Navigation
  • Essay Webtraffic
  • Essay Google Adsense
  • Essay Random Articles
  • Essay Various
  • Essay Self Improvement Articles
  • Essay Articles Marketing1
  • Essay Accounting
  • Essay Acid reflux
  • Essay Acne
  • Essay Adsense
  • Essay Adult
  • Essay Advertising
  • Essay Adwareand spyware
  • Essay Aff10mar
  • Essay Affiliate
  • Essay Affiliate Marketing
  • Essay Affiliate Marketing On The Internet
  • Essay Affiliate Success
  • Essay Affiliate Marketers
  • Essay Affiliate Articles
  • Essay Affiliate Programs
  • Essay After School Activities
  • Essay Aikido
  • Essay Air Purifiers
  • Essay Air freight
  • Essay Air Purifiers
  • Essay Alternative energy
  • Essay Alternative Medicine
  • Essay American History
  • Essay Anger management
  • Essay Art Auctions
  • Essay ArticleMarketing
  • Essay Articles
  • Essay Articles Web Design
  • Essay Articles Marketing
  • Essay Articles
  • Essay Article Marketing
  • Essay Article Writing
  • Essay Artmarketing
  • Essay Arts Entertainment
  • Essay Aspen nightlife
  • Essay Aspen Nightlife
  • Essay Astrology
  • Essay Astronomy
  • Essay Atkins Diet
  • Essay Attraction
  • Essay ATV
  • Essay Auctions
  • Essay Audio Video Streaming
  • Essay Autism
  • Essay Auto Navigation Systems
  • Essay Auto Responders
  • Essay Auto sound systems
  • Essay Auto Leasing
  • Essay Autoresponders
  • Essay Aviation
  • Essay Babies
  • Essay Baby
  • Essay Back pain
  • Essay Backyard Activities
  • Essay Bargain Hunting
  • Essay Bathroom Remodeling
  • Essay Bathroom accessories
  • Essay BBQs
  • Essay Beach Vacations
  • Essay Beauty
  • Essay Biking
  • Essay Biography
  • Essay Black History
  • Essay Blog Marketing
  • Essay Blogging
  • Essay Blogs
  • Essay Bluetooth Technology
  • Essay Boarding
  • Essay Boating
  • Essay Boats
  • Essay Bodydetox
  • Essay Book Marketing
  • Essay Book Reviews
  • Essay Breast Feeding
  • Essay Breast Cancer
  • Essay Budgeting
  • Essay Burglar alarm
  • Essay Business
  • Essay Buying A Boat
  • Essay Buying Paintings
  • Essay California tan
  • Essay Camera bag
  • Essay Candle Making
  • Essay Car Rental
  • Essay Car Stereo
  • Essay Cardio
  • Essay Careers
  • Essay Carpet
  • Essay Cars
  • Essay Cats
  • Essay CD duplication
  • Essay Celebrities
  • Essay Cell Phone
  • Essay Child Care
  • Essay Choosing the Right Golf Clubs
  • Essay Christmas Shopping
  • Essay Cigars
  • Essay Closet Organizers
  • Essay Clothing
  • Essay Coaching
  • Essay Coffee
  • Essay Coin Collecting
  • Essay Colic
  • Essay College
  • Essay College Scholarship
  • Essay Colon Cancer
  • Essay Communications
  • Essay COMPUTER GAMES & SYSTEMS
  • Essay COMPUTERS, LAPTOPS, SMARTPHONES
  • Essay Computers Technology
  • Essay Computer Certification
  • Essay Consumer Electronics
  • Essay Contact Lenses
  • Essay Cooking
  • Essay Copywriting
  • Essay Corporate gifts
  • Essay Crafts
  • Essay Crafts articles
  • Essay Craigslist
  • Essay Creating an online business
  • Essay Creativity
  • Essay Credit
  • Essay Credit Card
  • Essay Credit Cards
  • Essay Credit score
  • Essays Credit Cards
  • Essay Credit Card Debt
  • Essay Criminology
  • Essay Cruise Ships
  • Essay Cruises
  • Essay Currency Trading
  • Essay Customer Service
  • Essay Dance
  • Essays Data Recovery
  • Essay Data Recovery
  • Essay Dating
  • Essay Dating Women
  • Essay Debt
  • Essay Debt Consolidation
  • Essay Decorating for Christmas
  • Essay Dental
  • Essay Dental Assistant
  • Essay Depression
  • Essay Destinations
  • Essay Diabetes
  • Essay Diamonds
  • Essay Diesel VS Gasoline vehicles
  • Essay Dieting
  • Essay Digital Camera
  • Essay Digital photography
  • Essay Digital Cameras
  • Essays Digital cameras
  • Essay Digital Products
  • Essay Disease Illness
  • Essay Disneyland
  • Essay Divorce
  • Essay Divorce rebuild life
  • Essay Dogs
  • Essay Domains
  • Essay EBay
  • Essay Ebooks
  • Essay Ecommerce
  • Essay Education
  • Essay Elderly Care
  • Essay Elliptical trainers
  • Essay Email Marketing
  • Essay Emergency preparation
  • Essay Entrepreneurs
  • Essay Environmental
  • Essay Writing
  • Essay Ethics
  • Essay Eventplanning
  • Essay Excavation Equipment
  • Essay Exercise
  • Essay Extra Income
  • Essay Extreme
  • Essay Ezine Marketing
  • Essay Ezine Publishing
  • Essay Family Budget
  • Essay Fashion
  • Essay Fashion school
  • Essay Feng shui
  • Essay Finance
  • Essay Finance and insurance
  • Essay Fishing
  • Essay Fitness
  • Essay Fitness Equipment
  • Essay Food Beverage
  • Essay Forex
  • Essay Formula D Racing
  • Essay Forums
  • Essay Fruit Trees
  • Essays Fruit Trees
  • Essay Fundraising
  • Essay Gambling
  • Essay Gambling Casinos
  • Essay Games
  • Essay Garage Remodeling
  • Essay Gardening
  • Essay General
  • Essay Goal Setting
  • Essay Golden Retriever
  • Essays Golden Retriever
  • Essay Golf
  • Essay Google Sense
  • Essays Google Adsense
  • Essay Gourmet
  • Essay Government
  • Essay Grief
  • Essay Hair Loss
  • Essay Happiness
  • Essay Hardware
  • Essay Health
  • Essay Health Articles Pack
  • Essay Healthy Aging
  • Essay Healthy Eating
  • Essay Health Fitness
  • Essay Health Insurance articles
  • Essay High Definition Video Cameras
  • Essay High Definition Video Cameras
  • Essay Hiking and Camping
  • Essay Hobbies
  • Essay Hobby Articles
  • Essay Holiday Games Activities
  • Essays Holiday Games Activities
  • Essay Holidays
  • Essay Home and constructions
  • Essay Home decorating
  • Essay Home Schooling
  • Essay Home Security
  • Essay Home Theater Systems
  • Essay Home Theater
  • Essay Homeschooling
  • Essay Home Security
  • Essay Home Based Business
  • Essay Home Entertainment
  •  
    Free Essay
    7.6 of 10 on the basis of 1328 Review.
     

     

     

     

     

     

         
     
    Should you take a lie detector test

     

    : Is the standard lie detector test (also known as the polygraph) reliable? Should you be concerned about taking a polygraph test? Let's start with a true story. The FBI gives agent applicants a lie detector test before hiring them. After 9/11, their polygraph failure rate went to 50%. Did liars suddenly start applying for jobs? No, but the testers were instructed to read the tests differently, even though this meant throwing out some honest people with the few dishonest ones. Imagine what this would do to your future. For all of their lives these mostly innocent people will have a record of a failed FBI polygraph following them. Most scientists now agree that polygraph "testing" is junk science. In fact, John Larson, one of the pioneers of polygraphic lie detection, says "I'm sorry I ever had any part in it's development." The test is valued by governments and others because it is useful for getting damaging admissions from people, especially those who don't know that the test is a sham. Unfortunately, the lie detector test is actually biased against the truthful. This is because the more honestly one answers the "control" questions, the more likely one is to fail. Meanwhile, hardened criminals have proven again and again that they can lie throughout the test without detection. How Lie Detector Tests Work (Or Don't) The basic idea is this: The polygrapher asks "control" questions in order to get your "baseline responses." These are questions to which the operator knows or assumes the truthful answer. The device measures blood pressure, heart, breathing and perspiration rates. Then, when you are asked other questions (Are you involved in espionage? Did you take Johns watch?) your responses are compared to your baseline responses, to determine if your answer is honest or a lie. An operator will tell you that you should answer all questions honestly, but they don't actually want this to happen. In fact, they will often ask control questions that they assume you will answer with a lie. This could be something like "Have you ever lied when in trouble?" They may mention that someone who would do such a thing is not a good person, thus encouraging you to lie, so they can see your response. Operators use this kind of trickery as a standard part of the testing procedure. They also have to use their own judgment. If they think you are dishonest, they may interpret the results differently. Even if they don't do this, they may push harder to find questions that give the result they want. Whether this is conscious or not, it shows how unscientific the whole procedure can be. Should you take the test? Consider what former CIA Director John M. Deutch had to say about it: "[The CIA's] reliance on the polygraph is truly insane." How about former CIA Director R. James Woolsey: "...the use of this highly flawed instrument should be radically curtailed." You may want to reconsider any plans to take that lie detector test.

         
    So you got a speeding ticket so now what

     

    Speeding tickets are no fun. If you are pulled over for speeding and issued a citation legally, you do not need a lawyer unless you were also driving recklessly and are also cited for reckless driving. Speeding tickets are fairly straight forward, for the most part. However, depending on how much over the speed limit you were driving and which state you live in, your vehicle could be impounded (typically 40 mph over the speed limit). Additionally in some states, if you are under 18, your license may become suspended. But, if none of these conditions apply to you, you have the right to do two things: either pay the ticket, usually through mail, or else dispute the charge against you. After becoming aware of the law, I learned that anyone who pleads guilty on speeding tickets where they were cited for not speeding at all or cited for not going too much over the speed limit, subjects himself to unnecessary punishment from the law, since most speeding tickets of this type can be dismissed. I had a friend who was once cited for speeding when he was not and decided to fight the ticket. So how do I fight a speeding ticket if I don't think I was speeding? Courts do not like to waste time and taxpayer dollars on petty crimes. To dispute a speeding ticket, you must within 10 days in most instances either sign the portion of the ticket that says "not guilty" and mail it to the place where you would send the payment for the fine or write a letter of dispute with the ticket number included in the letter, as well as your reasons for disputing the charges. In the written dispute, you must include ticket numbers, the date the ticket was received, the “act and section of the defense,” and your personal information. Thus, it depends on the state, but for the most part, states have a writing address where the dispute can be mailed. Check with your local county clerk to learn where to mail the dispute form. After you have completed the dispute form, you will then wait to hear from the proper authorities, which will mail you a letter stating the date that your hearing will start. Make sure you attend the hearing and try to be at the courtroom at least 15 minutes prior to the start of the court hearing. When the judge or district magistrate in some cases asks you how you plea, make sure you plead not guilty. He will then ask you to tell your story. As in my friend's case above, he simply told him what had happened. He told the judge that when he saw the cop he looked at his speedometer and he was only going 35 mph in a 35 mph zone. The cop had cited him for going over 45 mph in the 35 mph zone. The cop was there and he conceded. At this point the judge will decide if your case is worthy of continuance and may possibly throw out the case or in the case of a district magistrate will decide your case; otherwise, in the case of a judge, you may be summoned to appear at another hearing at which your case will be decided.

         
    Social security member s concerns

     

    Changing of Names The Social Security has set some rules and regulations to be followed by members who wish to have their names changed. There are various circumstances where name changing is allowed and these are as follows: if a member marries, if the member divorced and if there are certain corrections to be made on the name of a member. If you are a Social Security member and wishes to change your name let’s say in you social security card, the first thing you ought to do is to tell both the agency as well as your employer. The importance of telling your employer is to ensure that your earnings will be properly reported and recorded. However, it is only your name that will be changed and will not in any way affect your social security number. The changing of a member’s name does not require for any payment, it is entirely for free. In order for a member to get his or her new corrected social security card he or she will be required to bring along with her the identification showing the old name and the new name. For the new name a member may bring his or her marriage certificate or divorce decree. And for those members who were born outside of US you will be made to present proofs of your US citizenship. Divorced? For divorced social security members especially those that have been married for at least ten years, may be able to collect retirement benefits on their former spouse’s Social Security record provided they are at least sixty-two years of age and if ever their former spouse is entitled or already receiving benefits. However, if after the divorce a member marries he or she may not collect on his or her former spouse’s benefits unless his or her marriage ends either by death, divorce or annulment. There are still other circumstances aside from the above mentioned wherein a divorce spouse may be able to claim benefits. Take for example if ever the divorced spouse dies and then the other spouse have not yet married plus the surviving spouse is of age 60 then he or she will be receiving benefits. However, if he or she remarries before reaching the age of 60 he or she will no longer be able to receive any benefits from his or her ex-spouse. But if after the age of 60 the ex-spouse remarries only then will he or she be entitled to receive social security survivor benefits and even retirement benefits out from his or her deceased ex-spouse.

         
    Spyware legislation

     

    We have all had to become more aware about what companies are doing to invade our privacy these days. Identity theft, frauds, and scams are happening every day and the perpetrators of these are getting more and more sophisticated. There are even some major corporations involved in some of this as if ethics rules for businesses don’t apply to what they might do online. People tend to think that if a company is big and well known, they must be reputable. They go so far as to think it’s safer to do business with a big company than with one that is small. These corporations take advantage of that trust. Many people do not even know the answer to this question; “Who are the biggest distributors of pornography in this country?” The common answers are Playboy, Penthouse, Hustler, and others who are well known for that distribution. For years, General Motors owned Direct TV. Direct TV is the company that has served up more pornographic movies than any other single company. I bet they don’t discuss that at GM’s shareholder meetings. The number two purveyor of porn for years has been AT&T. They run the pay-per-view channels that are piped into even very reputable hotel chains across the country. My point is that just because you are very familiar with a company’s name does not mean that everything they send you is to be trusted. RealPlayer is notorious for adding unwanted software and installing those programs on your computer. In the fine print of their user-agreement, which they know you do not read, you give them permission to download what they like to call third-party software. There are many companies you know and trust that let software piggy-back on their software’s installation without you knowing it in most cases. Of course, IF you read the user-agreement and you were an attorney who could understand the way they write it, you would have known you were giving permission for this nefarious activity. The companies that make the malicious software pay the bigger more trusted companies to add their programs to their installations, because they know they could never get you to agree to download their software directly. And of course then you would also know it was running in the background on your computer using up your resources to make them money. Big software companies also lobby congress to make sure no laws get passed that might limit the ways they can take advantage of computer users. And beyond that, the average politician doesn’t know anything about how computers or the Internet actually works. This helps the software companies keep them in the dark on the whole issue. Until legislation is passed that prohibits spyware, malware, adware, badware, and other data-mining software, the problem is just going to get bigger. Until we have politicians that actually pay attention to new technology, we will continue to have corporations take advantage of their naivete and take advantage of the average Internet user. Most of the terms of service written by these company’s attorneys are worthless from a legal standpoint. The items they put into the fine print will not hold up in a legal challenge. However, the average user is not going to hire a powerful attorney and pay the expense of taking their case all the way to the Supreme Court just because someone harmed their computer or allowed their identity to be stolen. These companies know they are safe as long as they keep congress and users in the dark. They are cockroaches and cockroaches hate the light. Write to your congressman and tell him or her that this has to stop. These companies need to be stopped from the practice of downloading anything they want from anyone willing to pay them onto your and my computer. A simple terms of service should be required and you should get to read it BEFORE downloading or paying for any software. It should contain an easy to read section called, “Other Items Installed On Your Computer When You Install This Program.”

         
    Stress at work in the uk

     

    Stress at Work in the UK At Claims Master Group we understand the unhappiness, depression ill health and stress which can be brought on by bad working conditions & unfair working practices. In many cases, there are good grounds for claiming compensation for stress at work For example: Unrealistic service levels or deadlines at work causing stress and depression The rise in sexual discrimination can lead to stress and depression at work An unclean work environment stress and depression at work The fear of continual racist abuse causing stress and depression at work Not allowing necessary breaks from work can often cause stress and depression at work Employees who become depressed at work through stress, they deserve to claim compensation What is stress? HSE defines stress as "the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure or other types of demand placed on them". Pressure is part and parcel of all work and helps to keep us motivated . But excessive pressure can lead to stress which undermines performance, is costly to employers and can make people ill. Why do we need to tackle stress? · about half a million people in the UK experience work-related stress at a level they believe is making them ill; · up to 5 million people in the UK feel "very" or "extremely" stressed by their work; and · a total of 12.8 million working days were lost to stress, depression and anxiety in 2004/5. Employers should look at: · developing appropriate and effective policy · organising a risk assessment and benchmarking exercise · developing appropriate training for managers and staff · developing support structures and services as needed Bullying at work can be grounds for compensation There are many more causes of employee stress and depression at work. However there is some good news. You could be entitled to reasonable compensation if you are suffering stress and depression at work or have been forced to resign from work because of undue stress which has led to depression. ********************************************************************* If you need advice or would just like to speak to someone, please don’t hesitate to give Claims Master Group a call on 08000 71 22 71. The Personal Injury, Accident Claim, No Win No Fee, Stress at work in the UK specialists.

         
    The argument for torture

     

    I. Practical Considerations The problem of the "ticking bomb" - rediscovered after September 11 by Alan Dershowitz, a renowned criminal defense lawyer in the United States - is old hat. Should physical torture be applied - where psychological strain has failed - in order to discover the whereabouts of a ticking bomb and thus prevent a mass slaughter of the innocent? This apparent ethical dilemma has been confronted by ethicists and jurists from Great Britain to Israel. Nor is Dershowitz's proposal to have the courts issue "torture warrants" (Los Angeles Times, November 8, 2001) unprecedented. In a controversial decision in 1996, the Supreme Court of Israel permitted its internal security forces to apply "moderate physical pressure" during the interrogation of suspects. It has thus fully embraced the recommendation of the 1987 Landau Commission, presided over by a former Supreme Court judge. This blanket absolution was repealed in 1999 when widespread abuses against Palestinian detainees were unearthed by human rights organizations. Indeed, this juridical reversal - in the face of growing suicidal terrorism - demonstrates how slippery the ethical slope can be. What started off as permission to apply mild torture in extreme cases avalanched into an all-pervasive and pernicious practice. This lesson - that torture is habit-forming and metastasizes incontrollably throughout the system - is the most powerful - perhaps the only - argument against it. As Harvey Silverglate argued in his rebuttal of Dershowitz's aforementioned op-ed piece: "Institutionalizing torture will give it society’s imprimatur, lending it a degree of respectability. It will then be virtually impossible to curb not only the increasing frequency with which warrants will be sought - and granted - but also the inevitable rise in unauthorized use of torture. Unauthorized torture will increase not only to extract life-saving information, but also to obtain confessions (many of which will then prove false). It will also be used to punish real or imagined infractions, or for no reason other than human sadism. This is a genie we should not let out of the bottle." Alas, these are weak contentions. That something has the potential to be widely abused - and has been and is being widely misused - should not inevitably lead to its utter, universal, and unconditional proscription. Guns, cars, knives, and books have always been put to vile ends. Nowhere did this lead to their complete interdiction. Moreover, torture is erroneously perceived by liberals as a kind of punishment. Suspects - innocent until proven guilty - indeed should not be subject to penalty. But torture is merely an interrogation technique. Ethically, it is no different to any other pre-trial process: shackling, detention, questioning, or bad press. Inevitably, the very act of suspecting someone is traumatic and bound to inflict pain and suffering - psychological, pecuniary, and physical - on the suspect. True, torture is bound to yield false confessions and wrong information, Seneca claimed that it "forces even the innocent to lie". St. Augustine expounded on the moral deplorability of torture thus: “If the accused be innocent, he will undergo for an uncertain crime a certain punishment, and that not for having committed a crime, but because it is unknown whether he committed it." But the same can be said about other, less corporeal, methods of interrogation. Moreover, the flip side of ill-gotten admissions is specious denials of guilt. Criminals regularly disown their misdeeds and thus evade their penal consequences. The very threat of torture is bound to limit this miscarriage of justice. Judges and juries can always decide what confessions are involuntary and were extracted under duress. Thus, if there was a way to ensure that non-lethal torture is narrowly defined, applied solely to extract time-critical information in accordance with a strict set of rules and specifications, determined openly and revised frequently by an accountable public body; that abusers are severely punished and instantly removed; that the tortured have recourse to the judicial system and to medical attention at any time - then the procedure would have been ethically justified in rare cases if carried out by the authorities. In Israel, the Supreme Court upheld the right of the state to apply 'moderate physical pressure' to suspects in ticking bomb cases. It retained the right of appeal and review. A public committee established guidelines for state-sanctioned torture and, as a result, the incidence of rabid and rampant mistreatment has declined. Still, Israel's legal apparatus is flimsy, biased and inadequate. It should be augmented with a public - even international - review board and a rigorous appeal procedure. This proviso - "if carried out by the authorities" - is crucial. The sovereign has rights denied the individual, or any subset of society. It can judicially kill with impunity. Its organs - the police, the military - can exercise violence. It is allowed to conceal information, possess illicit or dangerous substances, deploy arms, invade one's bodily integrity, or confiscate property. To permit the sovereign to torture while forbidding individuals, or organizations from doing so would, therefore, not be without precedent, or inconsistent. Alan Dershowitz expounds: "(In the United States) any interrogation technique, including the use of truth serum or even torture, is not prohibited. All that is prohibited is the introduction into evidence of the fruits of such techniques in a criminal trial against the person on whom the techniques were used. But the evidence could be used against that suspect in a non-criminal case - such as a deportation hearing - or against someone else." When the unspeakable horrors of the Nazi concentration camps were revealed, C. S. Lewis wrote, in quite desperation: "What was the sense in saying the enemy were in the wrong unless Right is a real thing which the Nazis at bottom knew as well as we did and ought to have practiced? If they had no notion of what we mean by Right, then, though we might still have had to fight them, we could no more have blamed them for that than for the color of their hair." (C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (New York: Macmillan, paperback edition, 1952). But legal torture should never be directed at innocent civilians based on arbitrary criteria such as their race or religion. If this principle is observed, torture would not reflect on the moral standing of the state. Identical acts are considered morally sound when carried out by the realm - and condemnable when discharged by individuals. Consider the denial of freedom. It is lawful incarceration at the hands of the republic - but kidnapping if effected by terrorists. Nor is torture, as "The Economist" misguidedly claims, a taboo. According to the 2002 edition of the "Encyclopedia Britannica", taboos are "the prohibition of an action or the use of an object based on ritualistic distinctions of them either as being sacred and consecrated or as being dangerous, unclean, and accursed." Evidently, none of this applies to torture. On the contrary, torture - as opposed, for instance, to incest - is a universal, state-sanctioned behavior. Amnesty International - who should know better - professed to have been shocked by the results of their own surveys: "In preparing for its third international campaign to stop torture, Amnesty International conducted a survey of its research files on 195 countries and territories. The survey covered the period from the beginning of 1997 to mid-2000. Information on torture is usually concealed, and reports of torture are often hard to document, so the figures almost certainly underestimate its extent. The statistics are shocking. There were reports of torture or ill-treatment by state officials in more than 150 countries. In more than 70, they were widespread or persistent. In more than 80 countries, people reportedly died as a result." Countries and regimes abstain from torture - or, more often, claim to do so - because such overt abstention is expedient. It is a form of global political correctness, a policy choice intended to demonstrate common values and to extract concessions or benefits from others. Giving up this efficient weapon in the law enforcement arsenal even in Damoclean circumstances is often rewarded with foreign direct investment, military aid, and other forms of support. But such ethical magnanimity is a luxury in times of war, or when faced with a threat to innocent life. Even the courts of the most liberal societies sanctioned atrocities in extraordinary circumstances. Here the law conforms both with common sense and with formal, utilitarian, ethics. II. Ethical Considerations Rights - whether moral or legal - impose obligations or duties on third parties towards the right-holder. One has a right AGAINST other people and thus can prescribe to them certain obligatory behaviors and proscribe certain acts or omissions. Rights and duties are two sides of the same Janus-like ethical coin. This duality confuses people. They often erroneously identify rights with their attendant duties or obligations, with the morally decent, or even with the morally permissible. One's rights inform other people how they MUST behave towards one - not how they SHOULD, or OUGHT to act morally. Moral behavior is not dependent on the existence of a right. Obligations are. To complicate matters further, many apparently simple and straightforward rights are amalgams of more basic moral or legal principles. To treat such rights as unities is to mistreat them. Take the right not to be tortured. It is a compendium of many distinct rights, among them: the right to bodily and mental integrity, the right to avoid self-incrimination, the right not to be pained, or killed, the right to save one's life (wrongly reduced merely to the right to self-defense), the right to prolong one's life (e. g., by receiving medical attention), and the right not to be forced to lie under duress. None of these rights is self-evident, or unambiguous, or universal, or immutable, or automatically applicable. It is safe to say, therefore, that these rights are not primary - but derivative, nonessential, or mere "wants". Moreover, the fact that the torturer also has rights whose violation may justify torture is often overlooked. Consider these two, for instance: The Rights of Third Parties against the Tortured What is just and what is unjust is determined by an ethical calculus, or a social contract - both in constant flux. Still, it is commonly agreed that every person has the right not to be tortured, or killed unjustly. Yet, even if we find an Archimedean immutable point of moral reference - does A's right not to be tortured, let alone killed, mean that third parties are to refrain from enforcing the rights of other people against A? What if the only way to right wrongs committed, or about to be committed by A against others - was to torture, or kill A? There is a moral obligation to right wrongs by restoring, or safeguarding the rights of those wronged, or about to be wronged by A. If the defiant silence - or even the mere existence - of A are predicated on the repeated and continuous violation of the rights of others (especially their right to live), and if these people object to such violation - then A must be tortured, or killed if that is the only way to right the wrong and re-assert the rights of A's victims. This, ironically, is the argument used by liberals to justify abortion when the fetus (in the role of A) threatens his mother's rights to health and life. The Right to Save One's Own Life One has a right to save one's life by exercising self-defense or otherwise, by taking certain actions, or by avoiding them. Judaism - as well as other religious, moral, and legal systems - accepts that one has the right to kill a pursuer who knowingly and intentionally is bent on taking one's life. Hunting down Osama bin-Laden in the wilds of Afghanistan is, therefore, morally acceptable (though not morally mandatory). So is torturing his minions. When there is a clash between equally potent rights - for instance, the conflicting rights to life of two people - we can decide among them randomly (by flipping a coin, or casting dice). Alternatively, we can add and subtract rights in a somewhat macabre arithmetic. The right to life definitely prevails over the right to comfort, bodily integrity, absence of pain and so on. Where life is at stake, non-lethal torture is justified by any ethical calculus. Utilitarianism - a form of crass moral calculus - calls for the maximization of utility (life, happiness, pleasure). The lives, happiness, or pleasure of the many outweigh the life, happiness, or pleasure of the few. If by killing or torturing the few we (a) save the lives of the many (b) the combined life expectancy of the many is longer than the combined life expectancy of the few and (c) there is no other way to save the lives of the many - it is morally permissible to kill, or torture the few. III. The Social Treaty There is no way to enforce certain rights without infringing on others. The calculus of ethics relies on implicit and explicit quantitative and qualitative hierarchies. The rights of the many outweigh certain rights of the few. Higher-level rights - such as the right to life - override rights of a lower order. The rights of individuals are not absolute but "prima facie". They are restricted both by the rights of others and by the common interest. They are inextricably connected to duties towards other individuals in particular and the community in general. In other words, though not dependent on idiosyncratic cultural and social contexts, they are an integral part of a social covenant. It can be argued that a suspect has excluded himself from the social treaty by refusing to uphold the rights of others - for instance, by declining to collaborate with law enforcement agencies in forestalling an imminent disaster. Such inaction amounts to the abrogation of many of one's rights (for instance, the right to be free). Why not apply this abrogation to his or her right not to be tortured?

         
    The credentials of any good san diego criminal defense lawyer

     

    The hallmark credentials that you want to see when hiring a San Diego criminal defense lawyer on a serious felony charge are pretty much the same for a criminal defense lawyer anywhere. When you are charged with a serious felony in a state court system where your exposure is many years in prison you don’t want someone “practicing” or dabbling on your matter. You want a consummate talented and respected professional that regularly handles the type of criminal charge that you are charged with. The bottom line is that you want a lawyer with a winning reputation. The profile that makes up that type of lawyer consists of a number of characteristics. You want a lawyer that is well educated. While the law school a lawyer went to isn’t necessarily the characteristic that makes the difference, the better law schools produce lawyers who understand the theory of the law better which makes them better able to make arguments that persuade judges. You also want a lawyer who has a good presence and who is respected in the courts. The more respected your lawyer is, the better he will be able to negotiate, win critical motions, and get rulings favorable to your case. A good lawyer who is respected in his community will be respected anywhere he or she goes to handle a case. The prosecutors and the judges get the picture quickly by the way the lawyer handles themselves. You want a lawyer who has been practicing many years if your case is a serious felony such as murder, vehicular manslaughter, forcible rape, or child molestation. The more years a lawyer has practiced means that he or she has handled more situations, more cases, and more trials. That combined experience means that they will be able to analyze your case quicker and with more accuracy than a lesser experienced lawyer. Years of experience means they know all the moves and how to implement them effectively at the right moment. Make sure your lawyer has successfully handled many cases of the type of charge you have. If you are charged with murder, for instance, you want a lawyer who has handled and tried several murder cases. A top gun lawyer should be able to cite several examples of jury trial results and favorable settlements in the type of case you have. There is no reason not to hire a lawyer with a long record of winning. Every lawyer has won a case or two. You want the lawyer with a long list of successful results. In every major community in this country competent skilled professionals exist who are capable of getting you the best results. A little work trying to find one will be worth the effort. If you throw your money away on someone who isn’t up to the task you won’t find out until it is too late. You can always change lawyers but you may have spent all of your resources. Major Tip: Don’t ask people to refer you to a good lawyer. You may just be getting a friend or a business referral. Ask people: “Who are the five or ten best San Diego criminal defense lawyers to handle a serious state court felony trial case?” You will likely get a list of great lawyers. The good lawyers will all talk to you and you will be able to see the difference and choose who you are most comfortable with and can afford.

         
    The death penalty is it good or bad

     

    I am and always have been the pro death penalty, however, even though I am pro death penalty, I probably would not be willing to pull the switch or push the button. I do not think that this makes me a hypocrit. Please bear with me while I explain. As I stated, I am pro death penalty. I am not, however, pro death penalty as an act of revenge or retribution. I believe that in certain instances it does act as a deterrent to crime and can save lives. I realize that some people have no respect for life, not even their own, and would commit violent acts no matter what the penalty. I also realize that some people get caught up in the heat of passion and don't think about the consequences of their actions. There are people, however, that do care about themselves even if they don't care about others and the only thing that stops them from commiting certain crimes is the idea that they might, if caught, be executed. They may not have a conscience, they may not care about the harm they do others, they may not believe in or care about an afterlife but, they do care about their own skin and they want to protect themselves from harm. Many of these people don't care if they go to prison but they do want to live. Many of them while in prison would murder other prisoners or guards but don't because they don't want to turn their life sentence into a death sentence. If the death penalty saves even one or two innocent lives, I believe that it is worth having. On the other hand, I am not omnipotent, I don't know everything. I realize that some, or even many, innocent people may have been executed by mistake. However, I believe that many more innocent lives have been saved than lost because of the death penalty. I also know that the death penalty can be more expensive and cost the taxpayers more than incarcerating someone for life. However, if it saves innocent lives, it is worth the extra cost. Additionally, if the death penalty process was streamlined the cost would be far less. Having stated the foregoing, I still probably would not be willing to pull the switch or press the button. Luckily for me there are others that for some reason, either out of a sense of duty or for some other reason, are able to and will do the deed. My problem stems from uncertainty. Is there a God (I hope so.), and if there is a God, did he send down the Ten Commandments? If God did, what did God mean by "thou shalt not commit murder" (Note: It is not "thou shalt not kill" it is "thou shalt not commit murder", check with a theologian.)? Is it murder to execute a murderer or is it carrying out God's will by protecting other people. Would I loose my soul and an afterlife by executing a murderer. I would be willing to loose my soul in order to protect my love ones by killing someone who threatened them, or to go to war in order to protect my family and country but I might be too selfish to be willing to loose my soul by carrying out a legal execution. I just thought of something, could this selfishness cost me my soul? Oh boy, one more thing to ponder. I either don't have enough faith or I have too much faith. I can't be sure which it is, but I assume that it is not enough faith, because, if I truly believed in a just God, I would be able to trust in him and leave it in his hands. Finally, I say I probably would not be willing to push the button. I say probably because you never know what you would do when it comes right down to it. I don't think I'd have the guts, however, if there was no one else to do it, who knows?

         
    The demise of intellectual property

     

    Three years ago I published a book of short stories in Israel. The publishing house belongs to Israel's leading (and exceedingly wealthy) newspaper. I signed a contract which stated that I am entitled to receive 8% of the income from the sales of the book after commissions payable to distributors, shops, etc. A few months later (1997), I won the coveted Prize of the Ministry of Education (for short prose). The prize money (a few thousand DMs) was snatched by the publishing house on the legal grounds that all the money generated by the book belongs to them because they own the copyright. In the mythology generated by capitalism to pacify the masses, the myth of intellectual property stands out. It goes like this: if the rights to intellectual property were not defined and enforced, commercial entrepreneurs would not have taken on the risks associated with publishing books, recording records, and preparing multimedia products. As a result, creative people will have suffered because they will have found no way to make their works accessible to the public. Ultimately, it is the public which pays the price of piracy, goes the refrain. But this is factually untrue. In the USA there is a very limited group of authors who actually live by their pen. Only select musicians eke out a living from their noisy vocation (most of them rock stars who own their labels - George Michael had to fight Sony to do just that) and very few actors come close to deriving subsistence level income from their profession. All these can no longer be thought of as mostly creative people. Forced to defend their intellectual property rights and the interests of Big Money, Madonna, Michael Jackson, Schwarzenegger and Grisham are businessmen at least as much as they are artists. Economically and rationally, we should expect that the costlier a work of art is to produce and the narrower its market - the more emphasized its intellectual property rights. Consider a publishing house. A book which costs 50,000 DM to produce with a potential audience of 1000 purchasers (certain academic texts are like this) - would have to be priced at a a minimum of 100 DM to recoup only the direct costs. If illegally copied (thereby shrinking the potential market as some people will prefer to buy the cheaper illegal copies) - its price would have to go up prohibitively to recoup costs, thus driving out potential buyers. The story is different if a book costs 10,000 DM to produce and is priced at 20 DM a copy with a potential readership of 1,000,000 readers. Piracy (illegal copying) should in this case be more readily tolerated as a marginal phenomenon. This is the theory. But the facts are tellingly different. The less the cost of production (brought down by digital technologies) - the fiercer the battle against piracy. The bigger the market - the more pressure is applied to clamp down on samizdat entrepreneurs. Governments, from China to Macedonia, are introducing intellectual property laws (under pressure from rich world countries) and enforcing them belatedly. But where one factory is closed on shore (as has been the case in mainland China) - two sprout off shore (as is the case in Hong Kong and in Bulgaria). But this defies logic: the market today is global, the costs of production are lower (with the exception of the music and film industries), the marketing channels more numerous (half of the income of movie studios emanates from video cassette sales), the speedy recouping of the investment virtually guaranteed. Moreover, piracy thrives in very poor markets in which the population would anyhow not have paid the legal price. The illegal product is inferior to the legal copy (it comes with no literature, warranties or support). So why should the big manufacturers, publishing houses, record companies, software companies and fashion houses worry? The answer lurks in history. Intellectual property is a relatively new notion. In the near past, no one considered knowledge or the fruits of creativity (art, design) as "patentable", or as someone's "property". The artist was but a mere channel through which divine grace flowed. Texts, discoveries, inventions, works of art and music, designs - all belonged to the community and could be replicated freely. True, the chosen ones, the conduits, were honoured but were rarely financially rewarded. They were commissioned to produce their works of art and were salaried, in most cases. Only with the advent of the Industrial Revolution were the embryonic precursors of intellectual property introduced but they were still limited to industrial designs and processes, mainly as embedded in machinery. The patent was born. The more massive the market, the more sophisticated the sales and marketing techniques, the bigger the financial stakes - the larger loomed the issue of intellectual property. It spread from machinery to designs, processes, books, newspapers, any printed matter, works of art and music, films (which, at their beginning were not considered art), software, software embedded in hardware, processes, business methods, and even unto genetic material. Intellectual property rights - despite their noble title - are less about the intellect and more about property. This is Big Money: the markets in intellectual property outweigh the total industrial production in the world. The aim is to secure a monopoly on a specific work. This is an especially grave matter in academic publishing where small - circulation magazines do not allow their content to be quoted or published even for non-commercial purposes. The monopolists of knowledge and intellectual products cannot allow competition anywhere in the world - because theirs is a world market. A pirate in Skopje is in direct competition with Bill Gates. When he sells a pirated Microsoft product - he is depriving Microsoft not only of its income, but of a client (=future income), of its monopolistic status (cheap copies can be smuggled into other markets), and of its competition-deterring image (a major monopoly preserving asset). This is a threat which Microsoft cannot tolerate. Hence its efforts to eradicate piracy - successful in China and an utter failure in legally-relaxed Russia. But what Microsoft fails to understand is that the problem lies with its pricing policy - not with the pirates. When faced with a global marketplace, a company can adopt one of two policies: either to adjust the price of its products to a world average of purchasing power - or to use discretionary differential pricing (as pharmaceutical companies were forced to do in Brazil and South Africa). A Macedonian with an average monthly income of 160 USD clearly cannot afford to buy the Encyclopaedia Encarta Deluxe. In America, 50 USD is the income generated in 4 hours of an average job. In Macedonian terms, therefore, the Encarta is 20 times more expensive. Either the price should be lowered in the Macedonian market - or an average world price should be fixed which will reflect an average global purchasing power. Something must be done about it not only from the economic point of view. Intellectual products are very price sensitive and highly elastic. Lower prices will be more than compensated for by a much higher sales volume. There is no other way to explain the pirate industries: evidently, at the right price a lot of people are willing to buy these products. High prices are an implicit trade-off favouring small, elite, select, rich world clientele. This raises a moral issue: are the children of Macedonia less worthy of education and access to the latest in human knowledge and creation? Two developments threaten the future of intellectual property rights. One is the Internet. Academics, fed up with the monopolistic practices of professional publications - already publish on the web in big numbers. I published a few book on the Internet and they can be freely downloaded by anyone who has a computer or a modem. The full text of electronic magazines, trade journals, billboards, professional publications, and thousands of books is available online. Hackers even made sites available from which it is possible to download whole software and multimedia products. It is very easy and cheap to publish on the Internet, the barriers to entry are virtually nil. Web pages are hosted free of charge, and authoring and publishing software tools are incorporated in most word processors and browser applications. As the Internet acquires more impressive sound and video capabilities it will proceed to threaten the monopoly of the record companies, the movie studios and so on. The second development is also technological. The oft-vindicated Moore's law predicts the doubling of computer memory capacity every 18 months. But memory is only one aspect of computing power. Another is the rapid simultaneous advance on all technological fronts. Miniaturization and concurrent empowerment by software tools have made it possible for individuals to emulate much larger scale organizations successfully. A single person, sitting at home with 5000 USD worth of equipment can fully compete with the best products of the best printing houses anywhere. CD-ROMs can be written on, stamped and copied in house. A complete music studio with the latest in digital technology has been condensed to the dimensions of a single chip. This will lead to personal publishing, personal music recording, and the to the digitization of plastic art. But this is only one side of the story. The relative advantage of the intellectual property corporation does not consist exclusively in its technological prowess. Rather it lies in its vast pool of capital, its marketing clout, market positioning, sales organization, and distribution network. Nowadays, anyone can print a visually impressive book, using the above-mentioned cheap equipment. But in an age of information glut, it is the marketing, the media campaign, the distribution, and the sales that determine the economic outcome. This advantage, however, is also being eroded. First, there is a psychological shift, a reaction to the commercialization of intellect and spirit. Creative people are repelled by what they regard as an oligarchic establishment of institutionalized, lowest common denominator art and they are fighting back. Secondly, the Internet is a huge (200 million people), truly cosmopolitan market, with its own marketing channels freely available to all. Even by default, with a minimum investment, the likelihood of being seen by surprisingly large numbers of consumers is high. I published one book the traditional way - and another on the Internet. In 50 months, I have received 6500 written responses regarding my electronic book. Well over 500,000 people read it (my Link Exchange meter registered c. 2,000,000 impressions since November 1998). It is a textbook (in psychopathology) - and 500,000 readers is a lot for this kind of publication. I am so satisfied that I am not sure that I will ever consider a traditional publisher again. Indeed, my last book was published in the very same way. The demise of intellectual property has lately become abundantly clear. The old intellectual property industries are fighting tooth and nail to preserve their monopolies (patents, trademarks, copyright) and their cost advantages in manufacturing and marketing. But they are faced with three inexorable processes which are likely to render their efforts vain: The Newspaper Packaging Print newspapers offer package deals of cheap content subsidized by advertising. In other words, the advertisers pay for content formation and generation and the reader has no choice but be exposed to commercial messages as he or she studies the content. This model - adopted earlier by radio and television - rules the internet now and will rule the wireless internet in the future. Content will be made available free of all pecuniary charges. The consumer will pay by providing his personal data (demographic data, consumption patterns and preferences and so on) and by being exposed to advertising. Subscription based models are bound to fail. Thus, content creators will benefit only by sharing in the advertising cake. They will find it increasingly difficult to implement the old models of royalties paid for access or of ownership of intellectual property. Disintermediation A lot of ink has been spilt regarding this important trend. The removal of layers of brokering and intermediation - mainly on the manufacturing and marketing levels - is a historic development (though the continuation of a long term trend). Consider music for instance. Streaming audio on the internet or downloadable MP3 files will render the CD obsolete. The internet also provides a venue for the marketing of niche products and reduces the barriers to entry previously imposed by the need to engage in costly marketing ("branding") campaigns and manufacturing activities. This trend is also likely to restore the balance between artist and the commercial exploiters of his product. The very definition of "artist" will expand to include all creative people. One will seek to distinguish oneself, to "brand" oneself and to auction off one's services, ideas, products, designs, experience, etc. This is a return to pre-industrial times when artisans ruled the economic scene. Work stability will vanish and work mobility will increase in a landscape of shifting allegiances, head hunting, remote collaboration and similar labour market trends. Market Fragmentation In a fragmented market with a myriad of mutually exclusive market niches, consumer preferences and marketing and sales channels - economies of scale in manufacturing and distribution are meaningless. Narrowcasting replaces broadcasting, mass customization replaces mass production, a network of shifting affiliations replaces the rigid owned-branch system. The decentralized, intrapreneurship-based corporation is a late response to these trends. The mega-corporation of the future is more likely to act as a collective of start-ups than as a homogeneous, uniform (and, to conspiracy theorists, sinister) juggernaut it once was.

         
    The importance of laws on public transportation

     

    : Aside from private car accidents there are also a great number of related public transportation accidents. The Federal Government is the one regulating the common carriers that transport passengers and cargo across the entire state. Nevertheless, each separate state has its own regulated public transportation system all within its state’s lines. But in general it’s the Federal Government that controls the interstate transportation while the individual states are to manage the intrastate transportation. Just what are common carriers? Common carrier is the term given to refer to one who make known to the public that his business involves the transporting of persons or cargo from one point to another within or outside the state in return for compensation and also the services rendered are available to the public. Some of the common carriers available are buses, trains, ferries and airplanes. Nevertheless, there are some exceptions especially when it comes to certain types of airplanes as well as some vessels that are included in the private charter transportation. The importance of knowing whether a transportation service is a common carrier or not is for the implementation of specific common carrier regulations in various states. The common carrier regulations are usually applied to equipment requirements, licensing, transportation procedures, fare and rates and others that are related to the operation of the common carrier. The set regulations are provided to benefit not only the common carrier industry but more so the general publicmon carriers are required to follow strictly the regulations and standards impose in their respective states. For accidents relating to common carriers, the Federal Government has created various regulations as to the degree of the liability that common carriers have to its passengers who are injured while making use of the common carrier services. In case of common carrier accidents individual State law applies in determining the extent of personal injuries which a common carrier may be liable. However, a great number of states follow the general rule that common carriers are liable for personal injuries sustained by its passengers. This law is based on the premise that a common carrier must and should employ the highest level of care, diligence as well as vigilance when transporting passengers to their appointed destinations. The common carrier is also expected to maintain necessary equipment coupled with a reasonable degree of skill in order to accomplish the safe transportation of passengers. And depending on the governing state law, there are some state regulations that do not necessarily obligate a common carrier to be completely responsible for the safety of its passengers but requires that the common carrier should show a high degree of care to its passengers. But still the general rule applies that a common carrier would be held responsible for injuries sustained by its passengers in cases wherein accident would have been avoided if only the carrier had used care and diligence in transporting their passengers. For comments and suggestions kindly visit Los Angeles Vehicle Accident Attorney

         
    The insanity of the defense

     

    I. The Insanity Defense "It is an ill thing to knock against a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor. He that wounds them is culpable, but if they wound him they are not culpable." (Mishna, Babylonian Talmud) If mental illness is culture-dependent and mostly serves as an organizing social principle - what should we make of the insanity defense (NGRI - Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity)? A person is held not responsible for his criminal actions if s/he cannot tell right from wrong ("lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate the criminality (wrongfulness) of his conduct" - diminished capacity), did not intend to act the way he did (absent "mens rea") and/or could not control his behavior ("irresistible impulse"). These handicaps are often associated with "mental disease or defect" or "mental retardation". Mental health professionals prefer to talk about an impairment of a "person's perception or understanding of reality". They hold a "guilty but mentally ill" verdict to be contradiction in terms. All "mentally-ill" people operate within a (usually coherent) worldview, with consistent internal logic, and rules of right and wrong (ethics). Yet, these rarely conform to the way most people perceive the world. The mentally-ill, therefore, cannot be guilty because s/he has a tenuous grasp on reality. Yet, experience teaches us that a criminal maybe mentally ill even as s/he maintains a perfect reality test and thus is held criminally responsible (Jeffrey Dahmer comes to mind). The "perception and understanding of reality", in other words, can and does co-exist even with the severest forms of mental illness. This makes it even more difficult to comprehend what is meant by "mental disease". If some mentally ill maintain a grasp on reality, know right from wrong, can anticipate the outcomes of their actions, are not subject to irresistible impulses (the official position of the American Psychiatric Association) - in what way do they differ from us, "normal" folks? This is why the insanity defense often sits ill with mental health pathologies deemed socially "acceptable" and "normal" - such as religion or love. Consider the following case: A mother bashes the skulls of her three sons. Two of them die. She claims to have acted on instructions she had received from God. She is found not guilty by reason of insanity. The jury determined that she "did not know right from wrong during the killings." But why exactly was she judged insane? Her belief in the existence of God - a being with inordinate and inhuman attributes - may be irrational. But it does not constitute insanity in the strictest sense because it conforms to social and cultural creeds and codes of conduct in her milieu. Billions of people faithfully subscribe to the same ideas, adhere to the same transcendental rules, observe the same mystical rituals, and claim to go through the same experiences. This shared psychosis is so widespread that it can no longer be deemed pathological, statistically speaking. She claimed that God has spoken to her. As do numerous other people. Behavior that is considered psychotic (paranoid-schizophrenic) in other contexts is lauded and admired in religious circles. Hearing voices and seeing visions - auditory and visual delusions - are considered rank manifestations of righteousness and sanctity. Perhaps it was the content of her hallucinations that proved her insane? She claimed that God had instructed her to kill her boys. Surely, God would not ordain such evil? Alas, the Old and New Testaments both contain examples of God's appetite for human sacrifice. Abraham was ordered by God to sacrifice Isaac, his beloved son (though this savage command was rescinded at the last moment). Jesus, the son of God himself, was crucified to atone for the sins of humanity. A divine injunction to slay one's offspring would sit well with the Holy Scriptures and the Apocrypha as well as with millennia-old Judeo-Christian traditions of martyrdom and sacrifice. Her actions were wrong and incommensurate with both human and divine (or natural) laws. Yes, but they were perfectly in accord with a literal interpretation of certain divinely-inspired texts, millennial scriptures, apocalyptic thought systems, and fundamentalist religious ideologies (such as the ones espousing the imminence of "rapture"). Unless one declares these doctrines and writings insane, her actions are not. we are forced to the conclusion that the murderous mother is perfectly sane. Her frame of reference is different to ours. Hence, her definitions of right and wrong are idiosyncratic. To her, killing her babies was the right thing to do and in conformity with valued teachings and her own epiphany. Her grasp of reality - the immediate and later consequences of her actions - was never impaired. It would seem that sanity and insanity are relative terms, dependent on frames of cultural and social reference, and statistically defined. There isn't - and, in principle, can never emerge - an "objective", medical, scientific test to determine mental health or disease unequivocally. II. The Concept of Mental Disease - An Overview Someone is considered mentally "ill" if: His conduct rigidly and consistently deviates from the typical, average behaviour of all other people in his culture and society that fit his profile (whether this conventional behaviour is moral or rational is immaterial), or His judgment and grasp of objective, physical reality is impaired, and His conduct is not a matter of choice but is innate and irresistible, and His behavior causes him or others discomfort, and is Dysfunctional, self-defeating, and self-destructive even by his own yardsticks. Descriptive criteria aside, what is the essence of mental disorders? Are they merely physiological disorders of the brain, or, more precisely of its chemistry? If so, can they be cured by restoring the balance of substances and secretions in that mysterious organ? And, once equilibrium is reinstated – is the illness "gone" or is it still lurking there, "under wraps", waiting to erupt? Are psychiatric problems inherited, rooted in faulty genes (though amplified by environmental factors) – or brought on by abusive or wrong nurturance? These questions are the domain of the "medical" school of mental health. Others cling to the spiritual view of the human psyche. They believe that mental ailments amount to the metaphysical discomposure of an unknown medium – the soul. Theirs is a holistic approach, taking in the patient in his or her entirety, as well as his milieu. The members of the functional school regard mental health disorders as perturbations in the proper, statistically "normal", behaviours and manifestations of "healthy" individuals, or as dysfunctions. The "sick" individual – ill at ease with himself (ego-dystonic) or making others unhappy (deviant) – is "mended" when rendered functional again by the prevailing standards of his social and cultural frame of reference. In a way, the three schools are akin to the trio of blind men who render disparate descriptions of the very same elephant. Still, they share not only their subject matter – but, to a counter intuitively large degree, a faulty methodology. As the renowned anti-psychiatrist, Thomas Szasz, of the State University of New York, notes in his article "The Lying Truths of Psychiatry", mental health scholars, regardless of academic predilection, infer the etiology of mental disorders from the success or failure of treatment modalities. This form of "reverse engineering" of scientific models is not unknown in other fields of science, nor is it unacceptable if the experiments meet the criteria of the scientific method. The theory must be all-inclusive (anamnetic), consistent, falsifiable, logically compatible, monovalent, and parsimonious. Psychological "theories" – even the "medical" ones (the role of serotonin and dopamine in mood disorders, for instance) – are usually none of these things. The outcome is a bewildering array of ever-shifting mental health "diagnoses" expressly centred around Western civilisation and its standards (example: the ethical objection to suicide). Neurosis, a historically fundamental "condition" vanished after 1980. Homosexuality, according to the American Psychiatric Association, was a pathology prior to 1973. Seven years later, narcissism was declared a "personality disorder", almost seven decades after it was first described by Freud. III. Personality Disorders Indeed, personality disorders are an excellent example of the kaleidoscopic landscape of "objective" psychiatry. The classification of Axis II personality disorders – deeply ingrained, maladaptive, lifelong behavior patterns – in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition, text revision [American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV-TR, Washington, 2000] – or the DSM-IV-TR for short – has come under sustained and serious criticism from its inception in 1952, in the first edition of the DSM. The DSM IV-TR adopts a categorical approach, postulating that personality disorders are "qualitatively distinct clinical syndromes" (p. 689). This is widely doubted. Even the distinction made between "normal" and "disordered" personalities is increasingly being rejected. The "diagnostic thresholds" between normal and abnormal are either absent or weakly supported. The polythetic form of the DSM's Diagnostic Criteria – only a subset of the criteria is adequate grounds for a diagnosis – generates unacceptable diagnostic heterogeneity. In other words, people diagnosed with the same personality disorder may share only one criterion or none. The DSM fails to clarify the exact relationship between Axis II and Axis I disorders and the way chronic childhood and developmental problems interact with personality disorders. The differential diagnoses are vague and the personality disorders are insufficiently demarcated. The result is excessive co-morbidity (multiple Axis II diagnoses). The DSM contains little discussion of what distinguishes normal character (personality), personality traits, or personality style (Millon) – from personality disorders. A dearth of documented clinical experience regarding both the disorders themselves and the utility of various treatment modalities. Numerous personality disorders are "not otherwise specified" – a catchall, basket "category". Cultural bias is evident in certain disorders (such as the Antisocial and the Schizotypal). The emergence of dimensional alternatives to the categorical approach is acknowledged in the DSM-IV-TR itself: “An alternative to the categorical approach is the dimensional perspective that Personality Disorders represent maladaptive variants of personality traits that merge imperceptibly into normality and into one another” (p.689) The following issues – long neglected in the DSM – are likely to be tackled in future editions as well as in current research. But their omission from official discourse hitherto is both startling and telling: The longitudinal course of the disorder(s) and their temporal stability from early childhood onwards; The genetic and biological underpinnings of personality disorder(s); The development of personality psychopathology during childhood and its emergence in adolescence; The interactions between physical health and disease and personality disorders; The effectiveness of various treatments – talk therapies as well as psychopharmacology. IV. The Biochemistry and Genetics of Mental Health Certain mental health afflictions are either correlated with a statistically abnormal biochemical activity in the brain – or are ameliorated with medication. Yet the two facts are not ineludibly facets of the same underlying phenomenon. In other words, that a given medicine reduces or abolishes certain symptoms does not necessarily mean they were caused by the processes or substances affected by the drug administered. Causation is only one of many possible connections and chains of events. To designate a pattern of behaviour as a mental health disorder is a value judgment, or at best a statistical observation. Such designation is effected regardless of the facts of brain science. Moreover, correlation is not causation. Deviant brain or body biochemistry (once called "polluted animal spirits") do exist – but are they truly the roots of mental perversion? Nor is it clear which triggers what: do the aberrant neurochemistry or biochemistry cause mental illness – or the other way around? That psychoactive medication alters behaviour and mood is indisputable. So do illicit and legal drugs, certain foods, and all interpersonal interactions. That the changes brought about by prescription are desirable – is debatable and involves tautological thinking. If a certain pattern of behaviour is described as (socially) "dysfunctional" or (psychologically) "sick" – clearly, every change would be welcomed as "healing" and every agent of transformation would be called a "cure". The same applies to the alleged heredity of mental illness. Single genes or gene complexes are frequently "associated" with mental health diagnoses, personality traits, or behaviour patterns. But too little is known to establish irrefutable sequences of causes-and-effects. Even less is proven about the interaction of nature and nurture, genotype and phenotype, the plasticity of the brain and the psychological impact of trauma, abuse, upbringing, role models, peers, and other environmental elements. Nor is the distinction between psychotropic substances and talk therapy that clear-cut. Words and the interaction with the therapist also affect the brain, its processes and chemistry - albeit more slowly and, perhaps, more profoundly and irreversibly. Medicines – as David Kaiser reminds us in "Against Biologic Psychiatry" (Psychiatric Times, Volume XIII, Issue 12, December 1996) – treat symptoms, not the underlying processes that yield them. V. The Variance of Mental Disease If mental illnesses are bodily and empirical, they should be invariant both temporally and spatially, across cultures and societies. This, to some degree, is, indeed, the case. Psychological diseases are not context dependent – but the pathologizing of certain behaviours is. Suicide, substance abuse, narcissism, eating disorders, antisocial ways, schizotypal symptoms, depression, even psychosis are considered sick by some cultures – and utterly normative or advantageous in others. This was to be expected. The human mind and its dysfunctions are alike around the world. But values differ from time to time and from one place to another. Hence, disagreements about the propriety and desirability of human actions and inaction are bound to arise in a symptom-based diagnostic system. As long as the pseudo-medical definitions of mental health disorders continue to rely exclusively on signs and symptoms – i. e., mostly on observed or reported behaviours – they remain vulnerable to such discord and devoid of much-sought universality and rigor. VI. Mental Disorders and the Social Order The mentally sick receive the same treatment as carriers of AIDS or SARS or the Ebola virus or smallpox. They are sometimes quarantined against their will and coerced into involuntary treatment by medication, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy. This is done in the name of the greater good, largely as a preventive policy. Conspiracy theories notwithstanding, it is impossible to ignore the enormous interests vested in psychiatry and psychopharmacology. The multibillion dollar industries involving drug companies, hospitals, managed healthcare, private clinics, academic departments, and law enforcement agencies rely, for their continued and exponential growth, on the propagation of the concept of "mental illness" and its corollaries: treatment and research. VII. Mental Ailment as a Useful Metaphor Abstract concepts form the core of all branches of human knowledge. No one has ever seen a quark, or untangled a chemical bond, or surfed an electromagnetic wave, or visited the unconscious. These are useful metaphors, theoretical entities with explanatory or descriptive power. "Mental health disorders" are no different. They are shorthand for capturing the unsettling quiddity of "the Other". Useful as taxonomies, they are also tools of social coercion and conformity, as Michel Foucault and Louis Althusser observed. Relegating both the dangerous and the idiosyncratic to the collective fringes is a vital technique of social engineering. The aim is progress through social cohesion and the regulation of innovation and creative destruction. Psychiatry, therefore, is reifies society's preference of evolution to revolution, or, worse still, to mayhem. As is often the case with human endeavor, it is a noble cause, unscrupulously and dogmatically pursued.

         
    The jury duty scam

     

    Most of us take summonses for jury duty seriously, but enough people skip out on their civic duty that a new ominous scam has surfaced in the last several years. This new “jury duty” scam is the latest in a series of identity theft “phishing schemes”. Fall for it, and whammo, your identity has been stolen. The first jury duty scam was reported in upper New York State in 2001. Since then it’s been reported in at least 13 additional states, including Michigan, Ohio, Texas, Colorado, Arizona, California, Maryland, Illinois, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Oregon and Washington State. This ‘jury duty’ scheme might best be categorized as a “social engineering” scam and works something like this: Con artists contact people by phone to assert that those they’ve targeted have evaded jury duty and warrants are being issued for their arrest. When the victims rightly protest that they’ve never received such jury duty notification, the scammer goes after what he really wants, (for verification purposes only, of course) which is his pigeons’ personal and financial information. Under threat of being hauled off to jail unless they succeed in straightening out this terrible mess, many people, (who would otherwise be more wary about what they reveal of their personal data), will find themselves reeling off their birth dates, social security and credit card numbers in an effort to convince their callers that the notification had never arrived, or were never meant for them in the first place. It’s easy to see how this might work. The victims are clearly caught off guard, and are understandably upset at the prospect of an arrest warrant being issued. It preys upon people’s general unquestioning acceptance of authority and willingness to cooperate in order to extract from them sensitive information. How to Avoid Falling Victim to ‘Jury Duty’ Scams: Be assured that court workers will very rarely, if ever, telephone to say you’ve missed jury duty, or that they are assembling juries and need to pre-screen those who might be selected to serve on them. So dismiss as fraudulent any phone calls of this nature. Keep in mind that about the only time you would ever hear, by telephone (rather than by mail), anything having to do with jury service, would be after you’ve mailed back your completed questionnaire, and even then only rarely. This latest scam reinforces, once again, that you should never give out bank account, social security, or credit card numbers over the phone if you didn’t initiate the call ~ whether it be to someone trying to sell you something or to someone who claims to be from a bank or government department. If such callers insist upon “verifying” such information with you, have them read the data to you from their notes, with you verifying it, rather than the other way around. And a word to the wise ~ Carefully examine your credit card and bank account statements every month, keeping an eye peeled for unauthorized charges. If you notice anything you didn’t approve, challenge it immediately! DL Consultants, LLC VigilanceandSecurity

         
    The new bankruptcy means test explained in plain english

     

    With the new bankruptcy law in effect as of October 17, 2005, there is a lot of confusion regarding the new "means test" requirement. The means test will be used by the courts to determine eligibility for Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy. The purpose of this article is to explain in plain language how the means test works, so that consumers can get a better idea of how they will be affected under the new rules. When most people think of bankruptcy, they think in terms of Chapter 7, where the unsecured debts are normally discharged in full. Bankruptcy of any variety is a difficult ordeal at best, but at least with Chapter 7, a debtor was able to wipe out their debts in full and get a fresh start. Chapter 13, however, is another story, since the debtor must pay back a significant portion of the debt over a 3-5 year period, with 5 years being the standard under the new law. Prior to the advent of the "Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005," the most common reason for someone to file under Chapter 13 was to avoid the loss of equity in their home or other property. And while equity protection will continue to be a big reason for people to choose Chapter 13 over Chapter 7, the new rules will force many people to file under Chapter 13 even if they have NO equity. That's because the means test will take into account the debtor's income level. To apply the means test, the courts will look at the debtor's average income for the 6 months prior to filing and compare it to the median income for that state. For example, the median annual income for a single wage-earner in California is $42,012. If the income is below the median, then Chapter 7 remains open as an option. If the income exceeds the median, the remaining parts of the means test will be applied. This is where it gets a little bit trickier. The next step in the calculation takes income less living expenses (excluding payments on the debts included in the bankruptcy), and multiplies that figure times 60. This represents the amount of income available over a 5-year period for repayment of the debt obligations. If the income available for debt repayment over that 5-year period is $10,000 or more, then Chapter 13 will be required. In other words, anyone earning above the state median, and with at least $166.67 per month of available income, will automatically be denied Chapter 7. So for example, if the court determines that you have $200 per month income above living expenses, $200 times 60 is $12,000. Since $12,000 is above $10,000, you're stuck with Chapter 13. What happens if you are above the median income but do NOT have at least $166.67 per month to pay toward your debts? Then the final part of the means test is applied. If the available income is less than $100 per month, then Chapter 7 again becomes an option. If the available income is between $100 and $166.66, then it is measured against the debt as a percentage, with 25% being the benchmark. In other words, let's say your income is above the median, your debt is $50,000, and you only have $125 of available monthly income. We take $125 times 60 months (5 years), which equals $7,500 total. Since $7,500 is less than 25% of your $50,000 debt, Chapter 7 is still a possible option for you. If your debt was only $25,000, then your $7,500 of available income would exceed 25% of your debt and you would be required to file under Chapter 13. To sum up, first figure out whether you are above or below the median income for your state - median income figures are available at new-bankruptcy-law-info. Be sure to account for your spouse's income if you are a two-income family. Next, deduct your average monthly living expenses from your monthly income and multiply by 60. If the result is above $10,000, you're stuck with Chapter 13. If the result is below $6,000, you may still be able to file Chapter 7. If the result is between $6,000 and $10,000, compare it to 25% of your debt. Above 25%, you're looking at Chapter 13 for sure. Now, in these examples, I have ignored a very important aspect of the new bankruptcy law. As stated above, the amount of monthly income available toward debt repayment is determined by subtracting living expenses from income. However, the figures used by the court for living expenses are NOT your actual documented living expenses, but rather the schedules used by the IRS in the collection of taxes. A big problem here for most consumers is that their household budgets will not reflect the harsh reality of the IRS approved numbers. So even if you think you are "safe," and will be able to file Chapter 7 because you don't have $100 per month to spare, the court may rule otherwise and still force you into Chapter 13. Some of your actual expenses may be disallowed. What remains to be seen is how the courts will handle cases where the cost of mortgages or home rentals are inflated well above the government schedules. Will debtors be expected to move into cheaper housing to meet the court's required schedule for living expenses? No one has any answers to these questions yet. It will be up to the courts to interpret the new law in practice as cases proceed through the system.

         
    The non profit bylaw legal form

     

    So, you have a non-profit organization and you need a bylaw legal form and don’t know where to turn. Well relax, you are not the first one in this situation and you are not alone. Yes you have a problem but thanks to the Internet there is an easy solution to your problem. And this solution is much easier than you would ever think. The answer for your non-profit bylaw legal form is the Internet. The Internet you ask? Well yeah, the Internet! Sure you could go out and hire a lawyer but that is an expensive option. Especially for a non-profit organization. Why would you want to spend the hundreds of dollars to fill out a simple for like the bylaw legal form when you can simply have it done yourself? Here’s all you have to do. Simply get online and use any search engine and type in the words “Bylaw Legal Forms” Note: The use of capitalization does not matter as any search engine worth its salt will not limit its search on the web for documents and web pages to fulfill your search to Internet sites which can help you out. You will be surprised how many pages are out there and available for your use. Now all you have to do is find a bylaw legal form which will be suitable for your non-profit organization and save it to your hard drive. Many of these legal advice sites will have a download option which will save the form directly or you can simply copy and paste the information into any word processor. Next you modify the bylaw form to suit your needs. That is to simply add a paragraph or delete one from the standard bylaw form which do not apply to your situation. And then of course you will need to fill out your own personal information to personalize the bylaw form. Next you just need to print out the form and to make it official there should then be a vote or review by your non-profit organization’s board of directors or officers and then a signing of the document. And that’s it! Your non-profit bylaw form is complete. If you want to go the extra step you can then get the form notarized which is not very expensive at all. Especially when you compare the cost of a public notary to that of an attorney. The hundreds of dollars you will save can be put to much better use I am sure. So there you go. Some general advice and information on a non-profit bylaw legal form. See? I told you that it would be easier than you thought.

         
    The police want to speak with me what should i do

     

    Copyright 2006 Law Offices of Donald P. Schweitzer Have you ever stopped to consider what you would do if you were suddenly faced with the prospect of getting arrested and being asked by the police to speak to them? Most of my law abiding clients never consider such circumstances since they do not foresee the possibility of ever having problems with the law. Unfortunately, life is not predictable, and some of us may find ourselves in compromising positions where the police will attempt to speak with us. In this article I will provide you with useful information in the event the “unimaginable” happens and you are accused of committing a crime. As you will read, there are several reasons why it may be in your best interests not to speak with the police until you have first spoken with an attorney. THEIR CASE MAY NOT BE MADE WITHOUT YOUR STATEMENT: First of all, the police may not be able to make a case against you without your statement. It is a little known fact that obtaining a confession or incriminating statements from the accused is the number one tool law enforcement officers rely on in making their case. Approximately 70 percent of all criminal cases filed by the District Attorney’s office have sufficient evidence for filings, only because the accused made a statement to the police. Consequently, police officers are specially trained to illicit statements from people accused of crimes. They are sent to special schools where they receive training on how to use psychology and to employ tricks to get people to speak. And in case you didn’t know, it is perfectly within the law for police officers to use trickery or to tell lies in order to obtain a statement. LAW ENFORCEMENT ALWAYS WINS: When you are accused of a crime, giving your “side of the story” to the police is usually the wrong thing to do. As the popular former prosecutor and noted author - Vincent Bugliosi once wrote, getting a statement from the accused almost always favors the prosecution. Once the government has your version of the incident, you are pinned down as to certain facts, and the government will spend countless hours tearing your story apart. Prosecutors are taught to use defendant’s statements in trial, even when they are self serving, since the statements are usually more helpful to the government’s case than harmful. Thus, as the Miranda warnings state, “your statement can and will be used against you.” MIRANDA WARNINGS ARE NOT ALWAYS REQUIRED: Contrary to popular belief, the police are not required to give you the Miranda warnings prior to speaking with you in all situations. Miranda warnings are only required when the police have you in a “custodial” situation, i. e., when you are not free to leave. Therefore, there are many situations where the police can contact you and speak to you without having to give you the Miranda rights. For example, police officers frequently make telephone calls to people suspected of crimes and obtain voluntary statements without having to give Miranda warnings. Incidentally, these phone conversations are usually secretly tape recorded, which the police are authorized to do! Also, officers frequently ask people to drop by the station to give a statement, or they drop by your house to talk to you. So long as the Court finds you were “free to leave,” the police are not required to “Mirandize” you before speaking to you. SPEAKING TO THEM CAN RUIN A GOOD DEFENSE: Experienced defense attorneys know the value of going to trial when their client’s have not spoken, since the government’s case may not be very strong. When the accused has not provided the police with a statement, his or her attorney has the opportunity to analyze the government’s case before making a opening and closing statements or deciding if a particular witness should testify. Conversely, when you speak to the police you will probably eliminate most of the defenses your attorney can employ on your behalf. IF THEIR MOTIVES ARE INNOCENT, THEY CAN WAIT: Assume that the police want to speak with you as a “witness.” The police tell you they do not consider you as a suspect and they believe you possess information that may be helpful in their investigation. Before speaking to them, you may want to ask yourself, “what’s the hurry?” In most circumstances, the police can wait long enough for you to consult with an attorney, since they are contacting you after the incident and there is no emergency that requires your statement. Furthermore, if the motives of the police are as innocent as they sound, the police should be willing to wait until you have consulted with an attorney. IT IS YOUR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT NOT TO TALK: Many people who are aware of their rights not to speak to the police, waive their Constitutional rights, because they are afraid of looking guilty. Believe it or not, many Police officers and Prosecutors accused of crimes (and who should know their rights better than the rest of us) frequently waive their rights, and end up ruining the defenses they may have had. When you find yourself in need, do not hesitate in exercising your Constitutional rights. Remember, exercising your Constitutional rights can never be used against you in a criminal case. Thus, if you find yourself in a situation where you don’t want to speak to the police, just tell the police, “I’d like to speak with you, but first I will need to speak with my attorney to ensure my rights are protected.”

         
     
         
    Essay Service
  • Essay Home Family
  • Essay Home Improvement
  • Essay Home Security
  • Essay Horse racing
  • Essay Hosting
  • Essay Humanities
  • Essay Humor
  • Essay Hunting
  • Essay Hybrid car
  • Essay Hypoallergenic dogs
  • Essay Improve personal life
  • Essay Innovation
  • Essay Inspirational
  • Essay Insurance
  • Essay Interior Design
  • Essay International Airports
  • Essay Internet security
  • Essay Internet Marketing
  • Essay Internet Business
  • Essays Internet Marketing
  • Essay Investing
  • Essay Investment Basics
  • Essay Ipod Video
  • Essay Ireland golf vacation
  • Essay Jewelry
  • Essay Jewelry Wholesale
  • Essay Job Search
  • Essay Junior golf
  • Essay K 12 Education
  • Essay Kitchen
  • Essay Kitchen Remodeling
  • Essays Kitchen Remodeling
  • Essay Koi
  • Essay La Jolla California
  • Essay Landscaping
  • Essay Language
  • Essay Las Vegas
  • Essay Law
  • Essay Leadership
  • Essay Leasing
  • Essay Legal
  • Essay Leukemia
  • Essay Loans
  • Essay Low cholesterol
  • Essay Making Money With Articles
  • Essay Male menopause
  • Essay Management
  • Essay Marketing
  • Essay Marketing PLR
  • Essay Marketing Your Business On The Internet
  • Essay Marriage
  • Essay Martial Arts
  • Essays Martial Arts
  • Essay Writing Martial Arts
  • Essay Medicine
  • Essay Meditation
  • Essay Membership Sites
  • Essay Men s Issues
  • Essay Mesothelioma
  • Essay Mexico Vacations
  • Essay Microbrews
  • Essay Mini Blinds or Wood Shutters
  • Essay MLM
  • Essay Mobile A V
  • Essay Mobility scooters
  • Essay Monograms
  • Essay Mortgage
  • Essay Motivation
  • Essay Motor Homes
  • Essay Motorcycles
  • Essay Motorcycles and Scooters
  • Essay Mountain Biking
  • Essay Movies
  • Essay Movie Reviews
  • Essay Moving
  • Essay Moving overseas
  • Essay Movinghouse
  • Essay Multiple Sclerosis
  • Essay Muscle Building
  • Essay Music
  • Essay Music Reviews
  • Essay Mutual Funds
  • Essay Myspace
  • Essay Networking
  • Essay Networks
  • Essay New Air Travel Rules
  • Essay New Years Eve Party Planning
  • Essay New York
  • Essays New York
  • Essay NewAirTravelRules
  • Essay Newport Beach
  • Essay New Years Eve Party Planning
  • Essay Niche Marketing
  • Essay Nursing Assistant
  • Essay Nutrition
  • Essay Office Chairs
  • Essay Online Dating General
  • Essay Online Dating Man
  • Essay Online Dating Woman
  • Essay Online Shopping
  • Essay Opt In List
  • Essays Opt In List
  • Essay Organizing
  • Essay Outdoors
  • Essay Outsourcing
  • Essay Outsourcing Ebooks and Software Jobs
  • Essay Ovarian Cancer
  • Essay Paint Ball
  • Essay Parenting
  • Essay Parentingskills
  • Essay Paris
  • Essay Personal Loans
  • Essay Personal Finance
  • Essay Pet health care
  • Essay Pets
  • Essay PH Miracle Diet
  • Essay Philosophy
  • Essay Photography
  • Essay Playstation3
  • Essay PLC AffiliateMarketing
  • Essay Podcasting
  • Essay Podcasts
  • Essay Poetry
  • Essay Politics
  • Essay Politics Commentary
  • Essay Politics Current Events
  • Essay Politics History
  • Essay Pool Accessories
  • Essay Porsche
  • Essay Power Tools
  • Essay PPC
  • Essay PPC Advertising
  • Essay Pre Paid Legal
  • Essay Pregnancy
  • Essay Private Jet Charters
  • Essay Private Label Resell Rights
  • Essay Private Yacht Charters
  • Essay Private investigation
  • Essays Private Label Resell Rights
  • Essay Product Reviews
  • Essay Prostate Cancer
  • Essay Psychology
  • Essay Public Relations
  • Essay Public Speaking
  • Essay Rawfood
  • Essay RC Hobbies
  • Essay Rc car
  • Essay Re Financing
  • Essay Real Estate
  • Essay Real Estatearticles
  • Essay Real Estate
  • Essay Recipes
  • Essay Recreation Sports
  • Essay Reference
  • Essay Reference Education
  • Essay Relationships
  • Essay Religion
  • Essay Remote control helicopters
  • Essay Renting A House Or Apartment
  • Essay Retirement Planning
  • Essay RSS
  • Essay Running
  • Essay RVs
  • Essay Sales
  • Essay San Diego
  • Essay San Fransisco
  • Essay Satellite Radio
  • Essay Science
  • Essay Scotch
  • Essay Seattle
  • Essay Security
  • Essay Self Improvement Articles
  • Essay Self Help
  • Essay Self Improvement
  • Essays Self Improvement
  • Essay Sell Your House
  • Essay SEO
  • Essay Sexuality
  • Essay Shoes
  • Essay Show Business
  • Essay Site Promotion
  • Essay Ski vacations
  • Essay Skiing Locations
  • Essay Skincare
  • Essay Skin Cancer
  • Essay Sk Vacations
  • Essay Sleepingbaby
  • Essay Small Business
  • Essay Snoring
  • Essay Snoring remedy
  • Essay Snowboarding
  • Essay Snowmobiling
  • Essay Social Networking
  • Essay Society
  • Essay Sociology
  • Essay Software
  • Essay Spam
  • Essay Spirituality
  • Essay Sports
  • Essay Sports Car
  • Essay Sports coaching articles
  • Essay St. Thomas Vacations
  • Essay Stock Market
  • Essay Stress Management
  • Essays St Thomas Vacations
  • Essay Success
  • Essay Summer Vacations
  • Essay Supercross Racing
  • Essay Supplements
  • Essay Surround Sound
  • Essay Swimming Pools
  • Essay Tattoos
  • Essay Tax attorney
  • Essay Taxes
  • Essay Tech gadgets
  • Essay Teeth whitening
  • Essay Tennis
  • Essay Terrier dogs
  • Essay Thanksgiving Party Articles
  • Essay Theater Arts
  • Essay Time Share Investments
  • Essay Time Management
  • Essay Toothache and Tooth Care
  • Essay Top Golfing Accessories
  • Essay Tracking Software
  • Essay Trafficand SEO
  • Essay Traffic Generation
  • Essay Travel Tips To European Countries
  • Essay Travel Leisure
  • Essay Travel Tips
  • Essay Trucks SUVS
  • Essay Universal Studio Tours
  • Essay Vacations
  • Essay Vacuum Cleaners
  • Essay Valentines Day
  • Essay Vehicles
  • Essay Video Sites
  • Essay Video streaming
  • Essay VideoSites
  • Essay Vitamins
  • Essay Vitamins and Supplements
  • Essay WAHM
  • Essay Wart Removal
  • Essay Wealth Building
  • Essay Weather
  • Essay Web Design
  • Essay Web Traffic
  • Essay Web Design
  • Essay Web Development
  • Essay Web Hosting
  • Essay Wedding Favors
  • Essay Wedding Games Activities
  • Essay Weddings
  • Essay Weight Loss
  • Essays Weight Loss
  • Essay Wine
  • Essay Wine And Spirits
  • Essay Women s Issues
  • Essay Writing
  • Essay Writing Speaking
  • Essay YEAR OF CONTENT
  • Essay Yoga
  • Essay YouTube
  •  
    Free Essay
    garment accessories | gament accessories | accessories | Arts | domoniterisation paragraph | MONICA ASHLEY | apina hrbek | easy essay on the topic of Demonitisation | anything | essay on importance of demonitisation | write a paragraph on demonitisation | paragrapha on demonitisation | Demonitisation eassy word easy | a short paragraph on demonitisation | paragraph of demonitisation | argumentative essay on demonitisation | short paragraph on demonitisation | demonitisation eassy | demonetisation drive eassy point to point | fullopin tube kise kahte h | Essay on demonitisation for college student | eassy on demonitisation | short eassy on demonitisation | college essay about "demonitisation" | bhujangasan eassy | steroid hormones kise khte hai? | Demonitisation short paragraph | car danting kise kahte hai | demonitisation and student life essay | Gzhel pottery
     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
      Free Essay Archive BloguinHos