Evidence of hypnotic-like phenomena appears in many ancient cultures. The writer of Genesis seems familiar with the anaesthetic power of hypnosis when he reports that God put Adam "into a deep sleep" to take his rib to form Eve. Other ancient records suggest hypnosis was used by the oracle at Delphi and in rites in ancient Egypt (Hughes and Rothovius, 1996). The modern history of hypnosis begins in the late 1700s, when a French physician, Anton Mesmer, revived an interest in hypnosis. 1734-1815 Franz Anton Mesmer was born in Vienna. Mesmer is considered the father of hypnosis. He is remembered for the term mesmerism which described a process of inducing trance through a series of passes he made with his hands and/or magnets over people. He worked with a person’s animal magnetism (psychic and electromagnetic energies). The medical community eventually discredited him despite his considerable success treating a variety of ailments. His successes offended the medical establishment of the time, who arranged for an official French government investigating committee. This committee included Benjamin Franklin, then the American ambassador to France, and Joseph Guillotine, a French physician who introduced a never-fail device for physically separating the mind from the rest of the body. 1795-1860 James Braid, an English physician, originally opposed to mesmerism (as it had become known) who subsequently became interested. He said that cures were not due to animal magnetism however, they were due to suggestion. He developed the eye fixation technique (also known as Braidism) of inducing relaxation and called it hypnosis (after Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep) as he thought the phenomena was a form of sleep. Later, realising his error, he tried to change the name to monoeidism (meaning influence of a single idea)however, the original name stuck. 1825-1893 Jean Marie Charcot a French neurologist, disagreed with the Nancy School of Hypnotism and contended that hypnosis was simply a manifestation of hysteria. There was bitter rivalry between Charcot and the Nancy group (Liebault and Bernheim). He revived Mesmer’s theory of Animal Magnetism and identified the three stages of trance; lethargy, catalepsy and somnambulism. 1845-1947 Pierre Janet was a French neurologist and psychologist who was initially opposed to the use of hypnosis until he discovered its relaxing effects and promotion of healing. Janet was one of the few people who continued to show an interest in hypnosis during the psychoanalytical rage. 1849-1936 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov - Russian psychologist who actually was more focused on the study of the digestive process. He is known primarily for his development of the concept of the conditioned reflex (or Stimulus Response Theory). In his classic experiment, he trained hungry dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell, which was previously associated with the sight of food. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1904 for his work on digestive secretions. Though he had nothing to do with hypnosis, his Stimulus Response Theory is a cornerstone in linking and anchoring behaviours, particularly in NLP. 1857-1926 Emile Coue, a physician who formulated the Laws of Suggestion. He is also known for encouraging his patients to say to themselves 20-30 times a night before going to sleep; "Everyday in every way, I am getting better and better." He also discovered that delivering positive suggestions when prescribing medication proved to be a more effective cure than prescribing medications alone. He eventually abandoned the concept of hypnosis in favour of just using suggestion, feeling hypnosis and the hypnotic state impaired the efficiency of the suggestion. Coue’s Laws of Suggestion The Law of Concentrated Attention " Whenever attention is concentrated on an idea over and over again, it spontaneously tends to realise itself" The Law of Reverse Action "The harder one tries to do something, the less chance one has of success" The Law of Dominant Effect "A stronger emotion tends to replace a weaker one" 1856-1939 Sigmund Freud travelled to Nancy and studied with Liebault and Bernheim, and then did additional study with Charcot. Freud did not incorporate hypnosis in his therapeutic work however because he felt he could not hypnotise patients to a sufficient depth, felt that the cures were temporary, and that hynosis stripped patients of their defences. Freud was considered a poor hypnotist given his paternal manner. However, his clients often went into trance and he often, unknowingly, performed non-verbal inductions when he would place his hand on his patient’s head to signify the Doctor dominant, patient submissive roles. Because of his early dismissal of hypnosis in favour of psychoanalysis, hypnosis was almost totally ignored. 1875-1961 Carl Jung, a student and colleague of Freud’s, rejected Freud’s psychoanalytical approach and developed his own interests. He developed the concept of the collective unconscious and archetypes. Though he did not actively use hypnosis, he encouraged his patients to use active imagination to change old memories. He often used the concept of the inner guide, in the healing work. He believed that the inner mind could be accessed through tools like the I Ching and astrology. He was rejected by the conservative medical community as a mystic. However, many of his ideas and theories are actively embraced by healers to this day. 1932-1974 Milton Erickson, a psychologist and psychiatrist pioneered the art of indirect suggestion in hypnosis. He is considered to be the father of modern hypnosis. His methods bypassed the conscious mind through the use of both verbal and nonverbal pacing techniques including metaphor, confusion, and many others. He was a colourful character and has immensely influenced the practice of contemporary hypnotherapy, and its official acceptance by the AMA. His work, combined with the work of Satir and Perls, was the basis for Bandler and Grinder’s Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).
Hypnosis is state of mind where an individual is subjected to controlled thoughts and behavior. Hypnosis involves two persons - the persons being treated to experiment is called subject while the one conducting the experiment is called hypnotist. Hypnotist takes the subject into the mental state, often termed hypnotized, and tries to get response from her. Hypnosis is possibly one of the most debated disciplines in the world. There are so many theories associated with this stream of studies. The basic debate hovers around the state aspect - one school of thoughts suggests that hypnosis is a state of mind while the other school asserts it to be a non-state. Practitioners of state theory suggest that the mind can be transformed into an altered setting. In other words, mind of the subject can be taken to another plane, and controlled by the practitioner. Those from non-state theory claim that hypnosis as a phenomenon can be observed as a culmination of focus or attention, and doesn't necessarily lead to transformation of mind to another state. However, it is sufficient for us to know that hypnosis is a process of induction and observing effects of the same. There are many myths and misconceptions associated with hypnosis. Some people opine that hypnosis cannot be affected on persons with strong will power. Champions of hypnosis feel otherwise - they claim that people with strong will power actually make up good subjects. This can be attributed to their higher level of intelligence. Lot of research has been done on hypnosis. This research on a scientific basis stems from Psychological research. Hypnosis is often treated as a part of peripherals of psychology. Scientists have been trying to find the most ideal way of hypnotizing a person. Some have been successfully doing it with words, some others with the help of triggers like clock or a pendulum. Hypnosis is finding its way in many applications to treat patients. Hypnotherapy is one such discipline. Some practitioners use this technique to solve psychological disorders of the patients. Clinical hypnosis is another application area of hypnosis. According to practitioners of clinical hypnosis, physical as well as mental illnesses can be treated and cured with the help of clinical hypnosis. Mass hypnosis is used for prayers or magic shows. Hypnosis applied to forensic science is called forensic hypnosis. It is not only employed in the procedures, but also accepted in the legal perspective.
In the free evening you sit comfortably in your armchair and read an exciting book. Suddenly the clock strikes ten and you listen carefully to every strike of it. It seems like these are the last seconds of your life passing by and a strange feeling appears deep down in your gutter, but you are not able to define what is it. The feeling appears when you think of death. So, what is the truth? What do you feel to that moment that is going to come eventually? Many researches have been done in psychology to define the most common feeling towards death. According to the majority of the scholars, it is fear. Only in one term paper outline of a student there was another feeling mentioned. It was indifference. We can determine what the feeling depends on. Certainly, it depends on a personality and his/her outlook. Those who haven’t accomplished everything that was planned think that they should live until they do what they were destined to in this life. People are afraid of death when they imagine the way they die. Will it hurt? What will I feel? Fear to die makes them outsiders, for they are convinced that communication will bring a lot of severe maladies and close themselves in their little worlds. Love can also be a factor. You will not agree to shorten your life if you know that there is somebody who loves you more than anything and will not agree to leave this person. And finally, when it comes to those who are willing to die and desperately want it to happen very fast, a couple of factors can also be found. This can be also a nice term paper idea. Psychology is very interested in motivations of actions of people. Why are people ready to say good bye to life? We can find several reasons. If a person is tragically unhappy and there is nothing in his/her life that can satisfy, he/she will commit suicide. This is a trait of an extremely weak personality and if found they should be closely watched over by relatives and friends. A person can decide to commit suicide because of extreme circumstances. Once a person is in the corner and there is no way out, he/she can give up and leave this world for the situation is absolutely unbearable. When one has experienced a big loss, he/she is also ready to commit suicide. This is the easiest way to kill the pain inside and join whomever they have lost. People, who are mentally sick, are also able to commit suicide. They don’t think about what they leave behind because their brain functions are out of order. At times of clear conscience they decide to relief themselves out of misery their ill mind creates. Those who already know that they don’t have much time left can also be close to suicidal thoughts, though some of them can cherish every second left over anything a common human can imagine. Suicide is an awful sin and nobody has the right to commit it, for we were given a life and are not to waist it, even if some problems appear. Those, who are brave, openhearted, and successful, are not afraid to death and are always ready to look her into the eye. Those who don’t think of it are indifferent and those who are stressed out and think of it all the time will eventually be afraid. It is better to accept the future and not to try to fool yourself. You are going to die one day. Isn’t it better to die a happy person?
How do you determine if you're under mind control? It's an interesting question that you can pass around at a party or among friends. The fact is that you just don't know. In fact everything you are doing could be a response that fits perfectly into another persons plans. If you take that as a possibility you could simply just give up and yield to the fact that NOTHING is truly within your control but there is a healthier option. It's quite simple, just ask yourself "Am I acting or am I reacting?" If you are reacting then you are respond to something outside of your control and trying to gain some control back, a potential sign of some form of mind control. No one likes to feel powerless and out of control. The solution? To do something intentional and positive that is NOT a response to the external environment. I want to emphasize the word "positive" here because an intentional negative/destructive act has to act on or destroy something pre-existing. It would be then something to which you are reacting. This is much harder that it might seem because it requires four qualities that most "sheeple" find hard to implement. They are: 1) Thought. People don't like to think, in general. That is why we have an unconscious (reactive) mind so it will do most of our actions for us. Most of us rely on it entirely too much or in the wrong way and allow it to dictate our every move by letting our emotions guide us. Advertisers, politicians, spouses and other manipulators know this and often seek to control you by fear, anger, threats and frustration. Thought requires that you determine what would be your best emotional response. 2 ) Creativity. Creativity can be difficult because it requires taking action that is not linked to some external stimulus. This, of course requires thought, but one can train themselves and their unconscious mind to be very creative. Think of what Salvador Dali was able to do. Nothing he did in the field of art could easily be compared to anything prior to him. The same was true with his life. 3) Action. Action takes effort. People (sheeple?) tend to not want to act instead they react and conserve their energy. What they don't understand is that by taking creative action in the manner described creates energy. Going back to Salvidor Dali as an example, his life was FULL of energy that he created. When his peers in the high brow field of art tried to control him he would turn his response into a new form of performance art. In so doing he would baffle the people trying to influence him and entertain everyone else. 4) Courage. Why courage? Because when people recognize that they cannot control you through fear and anger they will severely escalate their attempts through threats and maybe even violence. To free yourself from any form of mind control is no easy task. But nothing so rewarding is easy. When I wrote the book "Perfected Mind Control - The Unauthorized Black Book of Hypnotic Mind Control" I wanted to appeal to peoples most base desires for control and then turn the whole process into one of creating greater freedom, flexibility and joy. Throughout the book I encourage the reader to do the hypnotic processes on themselves first in order to truly understand the power. When any smart person would find out is that there is nothing evil and controlling about "Perfected Mind Control - The Unauthorized Black Book of Hypnotic Mind Control" instead it's about personal liberation.
Personality disorders are like tips of icebergs. They rest on a foundation of causes and effects, interactions and events, emotions and cognitions, functions and dysfunctions that together form the patient and make him or her what s/he is. The DSM uses five axes to analyze, classify, and describe these data. The patient (or subject) presents himself to a mental health diagnostician, is evaluated, tests are administered, questionnaires fulfilled, and a diagnosis rendered. The diagnostician uses the DSM's five axes to "make sense" and meaningfully organize of the information he had gathered in this process. Axis I demands that he specify all the patient's clinical mental health problems that are not personality disorders or mental retardation. Thus, Axis I includes issues first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence; cognitive problems (e. g., delirium, dementia, amnesia); mental disorders due to a medical condition (for instance, dysfunctions caused by brain injury or metabolic diseases); substance-related disorders; schizophrenia and psychosis; mood disorders; anxiety and panic; somatoform disorders; factitious disorders; dissociative disorders; sexual paraphilias; eating disorders; impulse control problems and adjustment issues. We will discuss Axis II at length in our next articles. It comprises personality disorders and mental retardation (interesting conjunction!). If the patient suffers from medical conditions that affect his state of mind and mental health, these are noted under Axis III. Some psychological problems are directly caused by medical issues (hyperthyroidism causes depression). In other cases, the latter are concurrent with or exacerbate the former. Virtually all biological illnesses may provoke changes in the patient's psychological make-up, behavior, cognitive functioning, and emotional landscape. But the machinery of life - both body and "soul" - is reactive as well as proactive. It is molded by one's psychosocial circumstances and environment. Life crises, stresses, deficiencies, and inadequate support all conspire to destabilize and, if sufficiently harsh, ruin one's mental health. The DSM enumerates dozens of adverse influences that should be recorded by the diagnostician under Axis IV: death in the family or of a close friend; health problems; divorce; remarriage; abuse; doting or smothering parenting; neglect; sibling rivalry; social isolation; discrimination; life cycle transition (such as retirement); unemployment; workplace bullying; housing or economic problems; limited or no access to health care services; incarceration or litigation; traumas and many more events and situations. Finally, the DSM recognizes that the clinician's direct impression of the patient is at least as important as any "objective" data he may gather during the evaluation phase. Axis V allows the diagnostician to record his judgment of "the individual's overall level of functioning". This, admittedly, is a vague remit, open to ambiguity and bias. To counter these risk, the DSM recommends that mental health professionals use the Global assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale. Merely administering this structured test forces the diagnostician to formulate his views rigorously and to weed out cultural and social prejudices. Having gone through this long and convoluted process, the therapist, psychologist, psychiatrist, or social worker now has a complete picture of the subject's life, personal history, medical background, environment, and psyche. She is now ready to move on and formally diagnose a personality disorder with or without co-morbid (concurrent) conditions. But what is a personality disorder? There are so many of them and they strike us as either so similar or so dissimilar! What are the strands that bind them together? What are the common features of all personality disorders?
Much has been written regarding dreams and their meanings or purpose. Mankind has been fascinated with our dreams since the first dreamer awoke and wondered about what their visions meant. Since ancient times we have looked to our dreams to find signs of what our future holds. The first written dreams we know of were in 4000 BC. The earliest writings we have on dreams are primarily texts on their religious and spiritual significance. Most people will spend about one third of their lives asleep. Our dreams are a real part of us but too often they are disregarded. Dreams can give us insight and understanding of our personal lives. They will help us to understand our past, present, and sometimes our future. All we need to do is to pay attention to our dreams and get to know them. Dreams can hold a message for the future. We have different types of dreams. Often our dreams consist of imagery from our most pressing thoughts and/or personal experiences. Sometimes, however, our dreams can be special. Our dreams can communicate with us if we allow them too. All we need to is listen. I believe that there are two main types of prophetic dreams. Those that come to us from our "deeper" self, who is much more aware of certain things than we are on a conscious level, and those who may potentially have come from an "outside" source. Here is an example from my own dream experiences: I dreamed of death. All I could remember from the dream was seeing a hand laying in gravels. The most noticeable thing was the ring on the hand. It was my ring. I recognized it without any doubt. Even though this was the only image I could recall from the nightmare I knew that the dream was about a death. I could feel it strongly when I woke up. I had all but forgotten the events of the dream but the emotions were still vivid. The ring was an Army Boot Camp ring made very similar to a class ring. After I had the dream I never wore it again. Eventually I sold it to a friend of mine who had attended the same boot camp. A few years later I received a call. My friend had been murdered. He was found laying in rocks and dirt with that ring on his hand. Did my dream forewarn me of this event? I think it is a possibility. What was the dream trying to communicate to me? I had assumed that the dream was about my death. I had also assumed that the ring was somehow a participant in my death. I stopped wearing the ring as though that would prevent the warned death. Perhaps the dream was simply telling me that my friend would die with that ring on his hand. Whenever we have a dream that we consider to be prophetic or to have a "meaning" we are faced with the difficult task of interpreting just what the dream means. Dream Symbols most often have very definite meanings but these meanings can vary widely from one person to the next. That is why we cannot rely too much on definitions given in Dream Symbol Dictionaries. In order to understand the meaning of the symbols within our own dreams we must come to a better and deeper understanding of ourselves. We have to learn what these symbols mean to us because that is how our dreaming mind sees them. Anything within your dream can be a symbol. An example of a symbol in a dream is a snake. A snake can have many different meanings to different people. As with all other dream symbols they can also have a different meaning for the same person at different times in their life. You also have to look at the symbol in the context that it appeared. What other symbols were present in the dream? The best way to gain a better understanding of what your dream symbols mean to you is to develop your own dream symbol dictionary. Keep as detailed of a dream journal as you can. Don't just write down a narrative of what occurred but record your feelings and emotions too. As you continue to write in your journal and re-read your previous entries you will begin to see parallels with your dreams and your life. Gradually you will be able to recognize what the symbols in your dreams are really saying to you.
A preoccupation with gambling may cause some people to risk more than money. They may be gambling their health, happiness and their family's welfare. That's the opinion of experts who define problem gambling as gambling behavior that causes a disruption in any major area of a person's life. It's estimated that 2 to 3 percent of the U. S. population suffers from a gambling problem. It can affect men or women of any age, race or religion, regardless of their social status. Some of the warning signs to watch out for include: • Preoccupied with gambling and unable to stop • Gambling to win back what you've lost • Lying to hide time spent gambling or unpaid debts. Fortunately, an organization is working to ensure help is available. The National Council on Problem Gambling is the national advocate for programs and services to assist problem gamblers and their families. Its mission is to increase public awareness of pathological gambling and to ensure the widespread availability of treatment for problem gamblers and their families. It also operates the Problem Gambling Helpline Network, a nationwide link to resources. "A problem gambler doesn't need to wait to 'hit bottom' before asking for help," says Keith Whyte, executive director, the National Council on Problem Gambling. "Our Helpline can be used by anyone. When their problem is your problem, you as a loved one can call the Helpline to learn what help is available." One self-described problem gambler who turned to the Helpline for help characterized its services as being invaluable. According to Sandy Yakim, a 55-year-old teacher whose gambling increased after several personal setbacks, the Helpline provided her with emotional support and information, counseling and advice on how to get help. Said Yakim, "I have now been clean for over a year. I have money in my savings account. I can shop a little bit. Life is good, I am happy, I have found my joy once again. The Helpline is invaluable. They provide a shoulder to cry on, but more importantly advice on help."
At the dawn of spring, I am reminded by my children the joy of anticipating new life. They will usually see a flower or two that has made its way through the soil to a world beyond itself. What starts out as a seedling or bulb is transformed by nature's capacity to evolve. Inside each of us lies dormant an awareness, an identity, an ability to grow beyond what we appear to be. Every moment, we are being challenged by others and by circumstances to create a life that exceeds our present state of living. To move toward our highest good takes a willingness on our part to let go of what we know to what can be known in and through us. You and I are part of the Created Order we see around us, and we are participants in Creating Order out of what we have been given to care for. With this in mind, let us turn to ways our soul can be described in the characteristics that make up a flower: 1. The Ground. The ground nurtures, protects, and gives birth to a flower. Inside the womb of the ground, life is taking root long before we can see it. Because we cannot see a flower that has been planted in the earth, does not mean life is not being created. To be full participants in our world means to be fully connected and rooted in the world we have been given. 2. The Stem. The stem begins its growth in the earth below and into the sky above. This part of the flower is the connecting characteristic of the plant. Much like humanity, we are in this world without being fully of it. This creates a sacredness to our lives. It is our unique ability to live and grow in a way no one ever has, is, or ever will. 3. The Flower. In full bloom, a flower is the illumination of all the life that has preceded it. The radiance and color that pour out of it create life. Notice the next time you look at a flower how you are affected by it. You may notice your heart open and be filled with joy. Or, you may notice more energy and clarity in your vision for being blessed with great beauty. 4. The Spirit of a Flower. The spirit of a flower is the life force moving in and through it. It is the essence of a flower that identifies with your spirit. This part of you opens from the inside out and becomes ONE with the spirit of a flower. It is the same energy that runs in and through you. Like a flower, you begin to radiate your own soul from the essence of your own being. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Each spring, take the time to notice the part of you opening up to new life. Just like flowers, we grow from the inside out. What illuminates in our life began inside us. We nurture these inner qualities of attention until they eventually take root and grow into our daily lives. The growth that follows is created from what we attend to or hold our attention on within us. Like the pedals of a flower opening to the world around it, we create a presence of awareness. In full bloom, the beauty or the lack thereof touches the lives of everyone around us. As our inner patterns of attention move through us, the world illuminates the seeds of awareness contained within us for so long. Here, a life is created. It is the life of our soul. Samuel Oliver, author of, "What the Dying Teach Us: Lessons on Living"
The DSM-IV-TR (2000) defines a personality disorder as: "An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations the individuals culture (and is manifested in two or more of his or her areas of mental life:) cognition, affectivity, interpersonal functioning, or impulse control." Such a pattern is rigid, long-term (stable), and recurrent. It manifests itself in all areas of life (it is pervasive). It is not owing to substance-abuse or a medical condition (such as head trauma). It renders the subject dysfunctional "in social , occupational, or other important areas" and this impairment causes distress. In the DSM, there are 10 distinct personality disorders (Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-compulsive) and one catchall category, Personality Disorders NOS (Not Otherwise Specified). Personality disorders with marked similarities are grouped into clusters. Cluster A (the Odd or Eccentric Cluster) includes the Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorders. Cluster B (the Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Cluster) is comprised of the Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. Cluster C (the Anxious or Fearful Cluster) encompasses the Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorders. The Clusters are not valid theoretical constructs and have never been verified or rigorously tested. They constitute merely a convenient shorthand and so provide little additional insight into their component personality disorders. We start our tour with Cluster B because the personality disorders it includes are ubiquitous. You are far more likely to have come across a Borderline or a Narcissist or a Psychopath than across a Schizotypal, for instance. First, an overview of Cluster B: Borderline Personality Disorder is marked by instability. The patient is a roller-coaster of emotions (this is called emotional lability). She (most Borderlines are women) fails to maintain stable relationships and dramatically attaches to, clings, and violently detaches from a seemingly inexhaustible stream of lovers, spouses, intimate partners, and friends. Self-image is volatile, one's sense of self-worth is fluctuating and precarious, affect is unpredictable and inappropriate, and impulse control is impaired (the patient's threshold of frustration is low). The Antisocial Personality Disorder involves contemptuous disregard for others. The psychopath ignores or actively violates other people's rights, choices, wishes, preferences, and emotions. The Narcissistic Personality Disorder is founded on a sense of fantastic grandiosity, brilliance, perfection, and power (omnipotence). The narcissist lacks empathy, is exploitative, and compulsively seeks narcissistic supply (attention, admiration, adulation, being feared, etc.) to buttress his False Self - a confabulated "person" aimed at inspiring awe and extracting compliance and subservience from others. Finally, the Histrionic Personality Disorder also revolves around attention-seeking but is usually confined to sexual conquests and displays of the histrionic's capacity to irresistibly seduce others.
Today, why not made a personal commitment to be happy, in spite of what life hands over to you. You have to admit that there are too many things over which you have no control. The only thing you can do is to stop allowing them to make dents in your spirit. Happiness is not something that others can take from you. It's something that you would have to throw away on your own. There will be times when things don't turn out the way you want them to. Your best friend at work may turn out to be a power-hungry corporate animal that backstabs you at every opportunity. The promotion you worked so hard for may go to someone else. Your partner might decide to leave me, a day before we are due to go for a vacation together. You may lose most of your savings in a market crash. These are things that can happen to the most loving, compassionate, careful and reasonable person. But after the initial pain and shock, the decision whether or not to let yourself languish in despair is entirely up to you. You can allow misfortune to form the bulk of your life, or you can choose to leave what's past in the past, and move on. One's friendly and caring behavior towards others should not be motivated by the thought of equally kind and affectionate responses. You understand yourself best, and regardless of how reasonably and responsibly you live your life, there will be people who won't see your point of view or share your motivations. People have the right to act in any way they see fit. I don't have the right to judge whether their behavior is acceptable or not. They have to bear the responsibility for their own actions, and so do you. By feeling sorry for yourself, you are simply continuing the work for them, long after they have dealt their blow. You have to decide that, as far as possible, you will not allow these people to disturb your mind. There are many things for which you can be grateful. There are yet unexplored experiences in which you can find enrichment and meaning. There are yet others who will like you for who you are, and in spite of who you are. If you spend my time being resentful and miserable, you are denying yourself the satisfaction of enjoying what this life has to offer. There are enough unhappy people in this world who punish themselves and others constantly in a bid to find redress and compensation. But there is no satisfaction in retaliation and revenge. It's a waste of time and spirit. "To be happy we must not be too concerned with others." Albert Camus
Psychology is more an art form than a science. There is no "Theory of Everything" from which one can derive all mental health phenomena and make falsifiable predictions. Still, as far as personality disorders are concerned, it is easy to discern common features. Most personality disorders share a set of symptoms (as reported by the patient) and signs (as observed by the mental health practitioner). Patients suffering from personality disorders have these things in common: They are persistent, relentless, stubborn, and insistent (except those suffering from the Schizoid or the Avoidant Personality Disorders). They feel entitled to - and vociferously demand - preferential treatment and privileged access to resources and personnel. They often complain about multiple symptoms. They get involved in "power plays" with authority figures (such as physicians, therapists, nurses, social workers, bosses, and bureaucrats) and rarely obey instructions or observe rules of conduct and procedure. They hold themselves to be superior to others or, at the very least, unique. Many personality disorders involve an inflated self-perception and grandiosity. Such subjects are incapable of empathy (the ability to appreciate and respect the needs and wishes of other people). In therapy or medical treatment, they alienate the physician or therapist by treating her as inferior to them. Patients with personality disorders are self-centered, self-preoccupied, repetitive, and, thus, boring. Subjects with personality disorders seek to manipulate and exploit others. They trust no one and have a diminished capacity to love or intimately share because they do not trust or love themselves. They are socially maladaptive and emotionally unstable. No one knows whether personality disorders are the tragic outcomes of nature or the sad follow-up to a lack of nurture by the patient's environment. Generally speaking, though, most personality disorders start out in childhood and early adolescence as mere problems in personal development. Exacerbated by repeated abuse and rejection, they then become full-fledged dysfunctions. Personality disorders are rigid and enduring patterns of traits, emotions, and cognitions. In other words, they rarely "evolve" and are stable and all-pervasive, not episodic. By 'all-pervasive", I mean to say that they affect every area in the patient's life: his career, his interpersonal relationships, his social functioning. Personality disorders cause unhappiness and are usually comorbid with mood and anxiety disorders. Most patients are ego-dystonic (except narcissists and psychopaths). They dislike and resent who they are, how they behave, and the pernicious and destructive effects they have on their nearest and dearest. Still, personality disorders are defense mechanisms writ large. Thus, few patients with personality disorders are truly self-aware or capable of life transforming introspective insights. Patients with personality disorder typically suffer from a host of other psychiatric problems (example: depressive illnesses, or obsessions-compulsions). They are worn-out by the need to reign in their self-destructive and self-defeating impulses. Patients with personality disorders have alloplastic defenses and an external locus of control. In other words: rather than accept responsibility for the consequences of their actions, they tend to blame other people or the outside world for their misfortune, failures, and circumstances. Consequently, they fall prey to paranoid persecutory delusions and anxieties. When stressed, they try to preempt (real or imaginary) threats by changing the rules of the game, introducing new variables, or by trying to manipulate their environment to conform to their needs. They regard everyone and everything as mere instruments of gratification. Patients with Cluster B personality disorders (Narcissistic, Antisocial, Borderline, and Histrionic) are mostly ego-syntonic, even though they are faced with formidable character and behavioral deficits, emotional deficiencies and lability, and overwhelmingly wasted lives and squandered potentials. Such patients do not, on the whole, find their personality traits or behavior objectionable, unacceptable, disagreeable, or alien to their selves. There is a clear distinction between patients with personality-disorders and patients with psychoses (schizophrenia-paranoia and the like). As opposed to the latter, the former have no hallucinations, delusions or thought disorders. At the extreme, subjects who suffer from the Borderline Personality Disorder experience brief psychotic "microepisodes", mostly during treatment. Patients with personality disorders are also fully oriented, with clear senses (sensorium), good memory and a satisfactory general fund of knowledge.
: Take a look at this video and figure out what you think happened. youtube/watch? v=i0-0Zevp47k The ability to do this to someone comes from The NLP Convincer Strategy. This simply means that for most people they only require a few pieces of evidence to be convinced and when that happens, by Gawd, they are convinced. In fact there is no doubt in their mind. You can't really blame the poor guy. The scammers just used his own mind against him. It's the process that makes scamming smart people so easy. When the smart people are smug and condescending it makes if fun too. Do you want to learn the NLP Convincer Strategy? " Mind Control 101 - How To Influence the Thoughts and Actions of Others Without Them Knowing or Caring" Sincerely, JK Ellis
“I am actually not a man of science at all. . . . I am nothing but a conquistador by temperament, an adventurer.” (Sigmund Freud, letter to Fleiss, 1900) "If you bring forth that which is in you, that which you bring forth will be your salvation". (The Gospel of Thomas) "No, our science is no illusion. But an illusion it would be to suppose that what science cannot give us we cannot get elsewhere." (Sigmund Freud, "The Future of an Illusion") Harold Bloom called Freud "The central imagination of our age". That psychoanalysis is not a scientific theory in the strict, rigorous sense of the word has long been established. Yet, most criticisms of Freud's work (by the likes of Karl Popper, Adolf Grunbaum, Havelock Ellis, Malcolm Macmillan, and Frederick Crews) pertain to his - long-debunked - scientific pretensions. Today it is widely accepted that psychoanalysis - though some of its tenets are testable and, indeed, have been experimentally tested and invariably found to be false or uncorroborated - is a system of ideas. It is a cultural construct, and a (suggested) deconstruction of the human mind. Despite aspirations to the contrary, psychoanalysis is not - and never has been - a value-neutral physics or dynamics of the psyche. Freud also stands accused of generalizing his own perversions and of reinterpreting his patients' accounts of their memories to fit his preconceived notions of the unconscious . The practice of psychoanalysis as a therapy has been castigated as a crude form of brainwashing within cult-like settings. Feminists criticize Freud for casting women in the role of "defective" (naturally castrated and inferior) men. Scholars of culture expose the Victorian and middle-class roots of his theories about suppressed sexuality. Historians deride and decry his stifling authoritarianism and frequent and expedient conceptual reversals. Freud himself would have attributed many of these diatribes to the defense mechanisms of his critics. Projection, resistance, and displacement do seem to be playing a prominent role. Psychologists are taunted by the lack of rigor of their profession, by its literary and artistic qualities, by the dearth of empirical support for its assertions and fundaments, by the ambiguity of its terminology and ontology, by the derision of "proper" scientists in the "hard" disciplines, and by the limitations imposed by their experimental subjects (humans). These are precisely the shortcomings that they attribute to psychoanalysis. Indeed, psychological narratives - psychoanalysis first and foremost - are not "scientific theories" by any stretch of this much-bandied label. They are also unlikely to ever become ones. Instead - like myths, religions, and ideologies - they are organizing principles. Psychological "theories" do not explain the world. At best, they describe reality and give it "true", emotionally-resonant, heuristic and hermeneutic meaning. They are less concerned with predictive feats than with "healing" - the restoration of harmony among people and inside them. Therapies - the practical applications of psychological "theories" - are more concerned with function, order, form, and ritual than with essence and replicable performance. The interaction between patient and therapist is a microcosm of society, an encapsulation and reification of all other forms of social intercourse. Granted, it is more structured and relies on a body of knowledge gleaned from millions of similar encounters. Still, the therapeutic process is nothing more than an insightful and informed dialog whose usefulness is well-attested to. Both psychological and scientific theories are creatures of their times, children of the civilizations and societies in which they were conceived, context-dependent and culture-bound. As such, their validity and longevity are always suspect. Both hard-edged scientists and thinkers in the "softer" disciplines are influenced by contemporary values, mores, events, and interpellations. The difference between "proper" theories of dynamics and psychodynamic theories is that the former asymptotically aspire to an objective "truth" "out there" - while the latter emerge and emanate from a kernel of inner, introspective, truth that is immediately familiar and is the bedrock of their speculations. Scientific theories - as opposed to psychological "theories" - need, therefore, to be tested, falsified, and modified because their truth is not self-contained. Still, psychoanalysis was, when elaborated, a Kuhnian paradigm shift. It broke with the past completely and dramatically. It generated an inordinate amount of new, unsolved, problems. It suggested new methodological procedures for gathering empirical evidence (research strategies). It was based on observations (however scant and biased). In other words, it was experimental in nature, not merely theoretical. It provided a framework of reference, a conceptual sphere within which new ideas developed. That it failed to generate a wealth of testable hypotheses and to account for discoveries in neurology does not detract from its importance. Both relativity theories were and, today, string theories are, in exactly the same position in relation to their subject matter, physics. In 1963, Karl Jaspers made an important distinction between the scientific activities of Erklaren and Verstehen. Erklaren is about finding pairs of causes and effects. Verstehen is about grasping connections between events, sometimes intuitively and non-causally. Psychoanalysis is about Verstehen, not about Erklaren. It is a hypothetico-deductive method for gleaning events in a person's life and generating insights regarding their connection to his current state of mind and functioning. So, is psychoanalysis a science, pseudo-science, or sui generis? Psychoanalysis is a field of study, not a theory. It is replete with neologisms and formalism but, like Quantum Mechanics, it has many incompatible interpretations. It is, therefore, equivocal and self-contained (recursive). Psychoanalysis dictates which of its hypotheses are testable and what constitutes its own falsification. In other words, it is a meta-theory: a theory about generating theories in psychology. Moreover, psychoanalysis the theory is often confused with psychoanalysis the therapy. Conclusively proving that the therapy works does not establish the veridicality, the historicity, or even the usefulness of the conceptual edifice of the theory. Furthermore, therapeutic techniques evolve far more quickly and substantially than the theories that ostensibly yield them. They are self-modifying "moving targets" - not rigid and replicable procedures and rituals. Another obstacle in trying to establish the scientific value of psychoanalysis is its ambiguity. It is unclear, for instance, what in psychoanalysis qualify as causes - and what as their effects. Consider the critical construct of the unconscious. Is it the reason for - does it cause - our behavior, conscious thoughts, and emotions? Does it provide them with a "ratio" (explanation)? Or are they mere symptoms of inexorable underlying processes? Even these basic questions receive no "dynamic" or "physical" treatment in classic (Freudian) psychoanalytic theory. So much for its pretensions to be a scientific endeavor. Psychoanalysis is circumstantial and supported by epistemic accounts, starting with the master himself. It appeals to one's common sense and previous experience. Its statements are of these forms: "given X, Y, and Z reported by the patient - doesn't it stand to (everyday) reason that A caused X?" or "We know that B causes M, that M is very similar to X, and that B is very similar to A. Isn't it reasonable to assume that A causes X?". In therapy, the patient later confirms these insights by feeling that they are "right" and "correct", that they are epiphanous and revelatory, that they possess retrodictive and predictive powers, and by reporting his reactions to the therapist-interpreter. This acclamation seals the narrative's probative value as a basic (not to say primitive) form of explanation which provides a time frame, a coincident pattern, and sets of teleological aims, ideas and values. Juan Rivera is right that Freud's claims about infantile life cannot be proven, not even with a Gedankenexperimental movie camera, as Robert Vaelder suggested. It is equally true that the theory's etiological claims are epidemiologically untestable, as Grunbaum repeatedly says. But these failures miss the point and aim of psychoanalysis: to provide an organizing and comprehensive, non-tendentious, and persuasive narrative of human psychological development. Should such a narrative be testable and falsifiable or else discarded (as the Logical Positivists insist)? Depends if we wish to treat it as science or as an art form. This is the circularity of the arguments against psychoanalysis. If Freud's work is considered to be the modern equivalent of myth, religion, or literature - it need not be tested to be considered "true" in the deepest sense of the word. After all, how much of the science of the 19th century has survived to this day anyhow?
Did you know that "pattern interrupts" are a hypnotist's secret weapon to getting direct access to someone’s unconscious mind? In fact they're so powerful that many years ago a man, who was eventually caught and sent to jail, was using them to STEAL from tons of restaurants. More on that in a bit... Pattern interrupts are so powerful because they work like this... You break someone's expectation of how a normal, everyday event should proceed by doing something highly unusual instead. This creates momentary confusion of their conscious mind and opens a brief doorway to their unconscious mind. At that precise moment you can then give instructions to their unconscious mind. And it can be DEVASTATINGLY effective. Take the man who was banged up in jail for using them. Turns out this dude was easily scamming restaurants left, right and centre. He'd go into expensive restaurants and begin to give an order to a waiter. Halfway through he'd do a pattern interrupt on the unsuspecting waiter. During the moment of confusion he'd give an instruction to 'forget the bill', then continue with the order as normal. 9 times out of 10, he'd simply walk out of the restaurant after eating all their nice chow and drinking their fine wine. And without paying a dime! Of course when you use this kind of hypnosis power criminally, you'll eventually end up getting busted. And good job too. But it doesn't take away from the fact that pattern interrupts are an incredibly powerful way to access peoples' unconscious minds whenever you need to. In fact the friends of the greatest hypnotist of all time, Milton Erickson, use to REFUSE to shake his hand when they'd meet him! That's because he'd often have fun using pattern interrupts on them and then instructing them to do little tasks for him. Mind you that crafty old wizard had so many conversational hypnosis tricks anyhow - if he really wanted to chat with their unconscious minds he could easily have done so - and without them realizing it either! That's the beauty of conversational hypnosis - people believe the instructions YOU give them are their idea. Which is pretty handy! If you'd like to discover more about pattern interrupts with conversational hypnosis and learn ALL the secret tricks and KILLER techniques of the great Milton Erickson then there's only one place to surf over to now.
Have you ever been curious about your future? Have you ever called a phone psychic to get some answers? If you wonder how “psychics” work, read on. This article is for you. Most “psychics” are plain scammers. They use cold reading to make calculated guess about the sitters. Cold reading is an interactive psychological technique which extracts information from a person through verbal and non verbal cues. More often than not, psychics utilize known psychology techniques that can apply to almost anyone. An example would be claiming the sitter is cursed and he or she could lift that curse for a fee, because most people visit a psychic when they are down and depressed, “being cursed” is a quick, convenient reason to blame. Paying the fee to lift the curse would be the quickest solution to their complicated life problems. There seems to be several common factors in psychic readings. The psychic usually: +Skillfully extracts information from non verbal cues such as breathing patterns, voice, dress, skin color, and body language. + Makes statements that seem to give information when they are actually out to fish for it. E. g. Prompts feedback from sitters by saying “I see a man in uniform, why would that be?” +Feeds back to the subject what the latter wants to hear +Makes general “Barnum statements” such as “You are worrisome on the outside but insecure on the inside.” The sitter of the reading is the key to a 'successful' reading. The sitter's willingness to connect vague 'clues' came up by the psychic will often decide how successful the reading is. Many sitters who try to contact their deceased loved ones are very motivated in the first place, and will take the psychic's message as a sign that he or she have made contact with the other side. That is why psychics subtly encourage cooperation before and during the reading. Once the psychic gains the trusts of the sitter, the latter usually actively supply information and clarifications. Although facial expressions and body languages could mean differently to people from different cultural backgrounds, many psychologists believe that certain facial and body expressions are universal to the mankind. How to tell dominance: People who dominates have a tenancy to stand up with an erected body, speaks slowly and rarely, and look people in their eyes for an extended period of time. Because of the demonstrated link between testosterone and aggression, people with square jaws ( testosterone induced feature) are thought as more domineering and aggressive. How to tell submissiveness: Submissive people touches themselves a lot when they are confronted with a difficult situation. This is because human have an inborn mechanism acquired very early on in life to link physical touching with comfort and safety. Most important to keep in mind: Real, powerful psychics don't advertise on the back of a supermarket magazine and do readings for $1.99.