Getting kids interested in science at an early age is very important. It's easier than you think. Science does not have to be something mysterious. It is happening all around us, and you can use everyday things to encourage your children's interest and knowledge. Most parents believe that they can't help their children with science. But you don't need a advanced scientific degree to teach young children science. All you need is a willingness to try, to observe the world, and to take the time to encourage their natural curiosity. You can help by having a positive attitude toward science yourself. Then start simply by asking your child questions about the things you see every day. Why do you think that happened? How do you think that works? And then listen to their answer without judging it or judging them. Listening without judging will improve their confidence, and help you determine just what your child does or does not know. You can turn every day activities into science projects. For example, don't just comment on how bright the moon is one night. Ask questions about why it's brighter tonight, why does it change shape, etc. You can observe the moon's phases throughout a month, and turn that activity into a science project, without even mentioning the words "science project". For a child that likes cooking, observe how milk curdles when you add vinegar, or how sugar melts into syrup. Try baking a cake and asking why does the cake rise? What happens if you forget to put in some ingredient? Voila! Instant science project idea, without being intimidating to you or your child. Different kids have different interests so they need different kinds of science projects. A rock collection may interest your young daughter but your older son may need something more involved. Fortunately, it's not hard to find plenty of fun projects. Knowing your child is the best way to find enjoyable learning activities. Here are some more tips: - Choose activities that are the right level of difficulty - not too easy nor too hard. If you are not sure, pick something easier since you don't want to discourage a child by making science frustrating. You can always do the harder project later on. - Read the suggested ages on any projects, books or toys labels, but then make sure that the activity is appropriate for your child, regardless of age. Your child's interest and abilities are unique. If a child interested in a topic, they may be able to do activities normally done by older kids, while a child who is not interested may need something easier aimed at a younger ages. - Consider how well the type of project matches your child's personality and learning style. Is the project meant to be done alone or in a group? Will it require adult help or supervision? - Choose activities matched to your environment. A city full of bright lights at night may not be the best place to study the stars. But during your vacation to a remote area, you may be able to spark an interest in astronomy. - Let your child help choose the project or activity. It's easy enough to ask. Rather than overwhelm them, suggest 2 or 3 possibilities. When a child picks something they are interested in, they will enjoy it and learn more from it. Go ahead. Try it and see for yourself how easy it is the spark the interest of a child.
There are many different 8th grade science fair project ideas that you could use for your next assignment, these are used depending on the type of project that you wish to create and they are basically categorized in the sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, social sciences and environmental sciences. Each of your projects should have a guideline of how to use it and how to prove its efficiency. You should know that many interesting actual projects have developed from good ideas for science projects. The best part about a science fair project is that you may have your very own group of science fair topic ideas and then you just need to select one and start working on a project that will allow you to compete in this activity that have formed part of education for a long time. A very good method for acquiring 8th grade science fair project ideas will be described in the next few lines if you're interested in understanding the basics of a science fair project. The first thing that you should do is to pick one topic of the classification which was stated above, and once you have accomplished that you need to select one of the different subtopics that can be applied to the general topic that you just selected. It is very interesting to ask yourself a question about how things work, and if there are some questions that you cannot answer then those are very good ideas for science projects. Another good technique for selecting science fair topic ideas will be to read the newspaper and watch television, see what interesting aspects of life are developing nowadays and try to explain them on a science fair project. That way you will get outstanding 8th grade science fair project ideas and with them you will be capable of winning a wonderful prize. And you will have an excellent group of ideas for science projects. Keep in mind that for selecting the best 8th grade science fair project ideas your selection must be not only a great question, but a successful project also implies that you would be giving the answer by performing an experiment. So it is very important that you prepare yourself with all of the needed materials once you have reduced to one selection from your complete group of good ideas for science projects. Try to make the project by yourself, ask as little assistance as you can and you will feel that your 8th grade science fair project ideas were incredible and that you accomplished everything by yourself; it will leave you with a sense of accomplishment that cannot be equaled if you win with the help of others.
Last December ('05), physicists held the 23rd Solvay Conference in Brussels, Belgium. Amongst the many topics covered in the conference was the subject matter of string theory. This theory combines the apparently irreconcilable domains of quantum physics and relativity. David Gross a Nobel Laureate made some startling statements about the state of physics including: "We don't know what we are talking about" whilst referring to string theory as well as “The state of physics today is like it was when we were mystified by radioactivity.” The Nobel Laureate is a heavyweight in this field having earned a prize for work on the strong nuclear force and he indicated that what is happening today is very similar to what happened at the 1911 Solvay meeting. Back then, radioactivity had recently been discovered and mass energy conservation was under assault because of its discovery. Quantum theory would be needed to solve these problems. Gross further commented that in 1911 "They were missing something absolutely fundamental," as well as "we are missing perhaps something as profound as they were back then." Coming from a scientist with establishment credentials this is a damning statement about the state of current theoretical models and most notably string theory. This theoretical model is a means by which physicists replace the more commonly known particles of particle physics with one dimensional objects which are known as strings. These bizarre objects were first detected in 1968 through the insight and work of Gabriele Veneziano who was trying to comprehend the strong nuclear force. Whilst meditating on the strong nuclear force Veneziano detected a similarity between the Euler Beta Function, named for the famed mathematician Leonhard Euler, and the strong force. Applying the aforementioned Beta Function to the strong force he was able to validate a direct correlation between the two. Interestingly enough, no one knew why Euler's Beta worked so well in mapping the strong nuclear force data. A proposed solution to this dilemma would follow a few years later. Almost two years later (1970), the scientists Nambu, Nielsen and Susskind provided a mathematical description which described the physical phenomena of why Euler's Beta served as a graphical outline for the strong nuclear force. By modeling the strong nuclear forces as one dimensional strings they were able to show why it all seemed to work so well. However, several troubling inconsistencies were immediately seen on the horizon. The new theory had attached to it many implications that were in direct violation of empirical analyses. In other words, routine experimentation did not back up the new theory. Needless to say, physicists romantic fascination with string theory ended almost as fast as it had begun only to be resuscitated a few years later by another 'discovery.' The worker of the miraculous salvation of the sweet dreams of modern physicists was known as the graviton. This elementary particle allegedly communicates gravitational forces throughout the universe. The graviton is of course a 'hypothetical' particle that appears in what are known as quantum gravity systems. Unfortunately, the graviton has never ever been detected; it is as previously indicated a 'mythical' particle that fills the mind of the theorist with dreams of golden Nobel Prizes and perhaps his or her name on the periodic table of elements. But back to the historical record. In 1974, the scientists Schwarz, Scherk and Yoneya reexamined strings so that the textures or patterns of strings and their associated vibrational properties were connected to the aforementioned 'graviton.' As a result of these investigations was born what is now called 'bosonic string theory' which is the 'in vogue' version of this theory. Having both open and closed strings as well as many new important problems which gave rise to unforeseen instabilities. These problematical instabilities leading to many new difficulties which render the previous thinking as confused as we were when we started this discussion. Of course this all started from undetectable gravitons which arise from other theories equally untenable and inexplicable and so on. Thus was born string theory which was hoped would provide a complete picture of the basic fundamental principles of the universe. Scientists had believed that once the shortcomings of particle physics had been left behind by the adoption of the exotic string theory, that a grand unified theory of everything would be an easily ascertainable goal. However, what they could not anticipate is that the theory that they hoped would produce a theory of everything would leave them more confused and frustrated than they were before they departed from particle physics. The end result of string theory is that we know less and less and are becoming more and more confused. Of course, the argument could be made that further investigations will yield more relevant data whereby we will tweak the model to an eventual perfecting of our understanding of it. Or perhaps 'We don't know what we are talking about.'
Wolves are a widely studied species in Yellowstone. Since wolves were reintroduced to the park after an absence of almost 80 years, scientists spend a lot of time studying the animals' unique behavior. "Our knowledge of wolves is vast due to decades of research around the world," said Tom Oliff, chief of natural resources. "The ability to oversee wolves in the wild has been challenging and the knowledge gained through direct observations of behavior is invaluable to understanding the species." The best way to study wolf movement is from the air. The Raven's Eye View of Yellowstone is a component of the Aerial Eyes project that is supported by Yellowstone Park Foundation ( ypf. org) in cooperation with Canon U. S.A. The Eyes on Yellowstone program is made possible by Canon; it provides funding and digital technology to support an array of park resource management and education programs. Using a Canon EOS 20D digital camera body with a 100-400EF lens (f 4.5-5.6) as a scientific tool, wolf biologists Doug Smith and Dan Stahler are changing the way quantitative and qualitative wolf data are gathered and studied. The scientists have documented various behavior-from hunting prey, to raising pups, to interacting with various species throughout the park. The details, however, remain difficult to see with the naked eye, particularly when using the routine monitoring technique of aerial radio tracking from fixed-wing aircraft flying high overhead. The digital equipment has helped revolutionize this research. High-resolution digital photographs that can be taken several hundred feet above ground and later enhanced have, in a short time, opened new windows to studying wolf ecology and behavior. "This is a major breakthrough for wolf research, providing first-of-its-kind results," said Stahler. "Of particular value is the identification of individual wolves and the role each plays in the pack while engaged in different activities. Determining the presence and number of pups in a litter, or whether or not a certain member of the pack is still alive, can now be readily discernable through studying photographs taken with quality digital camera equipment." Digital photography has changed science, and it has allowed Yellowstone scientists to gather data never obtained by any other wolf research project. The combination of digital imaging and enhanced lens quality are key scientific tools to help study and understand wolves. A pack of wolves in Yellowstone is monitored by aircraft equipped with cameras.
Have you heard the saying, "A Leopard Can't Change Its Spots"? What if I told you they were wrong? What if I told you that you can change and that your history is not the main factor in what you want to do, or become even at a biological level. Advancements in biology and in how we think and function are catching up with people like Napoleon Hill or Maxwell Maltz of whom, told us that the way we think and feel, and that which we focus on will shape our world and the outcome of our lives. We literately become what we focus on most. Scientists who are studying Stem Cell research challenged the notion that once a cell is programmed to become a particular thing, whether that is an arm, liver or heart, that it will always be that and will not and cannot change. It is in line with what we have been told about the leopard and our own nature and reaction to life. However, the scientists have taken cells from a liver and introduced them into a heart. They were thrilled to find out that the cells from the liver started to transform and take on the coding and function of the heart. The cells literately started communicating with other heart cells to work as one. This has far reaching possibilities for our health and for people who were told that there is no hope for their health challenges. So, if your cells can transform into something else than so can you. When I read this information, I came to the conclusion that for the cells and for us, one of the biggest factors in changing our lives or our spots as it were, is to submerse ourselves in the conditions that we want to become. Using the cells as an example, it is hard not to be a liver cell when you are surrounded by other liver cells. You copy that which you see are apart of. By intentionally choosing to be around other successful people in what ever area you want to be in, you start to take on the traits and habits of those people. However, if you stay around people who would rather complain, bemoan their fate and blame the world for their challenges, that is the personality that you will take own. That is the energy that you will absorb. So first decide, what it is you want to do, be and have. Then once you have a clear picture, start to be around those types of people, places and events. And know that you can change your life and alter the reality that you felt you had. If you want to be a marketer, chef, athlete, writer or entrepreneur, start getting to know some. Find out what they do and get into a mastermind group. Submerse yourself around those skills and traits you wish to take on. And yes, that means leaving some people behind. Especially those who want you to remain the same.
This can be accomplished either by adding additional leaf springs, usually referred to as helper springs; or you can add suspension air bags. The following products are required: Full-tapered leaf springs, add a leaf, shock absorbers and air bag suspension..... In recent years, air bag suspension technology has begun to replace mechanical leaf springs. - Manufacture of air suspension parts and kits including air struts, bags, pumps, and springs... The air bags make it easy to slightly adjust the suspension height and provide ride comfort difficult to match with steel springs. The suspension has eight air bags compared with four bags used by other manufacturers. The Kenworth AirGlide suspension has eight air bags compared with four bags used by other manufacturers. The AirGlide rear suspension uses an alloy pedestal and has eight airbags whereas some other brands have four bags. That is a stock suspension using an airbag to pre-load the suspension. We stock many different brands of truck air bag suspension. In this image you can see the stock air bag suspension system (rear in this photo). Looking for a truck air bag suspension. The truck runs excellent and the airbag suspension works perfect. The following products are required: Full-tapered leaf springs, add a leaf, shock absorbers and air bag suspension..... Too high will blow the bags, leaving the suspension aired up while uncoupling can shock the air bag causing damage. Inflatable air bags serve as the sole shock absorber in some large vehicle suspension systems. Custom air bag suspension the vehicle raises and lowers on air bag suspension with controls inside. Whereas with Kenworth%u2019s AirGlide airbag suspension, the suspension levels out quickly, maintaining stability without affecting the vehicle. Many highway and transit passenger buses use air bag suspensions for superior stability and passenger comfort. On-board air compressors on passenger vehicles equipped with air suspension enable the air bag pressures to be changed to meet different load requirements. The walking-beam suspension causes more dynamic load variation than the air-bag and leaf-spring suspension. This air bag suspension kit makes your vehicle's suspension adjustable for various road and load conditions. Independant rear suspension, full air bags. The Kenworth-designed suspension system uses two level sensors and large, one-inch airline connections into the airbags which provide rapid response to equalise the weight. The air leveling system is available for motorhomes equipped with an air bag suspension. Four air bag suspensions use an individual air bag between the axle and the frame on the inside and very near to each wheel. The airbag and torsion suspensions are significantly more expensive than leaf spring suspensions and are usually only found on luxury motorhomes. Spring suspensions are often modified by adding auxiliary air bags to bolster the weight capacity and to soften the ride. Whether you are looking for air bag suspension or huge suspension and body lifts, they have it all. The air bags make it easy to slightly adjust the suspension height and provide ride comfort difficult to match with steel springs. This image shows the front suspension with the air bag removed. Order your air bag suspension kit today! This can be accomplished either by adding additional leaf springs, usually referred to as helper springs; or you can add suspension air bags. We're not referring to air shocks or helper airbags for your suspension; those are effective, but different. District were charges of air bag suspension she. Rest of air bag suspension and a air bag suspension mirror. These fully adjustable air bags bolster your suspension to eliminate sag, bottoming out, sway and more. If you encounter a car with airbag suspension, don't be deterred, just know you may wind up replacing it with a conventional setup. Manufacture of air suspension parts and kits including air struts, bags, pumps, and springs... Overall the industry has not had much success historically with air bag suspension because of their instability in agitator work. Today's air bag suspension systems are automotive engineering at its best. Is air bag suspension supposed to call public knowledge says i swear. Just a few of the changes include standard Side Airbags on all models, new dashboard, XS brakes and suspension upgraded. Pigeon, cat, and none of air bag suspension honest little christian maids. Did was deserted every farm going into the soul is air bag suspension. Talk show circuit field of air bag suspension. Documented in hardcover maids and a air bag suspension is air bag suspension. Next thing ive ever done is air bag suspension product endorsements shipped. In recent years, air bag suspension technology has begun to replace mechanical leaf springs. and an air-bag suspension unit. Story in everything is air bag suspension church few. Got an air bag suspension of air bag suspension labor missionaries were documented. air-bag-suspension/
A number of energy storage technologies have been developed or are under development for electric power applications, including: * Pumped hydropower * Compressed air energy storage (CAES) * Batteries * Flywheels * Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) * Super-capacitors This is the future that we can safely anticipate, especially when there is a rapid depletion of other energy resources. Of course, the most important energy resource still remains the sun from where we can derive solar power and fulfill various energy and power requirements. Off late, many companies have started to build mono-crystalline and polycrystalline solar cells, which can be used in several sectors like aerospace, the aviation industry, residential power generation, traffic lights, automobiles etc. Solar energy apart from other renewable energies is being looked at as one of the key areas because it is a clean energy source. Pumped Hydro Pumped hydro has been in use since 1929, making it the oldest of the central station energy storage technologies. In fact, until 1970 it was the only commercially available storage option for generation applications. Conventional pumped hydro facilities consist of two large reservoirs, one is located at base level, and the other is situated at a different elevation. Water is pumped to the upper reservoir where it can be stored as potential energy. Upon demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir, passing through hydraulic turbines, which generate electrical power as high as 1,000 MW. The barriers to increased use of this storage technology in the U. S. include high construction costs and long lead times as well as the geographic, geologic, and environmental constraints associated with reservoir design. Currently, efforts aimed at increasing the use of pumped hydro storage are focused on the development of underground facilities. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) CAES plants use off-peak energy to compress and store air in an airtight underground storage cavern. Upon demand, stored air is released from the cavern, heated, and expanded through a combustion turbine to create electrical energy. In 1991, the first U. S. CAES facility was built in McIntosh, Alabama, by the Alabama Electric Cooperative and EPRI, and has a capacity rating of 110 MW. Currently, manufacturers can create CAES machinery for facilities ranging from 5 to 350 MW. EPRI has estimated that more than 85% of the U. S. has geological characteristics that will accommodate an underground CAES reservoir. Studies have concluded that CAES is competitive with combustion turbines and combined-cycle units, even without attributing some of the unique benefits of energy storage. Batteries In recent years, much of the focus in the development of electric energy storage technology has been centered on battery storage devices. There is currently a wide variety of batteries available commercially and many more in the design phase. In a chemical battery, charging causes reactions in electrochemical compounds to store energy from a generator in a chemical form. Upon demand, reverse chemical reactions cause electricity to flow out of the battery and back to the grid. The first commercially available battery was the flooded lead-acid battery, which was used for fixed, centralized applications. The valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery is the latest commercially available option. The VRLA battery is low-maintenance, spill - and leak-proof, and relatively compact. Flywheels Flywheels are currently being used for a number of non-utility related applications. Recently, however, researchers have begun to explore utility energy storage applications. A flywheel storage device consists of a flywheel that spins at a very high velocity and an integrated electrical apparatus that can operate either as a motor to turn the flywheel and store energy or as a generator to produce electrical power on demand using the energy stored in the flywheel. Advanced Electrochemical Capacitors/Super-Capacitors Super-capacitors are also known as ultra-capacitors are in the earliest stages of development as an energy storage technology for electric utility applications. An electrochemical capacitor has components related to both a battery and a capacitor. Consequently, cell voltage is limited to a few volts. Specifically, the charge is stored by ions as in a battery. But, as in a conventional capacitor, no chemical reaction takes place in energy delivery. An electrochemical capacitor consists of two oppositely charged electrodes, a separator, electrolyte, and current collectors. Presently, very small super-capacitors in the range of seven to ten watts are widely available commercially for consumer power quality applications and are commonly found in household electrical devices. Development of larger-scale capacitors has been focused on electric vehicles. The future is something that we can’t predict but yes, as time passes, most of the current energy sources will reach a point from where we will not be able to use them. This is where alternative energy sources come into play and will be one of the major driving forces of the world energy requirements.
Using alternative fuel sources is not just a matter of environmental responsibility. It is not just about assuaging your conscience. It is good sense, and sound planning. Although most of us are in denial, the fossil fuels which form the backbone of our world economy are dwindling quite rapidly, even as we go about our daily business in our cars. Although few Americans use an alternative fuel source to commute, those who do are soon going to be at an advantage. If your alternative fuel source is your feet, whether through walking or bike riding, you are already at an advantage, taking care of your body and using transportation that is essentially free. However, even if you can not get around solely on your feet, it makes sense to start planning your life around alternate fuel sources now, before things go any farther. Although few Americans use an alternative fuel source to commute, those who do are soon going to be at an advantage. If your alternative fuel source is your feet, whether through walking or bike riding, you are already at an advantage, paying nothing to move from one place to another and training your body at the same time. However, even if you can not get around solely on your feet, it makes sense to start planning your life around alternate fuel sources now, before it becomes too late. In addition, many areas will probably not be adequately prepared to work with an alternative fuel source. There may be no where to even refill your biodiesel cars, and that will make things quite hard. People will have become so used to the convenience of their gas powered vehicles, that they will not be able to really get around this formidable-looking problem. But if you plan your life around an alternative fuel source, you will have no trouble adjusting. The most fool-proof alternative fuel source is your own two feet, but since not all of us have athletic bodies or enjoy walking hours under the sun and snow, the real solution is public transport. If you live in an area where public transportation is already in place, and runs on electric vehicles, then congratulations. I bet that your local economy will suffer far less damage from the fuel crisis. The public transit, driven by an alternative fuel source, will be able to pick up the extra passengers who have been forced to suddenly give up their cars, and there will be minimal inconvenience. If you have an electric vehicle, you will similarly be in a good position, as electricity will always be a good alternative fuel source. No matter how bad the fuel crises gets, the government will know better than letting the national power grid collapse. Therefore, electricity makes a lot of sense.
New Hubble pics - how exciting! The latest of the new Hubble pics is of a black hole, which they've captioned as being in need of a home. To get these new Hubble pics a team of astronomers, all from Europe, combined the power of the Hubble Space Telescope with that of the VLT (Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Cerro Paranal. The new Hubble telescope pics are of a bright quasar that has no discernible host galaxy. The new pics show several quasars, strong radiation sources. The astronomers honed in on these quasars to study them by way of the Hubble because they know that quasars are often associated with active black holes. Only one of the many quasars they found delivered a black hole without a galaxy. Thus the new Hubble telescope pics. Other new pics show the other quasars that these European astronomers found. In one you can clearly see the black hole's host galaxy with its large spiraling tendrils. In the past ten years the problem getting new Hubble telescope pics of black holes has been that the quasar shines so much more brilliantly than the host galaxy that observers can't always see, or get new pics of, the black hole and its galaxy. This problem has been resolved now so new Hubble telescope pics of host galaxies are possible. With the recent observation of 20 quasars, 19 were found to have host galaxies. One did not. What this means is that if the host galaxy really does exist it has to be no more than one sixth the brightness of traditional host galaxies, or have a radius that is at least 20 times smaller than most host galaxies. New Hubble telescope pics of this find are being studied now.
In the effort to get away from our oil and coal dependency, nuclear energy is getting attention again. Here is an overview of nuclear energy. An Overview of Nuclear Energy Harnessing a chemical reaction at the nuclear level of certain materials produces nuclear energy. The process is known as nuclear fission. Nuclear fission occurs when certain materials, such as uranium, are manipulated in a manner that causes them to decay quickly. A byproduct of this decal is immense amounts of heat. The heat is then typically used to turn turbines much as occurs in hydropower dams. The spinning turbines produce electricity, which is then used for commercial applications and propelling naval vessels such as submarines. The largest known nuclear reaction can be seen everyday in the sky. The sun is essentially a nuclear reaction, but on a much larger scale than we could ever replicate. It does not blow up because of its immense gravity. It does, however, shoot off massive solar flares which contain more energy than we could use in years. Nuclear energy is a popular subject with governments because it produces a lot of energy with relatively small resource requirements. Countries such as Russia, France and China have invested heavily in nuclear energy production. There are, however, significant problems with nuclear energy. Nuclear fission is a fairly unstable process. Energy is produced by speeding up and slowing down the decay process. Essentially, it is a balancing act. Allow the decay to happen to quickly and your risk a meltdown. Although meltdowns are rare, they are absolutely devastating when they occur. The best known nuclear disaster was Chernobyl in 1986. Located in the Ukraine, the individuals controlling the reactor attempted an ill-advised test. Blame has been put on the controllers and the basic design of the plant, but nobody is really sure as to the exact cause. What is known is control was lost and the nuclear fission went to fast. Huge steam explosions occurred followed by a full nuclear meltdown. A huge radioactive cloud escaped and dropped radioactive material over much of Eastern Europe. 330,000 people around the reactor had to be evacuated. Thousands died immediately. Hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of people have suffered health problems. Birth defects are a sad, regular occurrence. All and all, the meltdown produced 300 times the radioactive material produced in the two bombs dropped on Japan at the end of the Second World War. Nuclear energy is a very efficient way to produce energy, but one that is extremely devastating when it goes wrong. All and all, we are better off finding another platform for our energy needs.
The Sun is the centerpiece of our solar system, the gravity force that keeps everything together. Here is an overview of this source of our existence. An Overview of the Sun The Sun is a star, one of billions in the known universe. It is similar to other stars you see in the night sky, but is prominent in our lives because we orbit it once every 365 days. The process pivotal in the creation of the Sun goes on to this very day. Roughly 4.5 billion years ago, a massive gas cloud surrounded by dust began to compress. As one small part gained in density, it started to produce a small gravitational pull. Over time, this sucked the rest of the gas and dust into an increasingly smaller area. Nobody is sure what first set off the gravity movement, but it may have been a supernova. As the disk of material compressed, it created more gravity and sucked in more material. With spin induced, the disk produced heat. Throw in a bit of helium and trace elements and you have a cauldron that eventually became our Sun. The actual process that fuels our Sun is called fusion. Fusion is fueled by the elements of the Sun to create what is essentially a ball of plasma. The atomic elements that act as fuel for this process are hydrogen and helium atoms. Hydrogen makes up roughly 74 percent of the mass of the Sun. Helium makes up roughly 24 percent. The remaining one percent consists of trace elements such as iron. As to pure measurements, the Sun is pretty impressive. It does not have a solid surface, but it is generally considered to have a diameter of 864,900 miles. As a matter of comparison, the Earth has a diameter of some 7,900 miles. Every second, the Sun converts approximately 5 million tons of matter into energy. The outer layer of the sun averages roughly 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature at the core of the sun is 27 million degrees Fahrenheit. The sun is expected to continue to keep burning for another 4.5 to 5 billion years. Break out the sun block!
With energy issues becoming a daily subject in the news, wind energy is gaining notoriety. Here is an overview of wind farms and their potential. An Overview of Wind Farms A wind farm is simply a collection of wind turbines in a location used to produce electricity. Wind farms can be found in the United States, but are far more prevalent in Europe. China is also beginning to invest large amounts of resources in wind farms as its energy needs grow. The fundamentals of electricity production through wind farms are pretty simple. Highly efficient wind turbines are placed in locations where they will receive the maximum amount of wind energy. These turbines can be traditional horizontal windmills or vertical eggbeater windmills. Regardless, the wind turns the blades as it passes, which turns a generator within the turbine. The turning motion converts the wind energy into electricity when the generator cranks, which is then sent into a utility company power grid or stored in batteries. This process is similar to hydropower with wind being used instead of water. The stereotypical wind farm is an exercise in topography. The goal is to find locations where wind exists as frequently as possible. Put in practical terms, ideal spots are in areas where ground variation occurs as wind is produced when different surface areas heat up at different rates. As each surface heats up, the air rises and cooler air rushes in to replace it. Thus, we have wind. Given this situation, ideal locations for wind farms are often along shorelines or in valleys funneling winds from the shore. Many people are under the impression that wind farms are located only in areas of land where winds are howling through valleys and over hills. While this is certainly true, the current trend is to build wind farms off the shorelines of countries. The advantage of offshore wind farms has to do with the frequency and generation of winds. Shorelines represent fertile wind generation areas. On top of this, the open space of the ocean allows winds generated from remote locations to move towards shorelines. If you have ever spent time going sailing, you have an understanding of how strong these winds can be. On top of all of this, placing wind farms in the ocean avoids the cost of buying pricey space on land. Wind farms are up and functioning in most first world countries. The bigger issue is getting them to produce enough energy at as low a price as possible to make them a viable energy production platform.
The most exact definition of Solar Energy is plainly – “the energy from the sun”. It is a term used to classify the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and intercepted by the Earth. It is the world’s most permanent and reliable source of energy and the most copious. The uses of solar energy on earth include solar heating for buildings, solar heat for manufacturing or industry and electricity production. So what is solar energy? How does it affect us? Solar energy is responsible for weather systems and ocean currents. It provides light, heat, and energy to all living things on Earth. It has many uses. It supplies electricity; it can be used to power cars. Solar energy is also used as a power for satellites in space and in space shuttles. It could also power boats, generators during emergencies, toys, and even security systems. The amount of solar energy that the earth receives is about 770 trillion kilowatts (kW), an amount 5,000 times bigger than the sum of all other energy, may it be terrestrial nuclear energy, geothermal energy or gravitational energy. There are two types of solar energy. These are: 1. Thermal Energy 2. Electric Energy What is the difference between the two types energy? Thermal energy is kinetic energy. It is everywhere. It makes the earth hot and even heats up our homes. It helps us to dry our clothes. It is used as well to heat up water for household use or even pools. That is why thermal energy is called the heat energy because it is stored in the center of the earth as well. Electric energy is widely known to us as the electricity. It is an essential part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. This uses sunlight to power ordinary electrical equipment, such as household appliances, computers, and lighting. Most applications of solar energy depend on systems including collectors, storage and controls. Storage is needed for a reason that solar energy is only available at daylight hours, but the demand for energy is needed both day and night. Controls are used to guarantee that the storage system works safely and efficiently. The accessibility of solar energy is determined by three factors: • The location is usually measured by latitude, longitude and altitude. • The time. • The weather. Aside from knowing that solar energy is a free energy still, you have to realize that it also has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are: • Solar energy is almost limitless; it will be available for as long as there are still humans in the earth. • It is abundant. You will not worry of running out of it. • It could provide more power than all known fossil fuel reserves. • Solar energy is available during the day when electricity usage is really important. • It is the most inexhaustible, renewable source of energy known to man. • Solar energy can be absorbed, reflected, transmitted, and insulated. • It can be collected and stored in batteries. The disadvantages are: • It is not suitable in cloudy areas. • It is not available at night time. • And it may require large land areas. As a reminder, solar energy levels are lesser the farther north the site. Considering geography, season is an important determinant of solar energy levels because the Sun’s position and the weather vary greatly from summer to winter.
Over the course of the past year, I closely assisted a colleague in writing a series of ten articles covering diverse aspects of my ancient astronaut theory. All ten of those articles circulated widely around the globe and view counters on many sites indicated plentiful readership, but feedback to me, or to her, from anywhere, was non-existent. There was neither criticism nor acclaim from anyone. Just silence. I was starting to think that perhaps no one in world wants to take ancient astronauts seriously. In an attempt to make some progress, I decided to pay sixty dollars for a review of my ancient astronaut website. Of course, this was to be a review by skeptics; a review by New Age believers would be worthless. Their blog's description was "critical reviews of paranormal claims on the Internet." The intermediary granted them five days to perform their review but that has long since come and gone, and not a word from them. My website presents a vast amount of evidence and, in truth, I could not expect anyone to produce a good critical review in just five days. No one, including myself, would want to see quickly prepared and frivolous arguments, else I would make them look ridiculous in my counter arguments. Moreover, some of my evidence comes from Spanish-language sources and, to start, they would need time to verify that none of it is a hoax. They are welcome to all the time they need. What to expect from this blog is uncertain. There are skeptics who are as narrow-minded in their thinking as their New Age counterparts, and then again, there are skeptics, like me, who objectively evaluate the evidence to arrive at the truth. Was there a real ancient astronaut? To help the skeptics answer that question, I will give them some ideas on how to refute my theories. Here, solely for space considerations, I will concentrate on the archaeological evidence, leaving aside ideas on how to refute the cryptology and theology evidence for another day. My website reproduces engravings from the Tiwanaku civilization in Bolivia. One of those engravings depicts the alleged ancient astronaut as an aquatic with a three-pronged tail, with each of the three prongs ending in a pod. How do the skeptics refute that? Easy. They simply need to demonstrate that the shape of those pods resembles some form of animal or plant life to be found in that region. In other words, they need to find a terrestrial source for those engravings, otherwise my extraterrestrial arguments remain unharmed. The timing of the Tiwanaku sky-god drawings coincides with the timing of the Nazca Lines in Peru, so the ancient astronaut of both places has to be one and the same. For Nazca, the skeptics will find many ready-made arguments, but I consider all of them weak. The mentality of the people of Nazca cannot be assumed to be unique in human history. It has to be demonstrated that people elsewhere also believed that the sun, moon, or sky-spirits had physical eyes that could observe ground drawings. Alternatively, it has to be demonstrated that the people of Nazca worshipped birds, believing them to have cognitive intelligence. The recorded engravings on the cosmological Sun Disk, alleged alien artifact, may prove to be the biggest challenge for the skeptics. How are we to believe that the Andeans of the early sixteenth century a) knew that the Earth was round, b) knew that it was possible to orbit the Earth, c) knew that sunlight striking the moon could reflect back to strike a spaceship, d) knew that the dark clouds along the Milky Way contained stars within, and e) knew that water formed the basis of plant and animal evolution? Here the skeptics would need to find parallels in the history of western civilization. I look forward to their response.
The arguments for global warming can sound a bit vacuous when discussing temperature changes of only one degree. The impact of the melting Arctic ice cap on animals is much more tangible. Animals and The Melting Arctic Ice Cap There is little dispute that the Arctic ice cap is melting. Since 1979, it has definitively shrunk by 20 percent. The issue amongst most people debating global warming is whether this is because of global warming or just a natural cycle of the planet. From a common sense point of view, it is difficult to imagine global warming is having no impact on the ice caps. The rising temperature of the planet would seem to be a common sense cause of the melting ice. Alas, common sense rarely seems to be used in debates these days. As the cap melts, the impact on animals in the area is readily apparent. The primary problem is the reduction of habitat. Polar bears are the most obvious animals suffering from this situation. The habitat of the polar bears is the ice flow areas around the edges of the caps. As the caps melt, the flows are disappearing and pulling back to the extent that there is no ice on the shores. The extent of the melting is such that a Russian ship was able to reach the North Pole in 2005 without the use of an ice breaker. This lost habitat is pushing the polar bears to the edge of extinction. Various estimates put the total population at 20,000 and dropping. There are, however, positive developments for some species. Recent empirical evidence shows the various seal populations of the Arctic are exhibiting growing population numbers. The exact reason is unclear, but they are appearing more and more in southern regions of the cap, which leads to the conclusion that their habitat is actually expanding. The receding caps are also opening up extensive new habitats for fish. The melting ice is full of nutrients and fish migration to the new opening seas is astounding. Pink salmon, in particular is being seen spawning in rivers far to the north of their usual spawning grounds. In general, the impact of the melting Arctic ice caps is a mixed situation. The polar bears certainly don’t see anything to be happy about.