course has enough material and is complete. There are many courses that fall short in this area. You want to make sure there are enough exercises and lessons in the course to enable you to learn Spanish thoroughly enough to carry on conversations. Ideally, you want to find a course that offers beginner through advanced Spanish. 4. Look for a course that helps you learn Spanish with audio lessons, to help your ear get used to the sound of the language and help you pick up the accent faster. 5. Find a course developed by a native speaker. The chances are better that the course will include more "street lingo" of the language, which is much better for you. While it is ok to learn proper grammatical Spanish, you also want to learn Spanish that native speakers actually speak. After all, that is why you are learning Spanish in the first place, to be able to converse with native Spanish speaking people. 6pare prices for the type of content offered. Many times you can find Spanish courses that offer about the same information, but the prices fluctuate greatly. Many Spanish courses that cost several hundred or even thousands of dollars sometimes just aren't worth it. You can find a good Spanish course for less than $300. If it costs any more than that, don't bother. Just because you spend more money doesn't mean you will necessarily learn Spanish any better or faster. Concentrate on the quality of the course first, and then consider price. Copyright 2006, ReviewsOnTheWeb.

         
    Foreign language tips to improve your foreign language skills

     

    Learning a second language can be a daunting task. If you are lucky enough to have bilingual parents or attended a school that taught second languages, that's great. But what if you are older now and interested in learning a second language? The good news is there are many helpful tools for you to access. Learning an additional language is beneficial in many ways. You can easily communicate in other language and express your thoughts, ideas and opinions in a different language. Some languages help in strengthening your interaction with others and you can increase your dealings and businesses to get better profit. Foreign languages are not easy to learn. A person needs to work hard on vocabulary, grammar, and expressions to get the basics correctly. Here are some tips that help you to get learn a language faster and easily: 1. Spend More Time To grasp a language in a perfect manner, you need to spend more time on the language. You need to read different books written in your preferred language. Listening to music and conversation in that particular language will help you to get correct pronunciation and usage. Take foreign language help if you face any difficulty. You can also practice it by conversing it with people. 2.Computer Programs If you enjoy learning with multimedia programs on the computer, there are several different brands that you can use. Most combine visual flashcard-type lessons or video with the ability to practice speaking the language using a microphone. An excellent example is Rosetta Stone software. They use a total immersion method, which can be a little frustrating at first but if you stay with it, you will see your comprehension develop. 3. Travel Abroad Taking up frequent trips to different countries of the world will help you to understand their practices and culture. You can see and understand their values, traditions and importance of language attached to it. Sometimes you may come across the native tongue of a particular area and learn few words. 4.On-Line Programs There are many programs for learning a second language on-line. This gives you the advantage of being able to study from any computer and gives you immediate access. Rosetta Stone has an on-line version. There are also many language reference and dictionary websites. 5.Learn the Essence of the Languages Languages are the essence of a persons existence. It is the perfect medium to share your mindset with others and gives you a chance to analysis others' thoughts and actions. It is difficult to survive without any language, so value it and learn it thoroughly. 6.Audio Programs If you don't have a computer or prefer to learn while doing other things like sitting in rush hour traffic, an audio program may be best for you. I recommend the Pimsleur programs. They combine an instructor with native speakers that let you hear a word or phrase and then give you a chance to repeat it. In fact, you may get sick of repeating it but you will learn it. 7.Complete Immersion By far, the best way to learn a language is by living in a country that speaks the language. Of course you will still need to use one or more of the above methods but if you can do it while living around people who speak the language, you will learn much faster and speak better. No matter how good the program or class is, it is not exactly the same as actually living the language. You may not be able to actually move to another country but if you can spend 2 weeks to a month studying there, it will be well worth it.

         
    Four reasons to learn german

     

    What A German Language School Can Do For You German is not always the first choice for people looking to learn a foreign language. But maybe it should be. German is spoken by more than 100 million people in 38 countries around the world. Most of the world's German speakers are in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, but there are also significant numbers of German speakers in the United States and South America. That's a lot of German speakers, and a lot of reasons to learn German. Here are five reasons to consider attending a German language school. 1. Learn German For Business Germany is the third largest industrial nation in the world and a major exporter. Learning German will help business people to improve their prospects of doing business in German-speaking countries. And while it may be true that many Germans speak English as well as, if not better than, many native English speakers, those who learn German will have the advantage of understanding what is said in its original context. Many German language schools offer classes specifically designed to help business people learn German. These include classes dealing with speaking on the telephone, negotiations and presentations. 2. Learn German For Travel In addition to the three major European countries where German is a native language, German is a second language for many countries across Eastern Europe. Those planning to travel in Romania, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia or Kazakhstan may find it useful to learn German to communicate in those regions. There are many websites that offer free language lessons to help travelers learn basic German phrases. However, for a more intensive course, travelers could learn German in Berlin or another part of Germany. 3. Learn German For Tourism With three major language centers and many other German-speaking regions, German is a key language for those seeking to work in the tourist industry. Some German language schools offer courses aimed at professionals in different industries which will also help those in the tourist trade. This is key not just for those planning to work within Germany, but for those planning to work with the millions of German-speaking tourists who travel the globe each year. 4. Learn About German Culture German culture is more than beer and lederhosen. Germany has a rich cultural heritage. Many great thinkers, such as Freud and Einstein, were German. Many of the most respected classical composers came from Germany. There is a lot to do in Germany, from exploring towns with a centuries-old history to seeing the wonders of modern engineering technology. Those who study in Germany will find that this gives an inside view of many aspects of German culture. Where Should I Learn German? Although there are plenty of German classes available in most countries, a good option is to study in Germany at a German language school. This means that students will learn by immersion, hearing German spoken both inside and outside the classroom. This is a good way to learn German fast and correctly. There are German language schools around the country. One option is to study in Berlin. Not only does Berlin have many universities and educational institutions, but it also has a rich cultural history and many sights to see. This makes study in Berlin a good option for learning German.

         
    From hola to hello teach english in mexico

     

    Speaking English is an absolute requirement for Mexican citizens who wish to advance in a professional field. Because of close ties with the United States, many Mexican companies conduct a certain amount of their business in English. So, if you've decided to teach English in Mexico for a living, you can be rest assured that you've chosen a profession that's high in demand. If you choose to teach English in Mexico you'll have the chance to experience firsthand the rich Mexican culture. Teachers are generally expected to live in the country for at least a year, and many choose to stay beyond that because Mexico is a truly beautiful place to live in. Whether you're teaching in a major metropolitan area or a small rural city, you'll find the Mexican experience uniquely enlightening and enriching. Qualifications In order to teach English in Mexico, you must be certified in TEFL or CELTA. These certifications qualify native English speakers to teach in a classroom setting. Getting certified is fairly easy - most colleges and learning centers offer short-term programs that can earn you your certificate in a matter of months. Most importantly, you will be required to get a work permit in order to work in Mexico. It's vital to make sure your immigration papers are in order, because working illegally in Mexico leaves you open to deportation. Keep in mind that most Mexican work passes are good for only up to six months; at that point, you will most likely have to cross back into the US. Even entering the US for a matter of hours will reset your pass, and you'll be able to re-enter for another six months. Application requirements in Mexico are sometimes inconsistent, and it's best to be over-prepared. Arrive with all possible paperwork in hand - bring your birth certificate, college transcripts, reference letters, and anything else you might possibly need. It's difficult to predict what you'll be asked for, and you'll want to spare yourself the expense and trouble of having to return home for something you didn't bring. Finding a job Those who plan to teach in Mexico should not plan on being hired before they arrive. Although in other countries you can often find a job before you head over, this is not common in Mexico. Your best bet is to research possible employment before you leave, and then get ready for an interview once you arrive in Mexico. Most English teachers in Mexico are employed by schools. English is taught from elementary school on up through college, and native English speakers are always in high demand as teachers. However, you do have other options. Some companies will hire English teachers to train their employees in English communication. There are also numerous private language institutions that hold English classes, which any citizen can attend. Depending on what type of teaching you wish to do, you may want to centralize your job search around a particular area. Mexico City and other large metro areas are the easiest places to find English teaching jobs. This is also where you're most likely to find good pay, decent hours, and acceptable housing. There is honestly no real shortcut when it comes to finding a teaching job in Mexico. There are plenty of jobs available, but information is sometimes unreliable and you won't really know what you're getting into until you actually arrive at the location and apply for the job. This is another reason why finding a job before you get to Mexico just isn't feasible. So prepare yourself to do some legwork once you arrive. Teaching English in Mexico is a real challenge, and you should be prepared for some obstacles. If you can secure yourself a good job, if you have a sense of adventure and aren't afraid of some new experiences, it can be an amazing time. Our best advice is to arrive prepared... and don't give up!

         
    Fundamental principles of language part i

     

    All language depends on two general principles. First. The fixed and unvarying laws of nature which regulate matter and mind. Second. The agreement of those who use it. In accordance with these principles all language must be explained. It is not only needless but impossible for us to deviate from them. They remain the same in all ages and in all countries. It should be the object of the grammarian, and of all who employ language in the expression of ideas, to become intimately acquainted with their use. It is the business of grammar to explain, not only verbal language, but also the sublime principles upon which all written or spoken language depends. It forms an important part of physical and mental science, which, correctly explained, is abundantly simple and extensively useful in its application to the affairs of human life and the promotion of human enjoyment. It will not be contended that we are assuming a position beyond the capacities of learners, that the course here adopted is too philosophic. Such is not the fact. Children are philosophers by nature. All their ideas are derived from things as presented to their observations. No mother learns her child to lisp the name of a thing which has no being, but she chooses objects with which it is most familiar, and which are most constantly before it; such as father, mother, brother, sister. She constantly points to the object named, that a distinct impression may be made upon its mind, and the thing signified, the idea of the thing, and the name which represents it, are all inseparably associated together. If the father is absent, the child may think of him from the idea or impression which his person and affection has produced in the mind. If the mother pronounces his name with which it has become familiar, the child will start, look about for the object, or thing signified by the name, father, and not being able to discover him, will settle down contented with the idea of him deeply impressed on the mind, and as distinctly understood as if the father was present in person. So with every thing else. Again, after the child has become familiar with the name of the being called father; the name, idea and object itself being intimately associated the mother will next begin to teach it another lesson; following most undeviatingly the course which nature and true philosophy mark out. The father comes and goes, is present or absent. She says on his return, father come, and the little one looks round to see the thing signified by the word father, the idea of which is distinctly impressed on the mind, and which it now sees present before it. But this loved object has not always been here. It had looked round and called for the father. But the mother had told it he was gone. Father gone, father come, is her language, and here the child begins to learn ideas of actions. Of this it had, at first, no notion whatever, and never thought of the father except when his person was present before it, for no impressions had been distinctly made upon the mind which could be called up by a sound of which it could have no conceptions whatever. Now that it has advanced so far, the idea of the father is retained, even tho he is himself absent, and the child begins to associate the notion of coming and going with his presence or absence. Following out this course the mind becomes acquainted with things and actions, or the changes which things undergo. Next, the mother begins to learn her offspring the distinction and qualities of things. When the little sister comes to it in innocent playfulness the mother says, "good sister," and with the descriptive word good it soon begins to associate the quality expressed by the affectionate regard, of its sister. But when that sister strikes the child, or pesters it in any way, the mother says "naughty sister," "bad sister." It soon comprehends the descriptive words, good and bad, and along with them carries the association of ideas which such conduct produces. In the same way it learns to distinguish the difference between great and small, cold and hot, hard and soft. In this manner the child becomes acquainted with the use of language. It first becomes acquainted with things, the idea of which is left upon the mind, or, more properly, the impression of which, left on the mind, constitutes the idea; and a vocabulary of words are learned, which represent these ideas, from which it may select those best calculated to express its meaning whenever a conversation is had with another.

         
    Fundamental principles of language part ii

     

    : It would be absurd and ridiculous to suppose that any person, however great, or learned, or wise, could employ language correctly without a knowledge of the things expressed by that language. No matter how chaste his words, how lofty his phrases, how sweet the intonations, or mellow the accents. It would avail him nothing if ideas were not represented thereby. It would all be an unknown tongue to the hearer or reader. It would not be like the loud rolling thunder, for that tells the wondrous power of God. It would not be like the soft zephyrs of evening, the radiance of the sun, the twinkling of the stars; for they speak the intelligible language of sublimity itself, and tell of the kindness and protection of our Father who is in heaven. It would not be like the sweet notes of the choral songsters of the grove, for they warble hymns of gratitude to God; not like the boding of the distant owl, for that tells the profound solemnity of night; not like the hungry lion roaring for his prey, for that tells of death and plunder; not like the distant notes of the clarion, for that tells of blood and carnage, of tears and anguish, of widowhood and orphanage. It can be compared to nothing but a Babel of confusion in which their own folly is worse confounded. And yet, I am sorry to say it, the languages of all ages and nations have been too frequently perverted, and compiled into a heterogeneous mass of abstruse, metaphysical volumes, whose only recommendation is the elegant bindings in which they are enclosed. And grammars themselves, whose pretended object is to teach the rules of speaking and writing correctly, form but a miserable exception to this sweeping remark. I defy any grammarian, author, or teacher of the numberless systems, which come, like the frogs of Egypt, all of one genus, to cover the land, to give a reasonable explanation of even the terms they employ to define their meaning, if indeed, meaning they have. What is meant by an "in-definite article," a dis-junctive con-junction, an ad-verb which qualifies an adjective, and "sometimes another ad-verb?" Such "parts of speech" have no existence in fact, and their adoption in rules of grammar, have been found exceedingly mischievous and perplexing. "Adverbs and conjunctions," and "adverbial phrases," and "conjunctive expressions," may serve as common sewers for a large and most useful class of words, which the teachers of grammar and lexicographers have been unable to explain; but learners will gain little information by being told that such is an adverbial phrase, and such, a conjunctive expression. This is an easy method, I confess, a sort of wholesale traffic, in parsing (passing) language, and may serve to cloak the ignorance of the teachers and makers of grammars. But it will reflect little light on the principles of language, or prove very efficient helps to "speak or write with propriety." Those who think, will demand the meaning of these words, and the reason of their use. When that is ascertained, little difficulty will be found in giving them a place in the company of respectable words. But I am digressing. More shall be said upon this point in a future lecture, and in its proper place. I was endeavoring to establish the position that all language depends upon permanent principles; that words are the signs of ideas, and ideas are the impressions of things communicated to the mind thro the medium of some one of the five senses. I think I have succeeded so far as simple material things are concerned, to the satisfaction of all who have heard me. It may, perhaps, be more difficult for me to explain the words employed to express complex ideas, and things of immateriality, such as mind, and its attributes. But the rules previously adopted will, I apprehend, apply with equal ease and correctness in this case; and we shall have cause to admire the simple yet sublime foundation upon which the whole superstructure of language is based. In pursuing this investigation I shall endeavor to avoid all abstruse and metaphysical reasoning, present no wild conjectures, or vain hypotheses; but confine myself to plain, common place matter of fact. We have reason to rejoice that a wonderful improvement in the science and cultivation of the mind has taken place in these last days; that we are no longer puzzled with the strange phantoms, the wild speculations which occupied the giant minds of a Descartes, a Malebranch, a Locke, a Reid, a Stewart, and hosts of others, whose shining talents would have qualified them for the brightest ornaments of literature, real benefactors of mankind, had not their education lead them into dark and metaphysical reasonings, a continued tissue of the wildest vagaries, in which they became entangled, till, at length, they were entirely lost in the labyrinth of their own conjectures. Godfrey Philander is the webmaster of a translation website with lots of topics covering language translation language translation, language, languages, online translator, online translation, free translation, free translation services, online translation, free online translation, free online translator The occasion of all their difficulty originated in an attempt to investigate the faculties of the mind without any means of getting at it. They did not content themselves with an adoption of the principles which lay at the foundation of all true philosophy, viz., that the facts to be accounted for, do exist; that truth is eternal, and we are to become acquainted with it by the means employed for its development. They quitted the world of materiality they inhabited, refused to examine the development of mind as the effect of an existing cause; and at one bold push, entered the world of thought, and made the unhallowed attempt to reason, a priori, concerning things which can only be known by their manifestations. But they soon found themselves in a strange land, confused with sights and sounds unknown, in the explanation of which they, of course, choose terms as unintelligible to their readers, as the ideal realities were to them. This course, adopted by Aristotle, has been too closely followed by those who have come after him.[2] But a new era has dawned upon the philosophy of the mind, and a corresponding change in the method of inculcating the principles of language must follow.[3] In all our investigations we must take things as we find them, and account for them as far as we can. It would be a thankless task to attempt a change of principles in any thing. That would be an encroachment of the Creator's rights. It belongs to mortals to use the things they have as not abusing them; and to Deity to regulate the laws by which those things are governed. And that man is the wisest, the truest philosopher, and brightest Christian, who acquaints himself with those laws as they do exist in the regulation of matter and mind, in the promotion of physical and moral enjoyment, and endeavors to conform to them in all his thoughts and actions. From this apparent digression you will at once discover our object. We must not endeavor to change the principles of language, but to understand and explain them; to ascertain, as far as possible, the actions of the mind in obtaining ideas, and the use of language in expressing them. We may not be able to make our sentiments understood; but if they are not, the fault will originate in no obscurity in the facts themselves, but in our inability either to understand them or the words employed in their expression. Having been in the habit of using words with either no meaning or a wrong one, it may be difficult to comprehend the subject of which they treat. A man may have a quantity of sulphur, charcoal, and nitre, but it is not until he learns their properties and combinations that he can make gunpowder. Let us then adopt a careful and independent course of reasoning, resolved to meddle with nothing we do not understand, and to use no words until we know their meaning. A complex idea is a combination of several simple ones, as a tree is made up of roots, a trunk, branches, twigs, and leaves. And these again may be divided into the wood, the bark, the sap, &c. Or we may employ the botanical terms, and enumerate its external and internal parts and qualities; the whole anatomy and physiology, as well as variety and history of trees of that species, and show its characteristic distinctions; for the mind receives a different impression on looking at a maple, a birch, a poplar, a tamarisk, a sycamore, or hemlock. In this way complex ideas are formed, distinct in their parts, but blended in a common whole; and, in conformity with the law regulating language, words, sounds or signs, are employed to express the complex whole, or each distinctive part. The same may be said of all things of like character. But this idea I will illustrate more at large before the close of this lecture. First impressions are produced by a view of material things, as we have already seen; and the notion of action is obtained from a knowledge of the changes these things undergo. The idea of quality and definition is produced by contrast and comparison. Children soon learn the difference between a sweet apple and a sour one, a white rose and a red one, a hard seat and a soft one, harmonious sounds and those that are discordant, a pleasant smell and one that is disagreeable. As the mind advances, the application is varied, and they speak of a sweet rose, changing from taste and sight to smell, of a sweet song, of a hard apple, &c. According to the qualities thus learned, you may talk to them intelligibly of the sweetness of an apple, the color of a rose, the hardness of iron, the harmony of sounds, the smell or scent of things which possess that quality. As these agree or disagree with their comfort, they will call them good or bad, and speak of the qualities of goodness and badness, as if possessed by the thing itself. In this apparently indiscriminate use of words, the ideas remain distinct; and each sign or object calls them up separately and associates them together, till, at length, in the single object is associated all the ideas entertained of its size, qualities, relations, and affinities. In this manner, after long, persevering toil, principles of thought are fixed, and a foundation laid for the whole course of future thinking and speaking. The ideas become less simple and distinct. Just as fast as the mind advances in the knowledge of things, language keeps pace with the ideas, and even goes beyond them, so that in process of time a single term will not unfrequently represent a complexity of ideas, one of which will signify a whole combination of things. On the other hand, there are many instances where the single declaration of a fact may convey to the untutored mind, a single thought or nearly so, when the better cultivated will take into the account the whole process by which it is effected. To illustrate: a man killed a deer. Here the boy would see and imagine more than he is yet fully able to comprehend. He will see the obvious fact that the man levels his musket, the gun goes off with a loud report, and the deer falls and dies. How this is all produced he does not understand, but knowing the fact he asserts the single truth--the man killed the deer. As the child advances, he will learn that the sentence conveys to the mind more than he at first perceived. He now understands how it was accomplished. The man had a gun. Then he must go back to the gunsmith and see how it was made, thence back to the iron taken from its bed, and wrought into bars; all the processes by which it is brought into the shape of a gun, the tools and machinery employed; the wood for the stock, its quality and production; the size, form and color of the lock, the principle upon which it moves; the flint, the effect produced by a collision with the steel, or a percussion cap, and its composition; till he finds a single gun in the hands of a man. The man is present with this gun. The motives which brought him here; the movements of his limbs, regulated by the determinations of the mind, and a thousand other such thoughts, might be taken into the account. Then the deer, his size, form, color, manner of living, next may claim a passing thought. But I need not enlarge. Here they both stand. The man has just seen the deer. As quick as thought his eye passes over the ground, sees the prey is within proper distance, takes aim, pulls the trigger, that loosens a spring, which forces the flint against the steel; this produces a spark, which ignites the charcoal, and the sulphur and nitre combined, explode and force the wad, which forces the ball from the gun, and is borne thro the air till it reaches the deer, enters his body by displacing the skin and flesh, deranges the animal functions, and death ensues. The whole and much more is expressed in the single phrase, "a man killed a deer." It would be needless for me to stop here, and examine all the operations of the mind in coming at this state of knowledge. That is not the object of the present work. Such a duty belongs to another treatise, which may some day be undertaken, on logic and the science of the mind. The hint here given will enable you to perceive how the mind expands, and how language keeps pace with every advancing step, and, also, how combinations are made from simple things, as a house is made of timber, boards, shingles, nails, and paints; or of bricks, stone, and mortar; as the case may be, and when completed, a single term may express the idea, and you speak of a wood, or a brick house. Following this suggestion, by tracing the operations of the mind in the young child, or your own, very minutely, in the acquisition of any knowledge before wholly unknown to you, as a new language, or a new science; botany, mineralogy, chemistry, or phrenology; you will readily discover how the mind receives new impressions of things, and a new vocabulary is adopted to express the ideas formed of plants, minerals, chemical properties, and the development of the capacities of the mind as depending on material organs; how these things are changed and combined; and how their existence and qualities, changes and combinations, are expressed by words, to be retained, or conveyed to other minds. But suppose you talk to a person wholly unacquainted with these things, will he understand you? Talk to him of stamens, pistils, calyxes; of monandria, diandria, triandria; of gypsum, talc, calcareous spar, quartz, topaz, mica, garnet, pyrites, hornblende, augite, actynolite; of hexahedral, prismatic, rhomboidal, dodecahedral; of acids and alkalies; of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon; of the configuration of the brain, and its relative powers; do all this, and what will he know of your meaning? So of all science. Words are to be understood from the things they are employed to represent. You may as well talk to a man in the hebrew, chinese, or choctaw languages, as in our own, if he does not know what is signified by the words selected as the medium of thought. Your language may be most pure, perfect, full of meaning, but you cannot make yourself understood till your hearers can look thro your signs to the things signified. You may as well present before them a picture of nothing.

         
    Fundamental principles of language part iii

     

    The occasion of all their difficulty originated in an attempt to nvestigate the faculties of the mind without any means of getting at it. They did not content themselves with an adoption of the principles which lay at the foundation of all true philosophy, viz., that the facts to be accounted for, do exist; that truth is eternal, and we are to become acquainted with it by the means employed for its development. They quitted the world of materiality they inhabited, refused to examine the development of mind as the effect of an existing cause; and at one bold push, entered the world of thought, and made the unhallowed attempt to reason, a priori, concerning things which can only be known by their manifestations. But they soon found themselves in a strange land, confused with sights and sounds unknown, in the explanation of which they, of course, choose terms as unintelligible to their readers, as the ideal realities were to them. This course, adopted by Aristotle, has been too closely followed by those who have come after him.[2] But a new era has dawned upon the philosophy of the mind, and a corresponding change in the method of inculcating the principles of language must follow.[3] In all our investigations we must take things as we find them, and account for them as far as we can. It would be a thankless task to attempt a change of principles in any thing. That would be an encroachment of the Creator's rights. It belongs to mortals to use the things they have as not abusing them; and to Deity to regulate the laws by which those things are governed. And that man is the wisest, the truest philosopher, and brightest Christian, who acquaints himself with those laws as they do exist in the regulation of matter and mind, in the promotion of physical and moral enjoyment, and endeavors to conform to them in all his thoughts and actions. From this apparent digression you will at once discover our object. We must not endeavor to change the principles of language, but to understand and explain them; to ascertain, as far as possible, the actions of the mind in obtaining ideas, and the use of language in expressing them. We may not be able to make our sentiments understood; but if they are not, the fault will originate in no obscurity in the facts themselves, but in our inability either to understand them or the words employed in their expression. Having been in the habit of using words with either no meaning or a wrong one, it may be difficult to comprehend the subject of which they treat. A man may have a quantity of sulphur, charcoal, and nitre, but it is not until he learns their properties and combinations that he can make gunpowder. Let us then adopt a careful and independent course of reasoning, resolved to meddle with nothing we do not understand, and to use no words until we know their meaning. A complex idea is a combination of several simple ones, as a tree is made up of roots, a trunk, branches, twigs, and leaves. And these again may be divided into the wood, the bark, the sap, &c. Or we may employ the botanical terms, and enumerate its external and internal parts and qualities; the whole anatomy and physiology, as well as variety and history of trees of that species, and show its characteristic distinctions; for the mind receives a different impression on looking at a maple, a birch, a poplar, a tamarisk, a sycamore, or hemlock. In this way complex ideas are formed, distinct in their parts, but blended in a common whole; and, in conformity with the law regulating language, words, sounds or signs, are employed to express the complex whole, or each distinctive part. The same may be said of all things of like character. But this idea I will illustrate more at large before the close of this lecture. First impressions are produced by a view of material things, as we have already seen; and the notion of action is obtained from a knowledge of the changes these things undergo. The idea of quality and definition is produced by contrast and comparison. Children soon learn the difference between a sweet apple and a sour one, a white rose and a red one, a hard seat and a soft one, harmonious sounds and those that are discordant, a pleasant smell and one that is disagreeable. As the mind advances, the application is varied, and they speak of a sweet rose, changing from taste and sight to smell, of a sweet song, of a hard apple, &c. According to the qualities thus learned, you may talk to them intelligibly of the sweetness of an apple, the color of a rose, the hardness of iron, the harmony of sounds, the smell or scent of things which possess that quality. As these agree or disagree with their comfort, they will call them good or bad, and speak of the qualities of goodness and badness, as if possessed by the thing itself.

         
    Gap year in italy the ideal program to study abroad in italy

     

    : Once again, Scuola Leonardo da Vinci, one of Italy's largest provider of in-country Italian courses in Italy, is announcing the new programs for the year 2006 presenting innovative plans to promote the learning of the Italian language. Now, universities, colleges, community colleges, high schools and students worldwide are invited to read about our wide choice of Italian language and cultural courses. This year following the great success of the inaugural Academic School Year in 2005, Scuola Leonardo da Vinci will feature the Academy School Year course in Italy in all its school centers (Florence, Milan, Rome and Siena). The "Academic Year" is a 32 week language and culture course for students who wish to experience living and studying in Italy. The course combines not only language courses with Italian culture classes at the Scuola Leonardo da Vinci but the syllabus also incorporates the fundamental elements of level C2 of the European Language Portfolio. "All in all, the course offers students the opportunity to see at first hand the various aspects of Italy’s rich history and culture", said Chiara Poggi, the Head of Studies of the Italian School in Florence. Needless to say, lessons are taught only in Italian from the very start. "At the end of the course, the student is ready to write a final dissertation on a topic related to Italian culture (art, history and business Italian)", said Wolfango Poggi, director of the Italian language school Leonardo da Vinci in Milan. Created to provide an opportunity for motivated and deserving students to experience the magic of study abroad one year, the Academic Year Program in Italy aims to:

    • progress from the Beginner and/or the Elementary level to the Intermediate stages, working on the basics of Italian grammar (articles, prepositions, present and past tenses) to more complex subjects such as the subjunctive.
    • develop speaking and listening skills through daily conversation classes.
    • give an introduction to the everlasting beauty and charm of Italian art.
    • take you through the world of business and current affairs and the world of fashion: a sector where Italian artists are at the leading edge, where we aim to reveal some of the secrets behind the “Made in Italy” label.
    • allow you to understand the mixture of tradition and change which characterizes contemporary Italy.
    When asked about her experience, Sanda S., who studied in Milan with Scuola Leonardo da Vinci last year, commented: "I was delighted at the chance to travel to Italy and attend Scuola Leonardo da Vinci for 32 weeks. I believe the programme helped me to improve my Italian in a friendly and supportive environment. I really enjoyed meeting people from around the world. Being able to study in Italy also helped me gain an understanding of the Italian culture. It was certainly an experience I will never forget and intend to repeat in the future." Program details and supporting information, including students opinions and histories on the Academic Year Experince in Italy, may be found on the Scuola Leonardo da Vinci Web site at scuolaleonardo/gap-year-in-italy. php. Next Starting dates, as written on the Web Site, are 02 January, 08 May and 25 September 2006. For 29 years, Scuola Leonardo da Vinci, the market leader in in-country Italian language courses, has been exclusively dedicated to the teaching of Italian to foreigners. Each year the company welcomes students from 60 countries to its schools in Florence, Milan, Rome and Siena. The company’s Web site, scuolaleonardo, an Italian language portal offering informations and pages of Italian language courses, culture and resources on 12 languages, receives more than 3,000 visits daily. For general business-related questions, contact the Marketing Office of Scuola Leonardo da Vinci. Information and Registration Center (Florence, Italy) Tel.: +39-055-29.03.05 - Fax: +39-055-290396 scuolaleonardo - [email protected]

         
    Get published new guide gives advice from the pros

     

    Have you ever wanted to write a book? Whether you have a great idea for a cookbook, a science-fiction novel or children's story, transforming it into reality requires a lot of discipline and some good insider advice. The American Association of Publishers and Publishers Weekly report as many as 150,000 new titles are published annually in the United States. Yet, 90 percent of the half-million books written every year remain unpublished. Most aspiring authors are desperate for guidance on how to get their work into the right hands. It may be your most difficult writing assignment yet, but a great query and proposal will make an editor eager to read your manuscript. Pulling this off with panache requires more than writing talent, an intriguing manuscript and the desire to become a best-selling published author. You should know how to navigate through the crowded publishing marketplace. Long-time publishing industry insiders and nationally known authors Rick Frishman and Robyn Freedman Spizman have written "Author 101: Bestselling Book Proposals: The Insider's Guide to Selling Your Work." The book is the first volume of a series of how-to guides for aspiring authors under the banner of "Author 101." The book educates authors on how to produce a winning book proposal, from idea conception to effective marketing strategy development, and provides tips from the pros who know the literary business inside and out. Readers will learn: errors that most new authors make; what editors wish authors knew; book titles that grab an editor's attention; techniques to promote the book and increase sales; how to find and work with an agent. The series kicks off with the "Get Published, Get Publicized" contest to give readers a unique opportunity to become published authors. One aspiring author will win a book-publishing contract and $20,000 to spend on publicity.

         
    History of the spanish language

     

    Spanish is, after Mandarin Chinese and English, the third most spoken language in the world, with an estimated 400.000.000 of native speakers throughout the planet. Its origins, however, are much more reduced, both geographically and numerically. Together with other initially European languages such as Portuguese, French or Italian, the linguistic roots of Spanish make it a Romance language. This means that Latin, or more specifically, Vulgar Latin, constitutes its most important linguistic base. The constant contact and mutual influence of the Latin basis with other linguistic traditions and cultures has led to the formation of the different Romance languages as we know them today. In the case of Spanish, there are, for example, characteristics that come from the Iberian and Celtic traditions. There is also a great amount of Greek vocabulary that was first adopted by Latin speakers and then brought into Spanish. Words such as “escuela” (school) or “huйrfano” (orphan) all belong to this tradition. And we should not forget the seven centuries of Arab domination of the peninsula. This has left, among other things, an important legacy of lexical elements that have been incorporated into the Spanish language. A surname you probably know which exemplifies this is “Almodуvar”. Spanish is, especially in the bilingual territories of Spain, also known as castellano (Castilian), because of its origins in the region of Castilla. Castilla is situated in the north-central part of Spain, and it was once the neuralgic center of the Spanish empire that would take the Spanish language to more than twenty other countries. The establishment of a linguistic unity of Spanish as a common language for the state of Spain was parallel to its territorial unity. This union was only possible after the Reconquest of the peninsula from the Arab settlers, at the end of the 15th century. The kingdom of Castilla, and also its linguistic variety, expanded to the practical totality of the Iberian Peninsula. After the marriage of Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando II of Aragуn, the Spanish state was born, and Castilian language and culture became its most dominant identity. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, through a series of linguistic evolutions and normalizing changes, the language of the Spanish state became what is nowadays known as Modern Spanish. It is important to remember, however, that spoken Spanish is not identical in the different regions of the Spanish state. In fact, its pronunciation and lexical characteristics can vary to a very significant extent from one place to another. However, the maintenance of a unified, standard, version of the Spanish language and of its written form is guaranteed by the Real Academia de la Lengua Espaсola. The Academia sets the rules to follow in order to speak and write in a way that is accepted by all the different Spanish speakers.

         
    History of the spanish language in latin america

     

    The Spanish language arrived in America first through Cristуbal Colуn’s exploratory travels, and then with the rest of colonizers, at the end of the fifteenth century. At this point the Spanish language was already firmly consolidated in the Iberian peninsula. In the “new world”, however, Spanish had yet to be established, and this was done through a process labelled by historians as “hispanizaciуn”. During this period, the southern part of the American continent was a conglomerate of hundreds of different languages and dialects. Moreover, the cultures that the settlers encountered were radically different from the Spanish onemunication, therefore, was really a challenge in the first stages, and it was done first through gestures and later on through captive natives who acted as interpreters. The Catholic Church played a fundamental role in the expansion of the Spanish language throughout Latin America. Thus, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established schools where they educated and converted into Catholicism most children and teenagers. Of course, this was all done in Spanish, and thus this language started to penetrate little by little in the daily lives of the different indigenous groups. The evangelization was accompanied by the slow but firm administrative imposition of the Spanish language, which relegated the Amerindian languages to an unprivileged position. This was the inevitable consequence of the cultural and ethnic cleansing imposed by the Spanish Empire to its colonies. However, there was a two-way flow of cultural and linguistic influence between the colonizers and the colonized. This happened because, in spite of their dominant position, the natives of Spain always constituted a very small minority in the American continent. Thus, there was a constant contact among languages and a progressive mixing among the different populations. This allowed the incorporation of aspects belonging to the pre-Columbian cultures into what would later become American Spanish. African languages, brought by those who were taken to America as slaves, also contributed to the formation of this rich mosaic. Just listening to the intonation of the different South American Spanish dialects we can see that they are closer to the various native languages than to peninsular Spanish. In terms of vocabulary, two of the most influential languages were the Mexican nбhuatl (spoken by the Aztecs) or the Peruvian quechua (spoken by the Incas). These two languages were accepted and spoken by a significant part of the population, and therefore they were used for commerce purposes, even after the arrival of the Spanish conquerors. Examples of words that have been incorporated into American Spanish from these languages are “papa” (potatoe), “cuate” (friend), or “chamaco” (boy). On the other hand, the characteristics of the Spanish explorers were also heterogeneous, since they came from all over Spain. However, their meeting point before starting their long journey was Seville, in Andalucнa, the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Since they stayed a long time while preparing their adventure, they ended up adopting some of the characteristics of the Andalusian dialect. Then they took them to the “new world”. This is why American Spanish shares most of the Spanish pronunciation characteristics with Andalusian Spanish. The most significant one is the phenomenon known as “seseo”, which indicates the fact that the sound “c” (pronounced “th”) is transformed into the sound “s”. All these factors have made American Spanish the rich and multicultural linguistic variety that it is today.

         
    How can you do it

     

    You know it's true. Everyone has told you. You have to spend as much time as possible listening to a foreign language. But how? * Co-Workers - Friends - Family If you are fortunate enough to have people around you who speak the language, spend as much time as you can with them. Be forewarned, though. Daily conversation with friends and relatives will probably be filled with idioms and grammar that would make your foreign language teacher nauseous. * Internet Broadcasting There are many free internet radio stations. They broadcast day and night, 7 days a week. All you have to do is find them. Try internet searches like the following in your favorite search engine: - free internet radio German - free internet radio Norwegian - free internet radio French - internet radio stations Spanish - internet radio stations Portuguese Disc jockeys and talk show hosts may not use perfect grammar. However, news broadcasts are usually correct. * Books on Tape or CD You can purchase audio books online at sites like Amazon. Unfortunately, not all audio books are created equal. Sometimes the narration is cluttered with distracting loud sound effects and music. The volume may vary from horrendously loud to whisper-soft. If you can listen to a sample before purchase, do so. Never purchase more than one audio book from the same publisher or narrator until you are sure that they produce acceptable recordings. Sometimes the narrator's volume will vary so much during a reading that it makes the book almost useless. Be on the lookout for audio bundles that include a printed copy of the book - excellent for learning purposes! * TV Channels Check your cable or satellite TV lineup. You may find one or more channels in the language you are trying to learn. * Movies and Television Series on DVD Most larger centers and internet sites like Amazon have foreign language productions with English sound tracks and subtitles. Try to watch everything at least once without subtitles. Pay attention to the lips of the speakers as they pronounce words. Lipreading is part of the language learning process. If you prefer to buy English productions that have been remastered for foreign language markets, you will lose the lipreading advantage - and you may have to purchase or hack a DVD player so that it will play DVDs from other regions. There is a link at the bottom of this article that goes to a page with more specific information. North American TV series like M*A*S*H and Golden Girls have 1/2-hour episodes. Omit the intro and closing credits and you are left with about 20 minutes of material. Try to learn a few new words of vocabulary each time you watch an episode. * What are You Waiting For? Take advantage of all the opportunities that technology has to offer!

         
    How to choose exactly the right foreign word

     

    English has many words with more than one meaning - for example: 'can' - to be able to; tin receptacle. Many foreign language words also have multiple definitions. How can you ensure that you choose the correct one? Mistakes can be embarrassing! Instead of searching for a single word, prepare a list of synonyms (words that mean close to the same thing). ========== The Word 'Can' ========== If you want to find the word that means 'can' as in 'to be able to', your list might be something like this: can able capable Now, if you search for 'can' in foreign language dictionaries, you might discover the following in the English-[Foreign Language] section: * German * Bьchse, Dose, Kanister, kцnnen, dьrfen You know that German capitalizes all nouns, so you eliminate the first three words. The main definition for 'kцnnen' is 'to be able to', and the main definition for 'dьrfen' is 'to be allowed to'. Therefore, the correct word in this case is likely 'kцnnen'. * French * poubelle, arrosoir, pouvoir 'Poubelle' means 'garbage can'; 'arrosoir' means 'watering-can'; and 'pouvoir' means 'to be able to'. The correct word in French is probably 'pouvoir'. * Portuguese * lata, ferro-velho, poder 'Lata' means 'can, tin, tin can'; 'ferro-velho' means 'garbage can'; and 'poder' means 'to be able to'. The correct word in Portuguese would most likely be 'poder'. ========== The Word 'Check' ========== 'Check' can mean 'check mark'; 'bill at a restaurant'; 'part of a pattern of squares'; 'to ensure or confirm'. If we are looking for the definition that means 'to ensure or confirm' we might make the following list: check ensure verify confirm Now let's see what we find when we investigate the word 'check': * German * Rechnung, Beschrдnkung, ьberprьfen, kontrollieren, Kontrolle, nachprьfen First we remove the capitalized words (nouns). This leaves three words to research: 'ьberprьfen' (to examine, check); 'kontrollieren' (to control, supervise, to check); 'nachprьfen' (to check, verify); therefore, 'nachprьfen' appears to be most similar to our desired definition. * Italian * A search in an Italian dictionary gives us the following partial list: controllare, verificare, assegno, assegno bancario 'Controllare' (to audit, check, check up on, supervise, verify); 'verificare' (to audit, check, check up on, supervise, verify); 'assegno' (check, cheque); and 'assegno bancario' (check, cheque). It would appear that either 'controllare' or 'verificare' would suffice. * Swedish * The list of results: besiktiga, kontrollera, check Reverse-lookup gives us these definitions: 'besiktiga' (inspect, audit, check, check up on, supervise, verify); 'kontrollera' (audit, check, check up on, supervise, verify); and 'check' (check, cheque). It seems that we could use either 'besiktiga' or 'kontrollera'. ========== Resources ========== Use your common sense, books, people, and the resources on your computer. Whenever possible, try to find a dictionary that includes example sentences. Seeing a word used in context is the best way to zero in on its exact meaning. Word processor thesauri and grammar functions will be valuable assets. Online dictionaries are plentiful - use them whenever you can. Make sure that you have at least one recently published printed dictionary and/or thesaurus nearby. When in doubt, try to get advice from a teacher, a friend who speaks the language, or an online forum. Now, don't be afraid to make mistakes. That's the way we learn. Whenever possible try to use words in everyday speech. Remember: your language learning will progress more quickly if you don't obsess over errors.

         
     
         
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