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    London bridge is falling down in lake havasu

     

    London Bridge is falling down, falling down, falling down. You remember that song from childhood no doubt. But did you know that the London Bridge is actually located in the beautiful town of Lake Havasu City in Arizona, United States of America? The world-famous London Bridge in Lake Havasu City attracts hundred of thousands of visitors year-round from all around the world. It is a focal point for the city and a crossing between the Bridgewater Channel from the mainland and a little island on the Colorado River. Here’s a little background on the legendary bridge that resides in this historic American city. In 1962, after standing for over 130 years, the bridge which was originally located in London, was really falling down, just like in the nursery rhyme. It simply could no longer handle the ever increasing traffic flow across the river. Well it was actually sinking in the Thames River. Nevertheless, an American entrepreneur named Robert P. McCulloch recognized a wonderful opportunity when the British government put it up for sale. He made a bid for ownership of the bridge and on April 18, 1968, won the auction for a sum of $2,460,000. Mr. McCulloch, who was the Founder of Lake Havasu City and also Chairman of McCulloch Oil Corporation, then had London Bridge taken apart. With each stone being carefully marked, it was sent off on a barge to make its journey from Europe to the United States. At the dock of the California coast, it was taken off the boat, loaded up and transported by truck to Lake Havasu in Arizona. It cost an additional 7 million dollars to transport and reconstruct it, which took three years. But the bridge was rebuilt stone by stone and upon its completion, was officially dedicated in the town on October 10, 1971, where it still stands. After you enjoy taking in the view of the bridge and the beautiful mountainscapes that surround it, you can go down below it for even more fun. Nuzzled underneath the City of Lake Havasu’s London Bridge is the ‘English Village’. Offering quaint, old-fashioned British spirit for your eating and shopping pleasure, the Tudor style architecture of the shops and restaurants creates an essence that allows visitors to experience the days of "Merry Olde England". You can stroll along the tree-lined walkways, shop and feast at one of the great selection of restaurants which offer something for everyone. Later, stop in at one of the local breweries for a ‘homemade’ beer – root beer or otherwise!

         
    Mark foley gay congressman resigns the real deal

     

    Florida Congressman Mark Foley has resigned from Congress amid charges and allegations that he had inappropriate e-mail contacts with a former teenage page in the House of Representatives. So what’s the real deal? What’s really going on? You can read the mainline press, and watch television, but you’ll never get to the real story that way. You have to ferret it out for yourself, and that’s what we have done. We have talked with the movers and the shakers, to learn what’s really happening. First off, no one has a right to violate the sanctity of a teenager’s world. In our country young people are protected and given rights precisely because they are young. They are at an age where they can not protect themselves. It is the sign of an advanced society that we choose to protect them, as well we should. People who would prey on our children should go to jail for the rest of their lives. There is no need to give such “scum” a second chance. We shouldn’t take that chance by giving them another chance. It is also the symbol of an advanced society that the framers of our constitution went out of their way to protect the rights of criminalspared to every other society on earth, here’s one observer that thinks we do a fairly good job. Now having said that what’s going on in Washington? First off, neither party has a stranglehold on ethics. The Democrats have stolen just as much money through the years as the Republicans. What they spend it on may be different, but the money in both cases seems to DISAPPEAR, with very little to show for it. The first rule of government, and I learned this personally from Noble Prize winning economist Milton Friedman is that, “Whoever is in power, loves to spend money.” Ronald Reagan was a hero of mine. Nobody could spend money like him, until this President that is. At least Reagan bankrupted the Soviet Union and drove them out of power. What does Bush have to show for his trillions? A war without clearly defined objectives, and hundreds of billions in pork spending that no society can afford. He is the first President in my lifetime that has chosen not to exercise the power of the VETO. This gay Congressman was not a sleeper. People around him knew his peculiarities. They chose to ignore them for their own reasons. Foley was running to be Senator from Florida a couple of years ago, and the party torpedoed the nomination to give it to Mel Martinez out of fear that word would get out. The Speaker of the House of Representatives knew something was up and decided to keep quiet. Don’t these guys realize by now that ‘THINGS DON’T BLOW OVER”. Word gets out; it always does; whether it’s Hewlett Packard trying to snuff out corporate eavesdropping, or Enron trying to bury their financial worries in lies to Wall Street. You can only keep that game going so long, and then somehow it goes wrong. If the impotent Democrats are smart, they will say nothing, and do nothing about this Mark Foley affair. The world of the Republicans is vaporizing right before their eyes. These are men who say they are conservatives, and yet know nothing of conservatism. Barry Goldwater the Arizona conservative Republican Senator who started it all, would be appalled at what is taking place in his party today. He might not be able to call himself a conservative anymore if he were alive. Foley was in charge of a subcommittee in the House that dealt with exploited children. You talk about living a lie. Where are we as citizens of a free society, if elected officials think that it’s okay to espouse one thing in public, and then do the opposite thing in private. I would ask our elected officials, “How dumb can you be”? What contribution do you make to society? The rest of us are out here supporting ourselves, making our schools better, and improving our local communities. You guys are just living off the collective decency of the rest of us. You spend money like it’s unlimited. You eat in the finest restaurants, yet your basic paycheck isn’t big enough to support your lifestyle. Who’s paying for these lifestyles? If it’s not the citizens than who, what is expected in return. Mark Foley is symbolic of something terribly wrong in both parties. It’s an atmosphere of anything goes, and I am above reproach. I am not accountable. Is this really the message we want to send to the next generation. Foley, this sick, mindless Congressman wants to hide behind the notion that he was drunk when he committed these acts. Really, does he really think that the rest of us are going to fall for his mindless chatter? I mentioned in this article that I am generally optimistic regarding my country. What keeps me optimistic today is the power of the Internet. It is something the founding fathers would have marveled at. Yes, there’s too much “NOISE or CHATTER” out there. Yes, you have to be focused to get pass the sheer density of information that is available to each of us. Ah, once you get passed that noise though, there’s a liberating experience awaiting each of us. We have the power to obtain whatever knowledge we desire on just about any topic. We are not using that vast knowledge yet, but we will be. It is conceivable that by 2008, the Internet will completely change the look and feel of American politics. The political process as we know it will be unrecognizable compared to where we are today. With information there is power, and people will have choices that they do not have today. There’s a new freedom coming, and with it, a shift of power back to the people.

         
    Mayor bloomberg says shooting unacceptable

     

    Several days ago, an unfortunate shooting took place in New York City. A team of five undercover police officers were sitting in a van outside a strip club doing surveillance. There was an additional officer outside on foot in radio contact with the van. A gentleman of African American descent was celebrating his wedding which was supposed to be the next day with two of his friends. The three individuals left the club, got into their car and came under suspicion of the officer who was on foot and in plain clothes. The officer approached the car, wearing his badge. The driver of the car bolted. The officer thereupon radioed the five officers in the van that I think he has a gun. At that point, the car with the three individuals in it crashes into the van with the five cops, not once but twice. A hale of bullets, some fifty in all follow. One officer fired 31 times by himself. The driver of the vehicle, who was supposed to be married the next day, dies in the shooting, and his two companions were wounded. In the crime scene that followed no one finds a gun that could have been used by the gentlemen in the car. What follows next is EVERYBODY IS JOCKEYING FOR POSITION. The Mayor announces that firing that many bullets (over 50) is “UNACCEPTABLE”, while the police commissioner keeping his cool, talks about the evidence not being completely in yet to form a judgment. Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton get in on the act, and stir up old angers in the African American community. The first thing I say is, “Thank God, two of the officers in question were black, and one Hispanic. The remaining two officers were white. The second thing is that the Mayor has never been in a shoot-out. The closest he comes to a gun is the police unit that protects him, and his $10 billion dollar Forbes 400 fortune. So what is Bloomberg trying to do? We can only conjecture. It does seem possible that he is positioning himself for a run for the Presidency in 2008, and he does not want to seem overly bias to the police department. It seems to me he is patronizing the Black community, which is just as bad. The Police Commissioner, Raymond Kelly is also positioning himself for a run for Mayor of New York in the next two years. This means he has to watch what he says also. I can’t begin to imagine what a police officer has to go through to make a decision in an instant to use his gun. Human beings have five million years of evolution built into them. The most primitive emotional basis of our history is the “Fight or Flight” response. In a moment of intense fear, or panic as in when lions were chasing us 50,000 years ago, our sympathetic nervous system kicked in. Our brains are not thinking, instead instantly, extremely powerful chemicals start to flush through the body. These include noradrenalin, adrenaline, and cortisol which are released by the adrenal glands. These chemicals are so powerful that they overwhelm the body. Your emotional brain is preparing your body for FIGHT. The moment that first bullet went off; each officer involved assumed they were being shot at. All of them immediately emptied their automatic weapons at the car in question. NYPD officers are no longer permitted to carry revolvers as their primary weapons. They are instead required to carry semi automatic weapons such as the Glock 17, with a five pound trigger pull and a magazine that can fire 17 rounds. It is called a Glock 17 because it was the 17th patent taken out by its inventor. Most police officers carry 15 rounds in the magazine until the spring is broken in. You can however fire all 17 rounds in seconds, and that’s just what happened. The Mayor is playing to the grandstand, and knows less than nothing about a gun fight. Once you fire, you don’t say to yourself is two or three shots enough? You don’t even know if you have hit anything. The adrenaline keeps pouring through your body, you can barely stand up. Unfortunately we have these preconceived attitudes generated by watching too many police shows on television. An example would be the various CSI television shows which show the crime scene detectives solving the case, and arresting the perpetrator. That’s nonsense; crime scene detectives NEVER EVER arrest anyone. They simply investigate the crime scene, and turn over the evidence to homicide detectives who do the searching and the arrests. Only in the movies and television do we see cool cops acting calm under pressure. In real life, the fear that takes over the body is completely overwhelming. At some point in each of our lives, you have probably been stopped by a police officer for a traffic violation. You might remember the adrenaline rush you feel in your own body when this happens. What you don’t know is the adrenaline rush the police officer is feeling in his body when this happens. There is nothing more frightening than a police officer pulling somebody over at night on a quiet road. The officer has no idea what is going to happen, or who he is encountering. There is a feeling of panic that is pervasive. I am sure in the incident at the night club that the officers regret the unfortunate ending to a terrible situation. I believe that although they may be charged and tried for this incident, I do not believe that any REASONABLE jury would ever convict. If convicted by a biased jury, the case would be overturned on APPEAL. Nevertheless, some people including the Mayor may try to make political hay out of this tragedy. If so, he will not benefit long-term, people tend to see through these situations to what is really going on. I will leave you with these thoughts. Seventy years ago, my father, than a 17 year old teenager was walking by an armored truck parked on the avenue. The rear doors were opened and my father decided to peer in, somewhat upsetting a guard who was sitting in the truck. The guard looked at my father, and said, “You know young man; you hardly ever get into trouble minding your own business.” When the car drove into the van containing the five police officers TWICE, the driver was certainly not minding his own business. We should all pause for thought. Good luck

         
    Memories on hand the beauty of class rings

     

    The first recorded instance of class rings for a graduating class occurred at West Point in 1835. The tradition has spread, and now in the United States class rings are a common purchase by studetns, often times seen as almost an intregal part of tradition as the caps and gowns on graduation day. Class rings are a great way of not only having a living momento to your high school or college years, but also as a way to tie you to your fellow classmates, to increase that sense of comradery and belonging to something greater. At one time class rings were genreally a single design made by the high school or college, and the only design chancge would be the graduation year, but today class rings are usually at least somewhat customized by each student. Because of this, there no longer really is a “typical” class ring, though popular generalities still exist. Men's rings are generally larger than women's. The most popular color is gold, though that differs depending on the school and company providing the rings. Students have the option of ordering rings made of white gold, silver, or different alloys of other metals. The center stone is traditionally one of the school's colors, but there are no guidelines for the size or cut of the stone, and that can easily be cusomized however a student wants. Josten's is probably by far and away the best known maker of class rings, though Balfour, Herff-Jones, and ArtCarved are three other major companies that also sell class rings to students. The school’s name usually appears on the side, though the year of graduation is necessary on at least one side. This is, after all, the distinguishing mark that shows exactly where you belonged in the long history of whichever institution you attended. The school’s logo, motto, or insignia is also a common choice for design. Many students have their name, initials, or nickname engraved on the underside of the ring, underneath the stone, to mark it as their own. This further gives the personalized feeling to the ring, while still keeping you attatched to the larger whole. The ring belongs to you and you only, and yet the year of the class is there, the school emblem is there.

         
    Mod report says ufos do not exist in the uk some british pilots and military members might disagree

     

    According to a once secret report released by the British Ministry of Defense in April of 2007, UFOs are not anything to get excited about. The MoD report claims that all the incidents they have investigated show the objects in question to be without mass, no danger to air traffic and not under intelligent control. Despite the four hundred pages of nay saying, not everyone agrees. For almost two decades, a number of British Intelligence Analysts and former UK Military consultants working for the MoD have leaked documents which reveal that UFOs are intelligently-controlled vehicles of extra-terrestrial origin. The MoD leaks, recent reports that former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin saw a UFO from his aircraft in 2004 and statements from other Canadian officials which indicate UFOs are alien spacecraft may be the reason for this latest piece of disinformation. While the MoD may believe that there is nothing to this whole UFO thing, they might have considered checking with at least two UK Commercial Airline Pilots that recent saw one. Captain Ray Bowyer, 50, of Aurigny Airlines, spotted a "bright-yellow light" 10 miles west of Alderney at about 3pm during a flight from Southampton while his aircraft was 30 miles from the island at 4,000 feet on Monday, April 23, 2007. Captain Bowyer: "It was a very sharp, thin yellow object with a green area. It was 2,000ft up and stationary. I thought it was about 10 miles away, although I later realized it was approximately 40 miles from us. At first, I thought it was the size of a [Boeing] 737. "But it must have been much bigger because of how far away it was. It could have been as much as a mile wide." While on approach to Guernsey, Bowyer noticed a "second identical object further to the west". He said: "It was exactly the same but looked smaller because it was further away. It was closer to Guernsey. I can't explain it. At first, I thought it might have been a reflection from a vinery in Guernsey, but that would have disappeared quickly. This was clearly visual for about nine minutes. As I got closer to it, it became clear to me that it was tangible. I was in two minds about going towards it to have a closer look but decided against it because of the size of it. I had to think of the safety of the passengers first. I'm certainly not saying that it was something of another world. All I'm saying is that I have never seen anything like it before in all my years of flying." Bowyer reported the incident to Paul Kelly, 31, an Air Traffic Controller on duty. Kelly indicated that nothing appeared on his radar. However, ATC Paul Kelly received a "similar report" from a Blue Islands pilot en route to Jersey at the same time. Kelly explained that as the pilot went past Sark he "described an object behind him to his left". Kelly continued: "The description was very similar to Captain Bowyer's and they described it as being in exactly the same place. But they were looking at it from opposite sides." The other pilot said that the UFO was 1,550 feet lower than his aircraft, which was at 3,500ft. "Both pilots placed it at the same altitude", Kelly added. In 1987, I published a phone interview that I did with an official for the British Ministry of Defense in The New York UFO Report. The official was an assistant to a person involved with nuclear investigations. Because I knew the person which arranged the phone interview very well, there was no doubt that I was speaking with a very important source of insider information when it came to the MoD. The official told me that there were numerous incursions into areas where nuclear weapons and other sensitive materials were stored. These incursions involved unidentified aircraft and physical beings of unknown origin. He refused to elaborate about the beings fearing that any further descriptions might help identify him. According to him, general stories about the creatures and crafts that made the incursions were common knowledge to many in the MoD. Recent statements by Nick Pope may have helped to validate those stories. In November of 2006, Nick Pope (the former head of the MoD UFO research project) told the British Press that his Country was vulnerable to invasion or infiltration by extra-terrestrial forces. Pope felt that the shutting down of UFO research at the MoD Directorate of Defense Security has left his nation unprepared to defend against Aliens. As a result, he resigned his position with the Directorate. On previous occasions he has stated that the MoD wasn’t hiding anything from the British Public. I wonder how he feels now? My own source at the MoD said that the organization was of two minds when it came to UFOs. Many UK Military Officers feel there is ample evidence to believe that Aliens exist and are visiting the Earth without respect for national boundaries or security. That makes them a national security concern. Others at the MoD believe the entire matter is without merit and should be ignored. Time either heals all wounds or wounds all heals. In this case, time has been a friend to my source. Over the past twenty years since that interview with him, I have watched the UK Government split hairs over UFOs. When the UFO incident took place near the Bentwaters Base and NATO Facility in 1980, it was confirmation that UFOs are making incursions into security sensitive UK military facilities. The aftermath also revealed a clear split among military members and their hierarchy when it came to the subject of UFOs. Officially, it seemed that no one was really sure what happened at Bentwaters. Everything from Light House Beacons to reflective tree bark was rolled out to explain away the incident. But most of the people on the ground when it happened seemed convinced this wasn’t an ordinary event involving a conventional explanation. As with Roswell and hundreds of other cases involving military bases, aircraft, ships and UFOs, you had the choice of believing those who were there or people writing reports about it later to suit there own political and philosophical needs. Even if you have spent just a few minutes researching UFOs and have an open mind, will not be fooled by the MoD Report. As with other self-serving documents like the 1997 Air Force Report on the Roswell Crash and the recent UFO files released by France, these papers are designed to create doubt and mask any other information government agencies possess about UFOs and Aliens. Read more true stories about the Unexplained at UFOguy

         
    Monaco gets active and opens new us embassy

     

    With a population of under 40,000 Monaco could be forgiven for believing that overseas embassies were an unnecessary expense. Until now the world's second smallest country has been content to co-operate with French embassies around the world for any necessary representation. But Monaco has just opened her first independent embassy outside of Europe - in Washington D. C. Commenting on the new embassy, local Monaco travel guide YourMonaco say that despite the population equivalent of a small US town, other reasons could be behind the move. 'Forget about this being primarily for Monegasques running into trouble in the US and needing assistance. We think this is more to do with Prince Albert wanting to influence the movers and shakers in the world as he is very concerned about global warming and the environment generally. And where better for that than Washington? It's Monaco's greenhouse next to the White House' The new embassy, chosen after a visit by Prince Albert, is in the Kalorama district of Washington. The Principality's representative at the United Nations, Gilles Noghes, is to double up as her ambassador. Since Prince Albert assumed power in Monaco, he has been campaigning to push the environment and global warming up the political agenda to his fellow world leaders, and recently joined Britain's Prince Charles on his birthday at his Poundbury project in England, designed with the environment in mind. 'Prince Charles and Albert have similar views on the environment,' comment YourMonaco, 'And Prince Charles has found a fellow European Royal who has a similar outlook - soul mates'. Arctic Visit Prince Albert visited the North Pole last year to publicise how the arctic regions are changing with global warming, and one of his first acts was to sign the Kyoto Protocol - along with the US, Monaco was one of the few countries in the world not to endorse it before Prince Albert put pen to paper. As well as the Monaco Grand Prix, the principality is Europe's best known tax haven, with residents enjoying a zero rated income tax. With property prices among the highest in the world, residents of Monaco normally need to spend six months a year there to maintain residency. An announcement has been made recently that a new island is to be built off Monte Carlo, and this will provide more land and property in the world's second smallest country. Bidders for the development have been asked to take the environment into account - and also the Monaco Grand Prix. Which suggests a possible new route for the race. Despite being one of the world's most glamourous sporting events the Monaco Grand Prix is notorious for a lack of overtaking opportunities, and the new space might in time address the historical criticism of the race. Property prices in Monaco are high due to the lack of land - in the past one of the districts, Fontvieille, had much of its area reclaimed from the sea, but property prices there equal those of the better known Monte Carlo. One of the most popular buildings in Fontvieille, Seaside Plaza, has average prices of three to four million Euros for a three bedroom apartment, and a four bedroom four bathroom one is currently on the market at close to ten million Euros. One property company who specialise in Monaco property doubt that prices will ease much. 'By the time the development is finished prices would probably have gone up in Monaco anyway, and this new development on the housing side is likely to be aiming for quality rather than quantity', they claim. 'It's almost certain that the properties will be snapped up by investors off-plan, and then come back to the market with a premium once the buildings are complete. The development in itself will attract more attention to the Monaco property market. In the short and medium term prices are likely to rise in Monaco rather than fall'.

         
    More about the prohibition

     

    Prohibition - the legal enforcement of abstinence from alcoholic beverages - is not an American invention. The USA was preceded by the Aztecs, ancient China, feudal Japan, the Polynesian islands, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Canada, and India, and all the Muslim countries (where prohibition is still the law). All secular prohibition laws have been repealed within 10-20 years from their introduction. Some prohibition laws - Finland is an example - were the result of lobbying by breweries. These enterprises wanted to divert demand from stiff drinks to the softer varieties of alcohol - for instance, to beer. Prohibition in the USA was not sudden. Temperance movements flourished there in the 1820s - a century before the passage of the Constitutional Amendment. By that time, pure alcohol consumption per person reached 27 liters (about 7 gallons). Massachusetts had a prohibition law between 1838 and 1840. Maine followed in 1846-1851 and then was imitated by a host of other states. Alcohol consumption per head dropped to 8 liters (2 gallons). The Anti-Saloon League spearheaded another successful drive to prohibit the manufacture and sale of liquor between 1906-13. It pointed to the existence of well over 100,000 drinking, prostitution, and gambling establishments (saloons) throughout the USA in 1870. In 1873 women across the country - the true victims of drunken men - marched from church services to saloons and demanded their closure (The Women's War). The USA had a Wartime Prohibition Law during World War I (intended to conserve grain stocks). According to the Encyclopedia Britannica: "By January 1920 prohibition was already in effect in 33 states covering 63 percent of the total population. In 1917 the resolution for submission of the Prohibition Amendment to the states received the necessary two-thirds vote in Congress; the (eighteenth) amendment was ratified on Jan. 29, 1919, and went into effect on Jan. 29, 1920. On Oct. 28, 1919, the National Prohibition Act, popularly known as the Volstead Act (after its promoter, Congressman Andrew J. Volstead), was enacted, providing enforcement guidelines." So the Volstead Act was not about the Prohibition. It merely dealt with the enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment. It was actually vetoed by President Wilson - but to no avail. It defined "intoxicating drink" as any libation containing more than 0.5% (that's HALF a percent) of alcohol. This draconic threshold was amended to 3.2%, just before the Amendment was repealed. Prohibition inevitably brought on bootlegging. Criminals like Al Capone (see our First Book of Factoids) made 60 million US dollars a year in the 1920s. In 1933, Utah was the 36th state to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution to repeal the Eighteenth. But prohibition continued to be enforced in a few states until 1966! Contrary to distorted media reports, Prohibition was very popular. By 1934, annual alcohol consumption per capita slumped to 0.97 gallons (3.7 liters). Though the crime rate during this period did rise - it did not explode spectacularly. Actually, the Prohibition Party, established in 1869, still exists and fields candidates in most states of the Union. The Amendment was repealed on two grounds: I. Economic - Prohibition was said to inhibit economic activity and job creation during the Depression era. II. Legal - The sporadic and arbitrary enforcement of the law threatened individual liberties and the integrity of police forces and the courts, claimed the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment (AAPA). Alcohol consumption never really recovered. In 1975, it stood at 10.2 liters (2.7 gallons) per head. Amendment [XVIII] [1919]{15} Section 1--After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2--The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3--This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. Amendment [XXI] [1933] Section 1--The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2--The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. Section 3--This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

         
    Myths of the american civil war

     

    The Civil War (1861-5) has spawned numerous myths and falsities. The Republicans did not intend to abolish slavery - just to "contain" it, i. e., limit it to the 15 states where it had already existed. Most of the Democrats accepted this solution. This led to a schism in the Democratic party. The "fire eaters" left it and established their own pro-secession political organization. Growing constituencies in the south - such as urban immigrants and mountain farmers - opposed slavery as a form of unfair competition. Less than one quarter of southern families owned slaves in 1861. Slave-based, mainly cotton raising, enterprises, were so profitable that slave prices almost doubled in the 1850s. This rendered slaves - as well as land - out of the reach of everyone but the wealthiest citizens. Cotton represented three fifths of all United States exports in 1860. Southerners, dependent on industrial imports as they were, supported free trade. Northerners were vehement trade protectionists. The federal government derived most of its income from custom duties. Income tax and corporate profit tax were yet to be invented. The states seceded one by one, following secession conventions and state-wide votes. The Confederacy (Confederate States of America) was born only later. Not all the constituents of the Confederacy seceded at once. Seven - the "core" - seceded between December 20, 1860 and February 1, 1861. They were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Another four - Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas - joined them only after the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861. Two - Kentucky and Missouri - seceded but were controlled by the Union's army throughout the war. Maryland and Delaware were slave states but did not secede. President James Buchanan who preceded Abraham Lincoln, made clear that the federal government would not use force to prevent secession. Secession was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court only in 1869 (in Texas vs. White) - four years after the Civil War ended. New England almost seceded in 1812, during the Anglo-American conflict, in order to protect its trade with Britain. The constitution of the Confederacy prohibited African slave trade (buying slaves from Africa), though it allowed interstate trade in slaves. The first Confederate capital was in Montgomery, Alabama - not in Richmond, Virginia. The term of office of the Confederate president - Jefferson Davis was the first elected - was six years, not four as was the case in the Union. Fort Sumter was not the first attack of the Confederacy on the Union. It was preceded by attacks on 11 forts and military installations on Confederate territory. Lincoln won only 40 percent of the popular vote in 1860. Hence the South's fierce resistance to his abolitionist agenda. In 1864, the Republicans became so unpopular, they had to change their name to the Union Party. Lincoln's vice-president, Johnson, actually was a Democrat and hailed from Tennessee, a seceding state. He was the only senator from a seceded state to remain in the Senate. Reconstruction started long before the war ended, in Union-occupied Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Slave tax was an important source of state revenue in the South (up to 60 percent in South Carolina). Emancipation led to near bankruptcy. The Union states of Connecticut, Minnesota, and Wisconsin refused to pass constitutional amendments to confer suffrage on black males. The Union army consigned black labor gangs to work on the plantations of loyal Southerners and forcibly separated the black workers from their families. Contrary to myth, nearly two thirds of black families were headed by both parents. Slave marriages were legally meaningless in the antebellum South, though. But nearly 90 percent of slave households remained intact till death or forced separation. The average age of childbirth for women was 20. Segregation was initiated by blacks. The freedmen lobbied hard and long for separate black churches and educational facilities. Nor was lynching confined to blacks. For instance, a white mob lynched, in September 1862, forty four Union supporters in Gainesville, Texas. Similar events took place in Shelton Laurel, North Carolina. The Ku Klux Klan was the paramilitary arm of the Democratic party in the South, though never officially endorsed by it. It was used to "discipline" the workforce in the plantations - but also targeted Republicans. The Democrats changed their name after the war to the Conservative Party. By 1877 they have regained power in all formerly Confederate states.

         
    National identification cards. what s the purpose

     

    There are many reasons why countries, small and large, are reviewing the needs for national identification cards. Many of the reasons have to do with immigration, border control and some are simply economic. When considering national identification cards for a country, it’s fairly simple to understand the perceived need to clearly identify someone’s nationality for reasons from employment to citizenship benefits. Even when reviewing who should receive medical or any other service offered by a government to its citizens and to protect these services so they are not abused by individuals whose citizenship is with another country. The only form of national identification is a printed piece of paper in many countries, and because of this many of these nations are reviewing their possibilities. These documents are simple to forge since they don’t contain a picture or other identifying marks other than being the person holding the document. Reducing the abuse of services and controlling costs is reason enough to implement a national photo ID card and database. Because of these needs and many others it is apparent that some of the information on the identification cards would include characteristics of the holder such as height, weight sex and eye color. Some nations have included items such as retinal scan information and finger prints into the national database and into the identification cards themselves. Some of the countries that are entertaining or beginning this process do not have an up to date account on its current residents or even census information on their citizens. Implementing a national identification card into a country such as this allows for many other needed benefits, such as tracking the activity of its citizens when it comes to border crossings, criminal records, government employment history or military service. Presently many of these countries have databases to track these items, but most are independent of each other. Creating a national ID card would allow the merging of all of these databases into a common solution that would allow for a much simpler identification and review of an individual’s history. As governments review these types of requirements, it has become in many cases a task for outsourcing. For many nations, undertaking the monumental feat of photographing, capturing information and providing ID cards to every citizen is too large for governments to handle efficiently. There have been a few companies providing solutions for nations and one of them is FullIdentity. This organization has been providing photo identification cards for individuals for about seven years and have created solutions that incorporate much more than simply providing cards. In many cases solutions have been developed for countries that are not only easy to implement but also provide an economic benefit for the countries implementing them. Simply put, when outsourcing the identification card needs of a country to a provider such as FullIdentity, the costs are less expensive than they would be if a nation took on the burden of developing a solution internally. Because of the discounted expense, the country can charge the citizens less for the ID cards than they would if the nation was passing the expense along directly to the resident. This would still leave a financial margin that would be paid to the government. It is hard to find an economic reason for a government not to implement a national identification card system. Advocates will shout that “big brother” is stripping them of their rights and privacy; but shouldn’t someone be watching our criminal records, military service and border crossings? Doesn’t a government have the responsibility to ensure that only their citizens are receiving benefits from their own country or should anyone be allowed to receive these benefits when their citizenship belongs to another nation?

         
    National intelligence estimate al qaeda back stronger then ever who s kidding who

     

    The Intelligence apparatus of the United States is required to publish what is referred to as the National Intelligence Estimate. It is a distillation of the major intelligence issues facing the United States as seen through the eyes of some 17 different intelligence organizations. One of the purposes of the National Intelligence Estimate is to CYA. If something bad were to happen, at the very least the bureaucracy could then point back and say, see, it was in the Estimate. This latest one is very special in that you must read between the lines to understand what it is saying. Some of the key concepts are “US Homeland will face a persistent and evolving terrorist threat over the next three years. …Main threat comes from Islamic terrorist groups and cells, especially Al-Qaeda. Group has protected or regenerated key elements of its Homeland attack capability, including: as a safe haven in the Pakistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). We assess that..Al-Qaeda’s association with Al-Qaeda Iraq’s helps Al-Qaeda to energize the broader Sunni extremist community, raise resources, and to recruit and indoctrinate operatives, including for Homeland (meaning United States) attacks.” This is not what you said Two Years Ago, Mr. President! In the last National Intelligence Estimate two years ago, Al-Qaeda was on the run, broken up, being smashed. There was supposedly a direct link between the war in Iraq and the lessened threat level presented by Al-Qaeda. This is why we say; you must read between the lines of the latest estimate. If things were so bad for Al-Qaeda just two years ago, how could they have to quote the document, “REGENERATED”? What were we doing, sleeping at the switch. Let’s Look Back a Moment 1)We had Bin Laden trapped in Afghanistan after the 9/11 tragedy, absolutely trapped. Instead of finishing the man and his people with our own troops who were present and capable of doing the job, we paid the local trial leaders in American $100 dollar bills to do the job. Bin Laden paid them more, and escaped successfully with his underlings to the safety of the Pakistani mountains where he is today. 2)We have given President Musharraf over $10 billion in cold American currency to finish Bin Laden and he never got the job done. He constantly gives lip service to the task, but nothing happens. In fact, Musharraf cut a deal with the chieftains protecting Bin Laden to let them administer these provinces, and now the chiefs have not adhered to their side of the bargain. 3)President Bush has always stated that this country is safer because we went into Iraq. This latest National Intelligence Estimate does not agree with that assessment, although the intelligence agencies will not say so directly. The fact that Al-Qaeda has reconstituted itself and is bigger and stronger than ever clearly tells you that the resources, which have gone into Iraq, were a diversion from the real war on terrorism, which is Al-Qaeda. For more on this topic, please see our expanded article on our website

         
    New gate in new england hard time connecticut style

     

    The very 1st state prison in the United States was founded before there were states at all, let alone united ones. Connecticut’s New-Gate Prison, originally a copper mine, was began it’s role as a detention center in the fall of 1773 as the colony’s public “gaol” and workhouse. It was called New-Gate after the fearsome prison of the same name in England. During the early years of the American Revolutionary War it held captured loyalists and torries. It was also a Prisoner of War facility in the American Civil War. The people of Connecticut were no less concerned with budget over-run in the late 18th century than we are today, so the supposed “self-sufficiency” of New-Gate was very appealing. Copper could still be mined from the dank tunnels that made up the prison, allowing prisoners to pay for their own upkeep. In addition, the structure of the prison, i. e. two shafts, a couple of iron trap-doors and a veritable dungeon of mine tunnels, meant that a minimal staff would be needed. This included the warden or “Keeper” three guards or “overseers” and a few skilled miners, paid from the prisoners salaries, to instruct the prisoner on the finer points of copper mining. Surely such a prison was a model of efficiency and security; it’s a shame then that the very 1st prisoner escaped in less than a month. On December 22nd of 1773, John Hinson was the 1st man incarcerated in Connecticut’s new New-Gate Prison. Little is known about Hinson, other than that he was 20 year-old and stood 5’6” tall. Even his crime has been forgotten, though it must have been serious; the New-Gate was reserved for burglars, horse-thieves, counterfeiters, highwaymen and other such hard-cases. What is known is that on January 9th John Hinson escaped, possibly using his compact size and the vigor of youth to climb up a 70-foot well shaft, but more probably aided by an accomplice on the outside with a length of rope and a bit of cash to bribe an overseer. One rather romantic (and unsubstantiated) tale involves his beautiful ladylove coming to his rescue. The only certainty is that if he was ever imprisoned in Connecticut again, then those records have been lost. Three months later three more convicts escaped, leading local authorities to grudgingly admit that some sort of wall may be necessary. With the addition of a stone enclosure and a few more guards the prison became far more secure, though it never quite lived up to its initial boast of being escape-proof. For the next 54-year of its operation some 800 hard-timers lived and worked in Connecticut’s largest state-operated dungeon. It wasn’t until 1827 that the New-Gate was abandoned as a permanent detention facility, though it did see limited military use in the Civil War. A new, nominally less medieval prison was built in Wethersfield and the prisoners were transferred there. Presumably the prisoners regarded this as an improvement in their situation. No matter how dismal the new prison was, at least it wasn’t subterranean.

         
    New defense secretary changes everything perhaps

     

    On Election Day, the American people spoke very strongly that the direction the President and the Republican Party was taking America towards, is not the direction the country wanted to go in. Presidents are not oblivious to polls. They may not honor them, but they are not oblivious to them. The most important issue in the campaign turned out to be two issues according to the exit polls. They were CORRUPTION, and IRAQ in that order. The President was quick with a lightening type response to the election. I personally felt Donald Rumsfeld was going to be fired 3 or 4 weeks after the election to allow him to leave with his dignity intact. The President dispatched the now lamb duck Secretary within hours after the voters made their decisions. In doing so, the President is insuring that this Congress will ratify the nomination of Robert Gates, not a Democratic Congress convening in January of 07. What type of man is Robert Gates, the D Sec as they call the Secretary of Defense? There are parallels to this selection. During the height of the View Nam war, after six plus years in office, Robert McNamara was a worn, beaten man troubled by his own running of that war. His children had even turned against him. His friends advised how can you continue to be a part of this mess? McNamara left, and Lyndon Johnson installed Clark Clifford, one of my heroes who was a legal advisor to every Democratic President since Harry Truman. Clifford was even Joe Kennedy’s lawyer, the father of the future slain President. Johnson thought that Clifford would turn into an absolute HAWK on Viet Nam, and turn up the pressure on the war. Instead, he advised Johnson, you are in an un-winnable situation, and I advise a negotiated settlement. Johnson swallowed hard, and announced he would not be his party’s candidate for nomination, or re-election in the upcoming months. Robert Gates the new incoming Secretary of Defense is this President’s second attempt to reach out to his father’s advisors to HELP HIM. In the last 3 years, not once has this President spoken to the most important advisor he could have spoken with, regarding what to do in Iraq - namely his father, George Herbert Walker Bush. Now when the Iraq war has turned into a quagmire with no end in sight, this President has chosen his father’s CIA director Robert Gates, to step in and turn this thing around. Gates was a student of Brent Scowcroft (former National Security Advisor), as was Condolezza Rice, our Secretary of State. Scowcroft is considered the ultimate low key professional who ran White House foreign policy when George HW Bush was President. Most people think Secretary of State James Baker called the shots, that’s only partially correct. Scowcroft was the professional with the experience. Baker learned of course as the years went by, and became a very effective, diplomatic Secretary of State. Gates was there all the time, a totally professional intelligence analyst who is the only CIA career employee to rise from the bottom to become Director. The President’s current status This President is in trouble, and the people who surrounded him called the Neo-Cons got him into the mess he’s in. What you need to understand is that George Bush unlike many other politicians believes what he says, and says what he believes. Most politicians play to the crowd. This man’s hero is probably Harry Truman, who walked out of the White House with an approval rating approaching 25% in 1953, and went on to be venerated by succeeding generations of Americans. President Bush does not play to the crowd. This is evident in his news conferences when he can not help but show his feelings when reporters ask the stupidest “SHOWBOAT” questions. Bush will not have any part of it. He is an authentic guy that lives his life that way. If the Iraq Study Group chaired by former Secretary of State Baker, gives the President some very tough advice on Iraq, he just might take it. Bush is not a fool. He knows this war is not going well. He also knows the American people like to keep their Presidents on a short leash when it comes to wars, and the free ride is now over. For the moment, the pressure on President Bush can only get worse. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld was taking the heat that rightfully belonged to the President. Rumsfeld as a foil for this country’s anger is now gone. Bush will instead take the heat himself. He has no problem with that if he the President continues to believe in the righteousness of his actions, and for the moment he does. The President has been constantly underestimated by his opponents. You don’t win two national elections, and one Congressional election in between by being a fool. Bob Gates is going to change things at the Defense Department, and change them quick. Do not for one moment believe that Rumsfeld was wrong on everything he did, that’s nonsense. He did get four big things terribly wrong. One, he underestimated the post Iraq war need for US troop levels. It takes more troops to govern a country and quell discontent, than to invade and take over. Two, He did acquiesce or instigate the destruction of the Iraqi army. That army could have been utilized to re-build and govern post-war Iraq. We simply had to PAY THEM a sum of money equal to a fraction of what we are paying Halliburton for a failed US policy. Thirdly, he participated in, or instigated the firing of the Sunni’s who ran the Iraqi government before finding COMPETENT REPLACEMENTS to replace those fired. They knew how to turn the electricity on, and keep the machinery of government functioning. Even General Patton at the tail end of WW II used Nazi bureaucrats until he could train his own bureaucrats. Fourthly, the Iraqi police were fired, and then new people had to be found, vetted, and trained – 3 years have elapsed. What does it mean? We will never know if democracy would have had a chance to flourish in Iraq. It is too late, too much time has been wasted to wait for that to happen. The President’s team, and therefore the President FAILED in the EXECUTION of a policy that could have worked had it been implemented properly, perhaps, we will never know. The American people have now lost patience in waiting for this President to correct his own mistakes – and forced change upon him via an election. Robert Gates is his first response. James Baker and the Iraq Study Group in the next couple of weeks will be his second response. Watch for changes in the Defense Department as soon as Gates is approved by the Senate. Does he fire the neo-cons one after another? If he does, you know we are on our way to a new policy. Richard Stoyeck

         
    Nichts ist unmoglich

     

    Maurits Cornelis Escheriste wurde am 17. Juni 1898 in Leeuwarden, in Nordholland geboren. Er war der jьngste von drei Sцhnen des Hydraulikingenieurs G. A. Escher. M. C. Escher sollte sich in seiner Kindheit al sein auЯergewцhnlich schlechter Schьler ausgeben, er musste zwei Klassen wiederholen und hatte trotz seiner zeichnerischen Begabung sogar im Fach Kunst schlechte Noten. Zum offiziellen Schulabschluss kam es nie, dazu waren seine Leistungen einfach zu miserabel. Doch wo er in der Schule durchfiel, sollte er privat schon an sein zeichnerisches Kцnnen arbeiten. Bereits wдhrend der Schulzeit schuf er Linolschnitte, unter anderem ein Portrait seines Vaters. 1917 begann M. C. Escher ein Architekturstudium, das er gleichfalls nicht abschloss. Escher hatte einfach noch nicht sein Schicksal und Kцnnen finden kцnnen. Sein dortiger Lehrer S. Jesserun de Mesquita erkannte jedoch in seinem Schьler die auЯerordentliche Begabung und unterrichtete ihn weiter in grafischen Techniken. Escher sollte auf dieser Weise sehr schnell die Holzschnitttechnik vollkommen beherrschen. Durch das stдndige Reisen durch Italien und Spanien, sollte Escher auf seine Frau die Schweizerin Jetta Umiker fallen und sie 1924 heiraten. Eingerichtet in Rom sollte Escher bald schon seine ersten Ausstellungen verцffentlichen. Es kamen fьnf Ausstellungen in Holland und der Schweiz zu Stande. In dieser Zeit erlangte Escher eine gewisse Popularitдt. Bis 1937 entstanden ьberwiegend mediterrane Landschaftsbilder, darunter die groЯe Lithografie eines kleinen Abruzzendorfes (Castrovalva 1930). Besonders in den Staaten hatte Escher groЯe Aufmerksamkeit erregt. Erst nach Kriegsende in sollte Escher die Mezzotinttechnik erlernen und wandte sich ab 1946 verstдrkt perspektivischen Bildern zu. Er schaffte es unmцgliche Figuren, unmцgliche Rдumen darzustellen, die jedermanns Augen faszinierte. Noch nie hatte ein Kьnstler je zuvor in solch einer Weise den Augen getдuscht. In seinen Kunstbildern beschдftigen sich Escher mit der Darstellung perspektivischer Unmцglichkeiten, optischer Tдuschungen und multistabiler Wahrnehmungsphдnomene. Man sieht Objekte oder Gebдude, die auf den ersten Blick natьrlich zu sein scheinen, auf den zweiten aber vollkommen widersprьchlich. Bis heute gelten seine unmцglichen Figuren zu seiner eigentlichen Unterschrift. Seine Schцpfungen ermцglichten Escher ein Status eines Popstars und machten ihn zum Kьnstler, der er heute ist. Unter anderem hat Escher das Tribar erfunden, ein von Roger Penrose beschriebene unmцgliche Penrose-Dreieck. Das Penrose-Dreieck ist die wahrscheinlich berьhmteste unmцgliche Figur, die jeweils aufgezeichnet wurde. Dabei handelt es sich um drei Balken, die jeweils im rechten Winkel zueinander stehen und dennoch zu einem Dreieck verbunden sind. Ein solches Dreieck existiert nur auf dem 2-d Blatt! Das Tribar wurde zur Grundlage mehrere Escher Bilder, wo man nie sicher sein konnte, was nun die richtige Perspektive ist und welche die falsche. Durch geschicktes Zeichen und Malen verwandelte Escher ein jedes einfaches Bild in einem wahren Meisterwerk des Nachdenkens. Man kann Stunden vor einem solchen Bild verbringen und immer wieder auf Details staunen die das Bild zur Fiktion machen lдsst. Fьr M. C. Escher war nun mal nicht unmцglich, auf Blatt ist alles machbar! M. C. Escher erkrankte 1964 und starb 1972 nach einer Operation im engsten Familienkreis. Seit 2002 kann man seine Werk, Arbeitsskizzen und Privatfotos im Escher Museum betrachten. Das Museum befindet sich im ehemaligen Palais der Kцnigin Emma in der Altstadt von Den Haag Holland.

         
    North korea yes you have our attention

     

    North Korea has tested a low yield nuclear device with 4% of the destructive power of the bomb that the United States dropped on Hiroshima, Japan at the end of World War II. Some believe that the device was much larger but may have failed for technical reasons. We don’t know the truth, because the United States has not devoted the resources to know what is really going on. If you are surprised, don’t be. Intelligence collection is a tricky business. When Richard Nixon was President, you may remember that one of our ships, the USS Pueblo was brazenly attacked and hijacked in international waters in 1968, off the coast of North Korea. The 82 member crew was taken prisoner and tortured over an 11 month period before their release was negotiated. There is such a thing as institutional memory. The senior members of the military remember the Pueblo incident well, and it still influences our behavior towards North Korea. As an aside, President Nixon gave the order to attack North Korea in retribution for the Pueblo incident. At the time the President believed a show of force was absolutely necessary to dissuade the Koreans from further provocative acts. Nixon’s Secretary of Defense at the time did not carry out the Presidential directive. To the end of his life, Nixon felt the biggest foreign policy error of his administration was the failure to carry out a retaliatory raid against North Korea for the Pueblo capture. The Pueblo incident has emboldened the North Koreans ever since. Both the Clinton and Bush Administrations were aware of the Pueblo incident and its aftermath, when attempting to configure a new US policy towards North Korea’s nuclear program. We have 37,000 American soldiers stationed in South Korea protecting our alliance and interests with South Korea. There is a phased troop withdrawal from the South Korea Peninsula taking place. You have to wonder why we are willing to withdraw troops from South Korea during a time when they wish to pursue a nuclear development process. The answer is that this area of the world is loaded with dynamite, and if it blows up, you don’t want to have 37,000 American troops sitting in the middle of it. North Korea has one of the largest stockpiles of artillery weapons of any army in the world. They are capable of striking Seoul, South Korea’s capital from across the border. It was recently reported that Prince Bandar, the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the United States had a private conversation with President Bush. In the conversation the Prince told the President that the United States should withdraw US troops from South Korea. Bandar felt it was too dangerous to leave our soldiers in the middle of a possible confrontation where our OPTIONS would be limited. As Bandar put it, without troops on the border, if there’s problem, it’s a REGIONAL PROBLEM. With troops, you could have thousands of American lives at risk, and it becomes a major WAR instantly. So what do we do about the North Koreans announcing the ACTUAL testing of a nuclear weapon? We have to realize that words have power. We have to be careful what we say. President Bush announced the “axis of evil” speech several years ago. He named North Korea and Iraq as two of the three countries. It would seem that he started his anti-terrorism campaign in the wrong end of the world. Iraq did not have weapons of mass destruction (WMD), while North Korea has gone live with them. Now we are in a bind. Our defense policy has been altered whereby we can only fight one war in one country at a time, while fighting a holding action in a second country. Prior to the Bush Administration holding power, we were postured to fight two simultaneous wars on two fronts. The bad guys know our new policy and will take advantage of us being pinned down in Iraq to expand their own power bases. Since we have a fear of losing pilots or better yet, having a pilot shot down, we are not doing the reconnaissance flights that we would normally do over North Korea. The best thing to do right now is to realize that if North Korea is a problem for the United States, it is a much bigger problem for Japan, China, Philippines, and South Korea. This is a regional problem in spite of our alliances, and treaty involvements. Its one thing to build and detonate a nuclear weapon, it’s quite another to have a long range missile delivery system. North Korea could fairly easily develop a delivery system capable of hitting the countries in its immediate vicinity. Hitting the United States from a 9,000 mile plus distance is another story, not so easy really. Since the countries bordering North Korea have the most to lose, they should be the ones bearing the brunt of the responsibility for multi-lateral talks among the powers involved. The real deal is that North Korea is a dictatorship that routinely starves its own people for the benefit of the small leadership that has basically enslaved the country. This leadership wants to play the cards that it can. What it now has is nuclear weapons. They will use this card to maximize whatever concessions they can from the United States and the immediate surrounding neighbors. Are we going to cave, and make concessions to the North Koreans? Of course we are, because that’s what superpowers do. It’s not about appeasement, it’s about business, and what makes good business sense. Churchill said that “People have friends, nations have interests”. It is in our interest to not divert ourselves from the issue of extricating ourselves from a tortuous situation in Iraq. It is costing us treasure, and beginning to eat at the social fabric our country as Viet Nam did a generation ago. We must put a good face on Iraq and get out. The President may not be aware of it, but he is on a short leash in Iraq. The American people are very intolerant of wars without objectives that last too long, and that’s precisely where George Bush finds himself. It is highly questionable that his party will survive the mid-term elections intact. The country will embrace CHANGE, even from a Democratic party that is devoid of ideas.

         
    Nuclear desalination in australia

     

    Australia needs to consider Nuclear Desalination as a part of the Nuclear Energy Debate Australia can decide to become energy, and financially, rich due to the use of its abundant supply of uranium that can be either used locally in home grown Nuclear power plants or sold as a refined product on the world market. The decision is in the hands of the Australian people through their elected representatives. There are additional issues that need to be addressed in parallel with the above issues. The Desalination of Seawater using Nuclear Power and its benefits need to be considered in any discussion of Nuclear Power in Australia. Large areas of Australia have been in moderate to severe drought conditions for fifteen of the last twenty years.[1] It seems possible that Australia will join the African region, Latin America and South East Asia as an area suffering moderate to sever water shortages.[2] Desalination is a possible solution to these shortages in Australia. In the past it has not been seen as an economical solution to local water shortages. However, given, the, potential, change in public opinion, attitude and the necessary economic consideration of Nuclear Energy and Uranium mining and refinement, desalination of seawater using Nuclear Energy must be considered at the same time. By 2025, about two thirds of the world population may suffer sever water shortages. Fresh, potable, water will become an internationally marketable product.[3] Desalination of seawater using Nuclear Power is not new and currently there are 13 reactors operating, in 4 countries, with a combined 247 reactor-years experience.[4] The cost of nuclear desalinated water is about 40 cents per kiloliter[5] and while this is 20 to 30 times as much as we are already paying, these costs could be lower for Australia as we have our own uranium. Even given the costs as shown, it is only a matter of time until it becomes cost effective. The International Atomic Energy Agency is currently conducting research into Nuclear Desalination and the International Nuclear Desalination Advisory Group advises that another 13 countries are conducting research and feasibility studies. These countries are Argentina, Canada, China, Egypt, France, India, Israel, South Korea, Libya, Morocco, Pakistan, Russian Federation and United States. There is also major International Collaboration underway between Indonesia and Korea, Rep of, Tanzania and France, Pakistan and Various International Bodies, Morocco and France, Russia and Canada and lastly Eurodesal.[6] It is evident Nuclear Desalination is being considered world wide. Australia has 38% of the worlds know Uranium resources and is about to make a national decision regarding its use. Public awareness that the potential of Nuclear Desalination can solve all of Australia’s future water requirements as well as, allowing Australia to convert large amounts of inhospitable land into an arable and profitable resource will ease the resistance currently being shown by a percentage of the population. The public must be apprised of the benefits of Nuclear Desalination, while considering the Nuclear Energy issue. Submission Prepared by: Ron Gully (Bachelor Science in Nuclear Physics) [1] The Australian Bureau of Meteorology [2] International Atomic Energy Agency iaea. org/nucleardesalination/ [3] International Atomic Energy Agency [4] International Desalination Advisory Group [5] Uranium Information Center uic. au/nip74.htm [6] International Desalination Advisory Group

         
     
         
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