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    Artificial intelligence is 50 years old

     

    : Artificial Intelligence as a research field was born in the summer of 1956 during a seminal workshop at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. It was just a year before that when Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, Claude Shannon and John McCarthy proposed that they should hold a workshop to put together a roadmap about how to make machines think and learn similarly to humans. The ultimate goal was to discover computational models in order to enable machines to do commonsense reasoning. Today, John McCarthy is rightly considered the father of AI. I should note that the term "Artificial Intelligence" appeared for the first time in the proposal put forth by the previously mentioned scientists. And so this new discipline that would eventually captivate everyone’s imagination was born. Artificial Intelligence had its ups and downs in the last 50 years. Early success solving small problems in simulation ignited a flurry of predictions about super intelligent machines taking over the world before the coming of the 21st century. Hampered by a lack of a good understanding of how commonsense reasoning works in people and a lack of computational resources, computers being very slow up until the mid nineties, AI research stalled in the 80s. Many people rushed to dismiss it as nothing more than hot air. However, science is all about proposing and testing new theories in order to find the best ones. Since the mid-90s, AI research has advanced by leaps and bounds. We now have a better understanding of how the human brain works and that has helped us to find and test better computational models for AI. These in turn have also helped us to better understand the functions of the human brain. New techniques such as statistical analysis are helping intelligent agents to copy with large amounts of information and noisy sensors. Faster computers with vast amounts of storage are allowing us to experiment in more challenging domains and solve larger problems. It is true that AI has not yet been able to produce a machine capable of commonsense reasoning. However, by specialization, many AI systems are actually running our world today. AI helps us fly airplanes and drive our cars. It aids doctors perform surgery. It helps us find information in the vastness of the World Wide Web. It helps us discover spam email and promptly delete it. It helps us schedule traffic lights and public transportation. It helps us analyze financial markets and make predictions about the outcome of sports events. It aids in surveillance of public spaces improving security and safety. These are only a small sample of the penetration of intelligent systems in our daily lives. Artificial Intelligence is here to stay and I bet it won't be long before we have the understanding, methods and resources to finally construct thinking and learning machines. Let us wish and hope that such technology would only be used to benefit mankind and not destroy it. You can find lots of information about AI' and its50th birthday on the Internet. However, I think that best reading about this topic is the 1955 proposal for the AI workshop. You can read it here.

         
    Ball bearings are flat another myth crushed

     

    : What shape are ball bearings? They are shaped like a ball, as everyone knows, right? The funny thing about what everyone knows is that everyone can be wrong. For instance, everybody thinks that the America's Cup is an ocean-sailing race, and yet the Swiss managed to win the Cup. For those readers who are geographically-challenged, Switzerland is a land-locked country comprised entirely of mountains. What does this have to do with ball bearings. Very little, I suspect, but balls have very little to do with ball bearings, either. Ball bearings look more like hula hoops. But don't try using them for that – you will find them inconveniently heavy and painfully small. You can view a picture of a ball bearing in the middle of this ball bearing supplier's page. So what are those stunted metal tube donuts called ball bearings for anyway? Are they used as a spare wheel? Do they hold in evil shop-floor spirits? No, they help things move more efficiently. In an early demonstration of bearing usage, three ladies pulled a locomotive (It was just a demonstration, not a career development). Many bearings look very similar, whether they are ball bearings, roller bearings or other bearings. What?! Other bearings? What is a ball bearing, anyway? Ball bearings are formed with an outer ring, an inner ring, a cage or a retainer inside, and a rolling element inside, typically a ball (which is why they are called ball bearings). Roller bearings are formed using a roller instead of a ball, which is why they are called roller bearings (Yes, finally something that makes sense!). Other bearings look just like metal tubes, called plain bearings or bush bearings. They look like sawed off pipe or tube (something my metal tube bending client would be turning into architecturally glamorous structural supports). The principle of bearings is the same principle behind the wheel: things move better by rolling than by sliding. They are called "bearings" because they bear the weight of the object, such as an inline skate or the head of dentist's drill, allowing the object to glide over them with incredible ease and speed. Unlike wheels, they don't turn on an axel; they turn on themselves. You can see this in action with some great cut-away pictures of bearings. The balls or rollers spin on themselves inside the bearing, reducing friction for the machine parts attached to them. It's much neater than using a bucket of oil, especially in dental equipment, and significantly more reliable than hamsters on a wheel. Once upon a time, all bearings were metal – like a metal tube or pipe with metal balls stuck inside. These days, more and more are made of ceramic or even plastic (like everything else in this world!). If you are still confused about why ball bearings are not shaped like balls, just remember that you drive on a parkway and park on a driveway. And you can even try sailing your sea-craft through the Swiss Alps. But don't try playing a game of one-on one basketbearing.

         
    Basic principles of theory of evolution

     

    Evolution theory teaches that survival is for the fittest living organism. What is life? What is fit? And what does it mean to survive? Well, there are many definitions of course. A useful definition, in scientific perspective, is the one that allow us to analyze myriads things with fewest principles. So here they are. A living organism is a class of objects that share 3 traits. 1. Reproduce. Living organism can make copies. 2. Inherit. Living organism, in the process of reproducing, will inherit traits to the offspring. 3. Mutate. Living organism, in the process of inheriting, will make small mistakes. That seems like a reasonable definition. If we look most living things around us, like dogs, cats, pigs, birds, fido, virus, etc., they all share those traits. However, based on those definitions, God is not alive, while computer virus, religious doctrines, ideologies, and ideas are alive. I don’t think God will mind though. It’s just a definition. The practical aspect is that we can use evolution theory to explain the sort of humans, cats, dogs, germs, doctrines, ideologies, and ideas that are common nowadays. Different living organism performs those 3 traits differently. Those living organism that reproduces a lot becomes plenty. Those that reproduced a lot, become common. That’s the basic of evolution theory. For example, we see that peacocks tend to have long elaborated tails. From this, we can guess peacocks with long elaborate tail must have made more peachicks. Perhaps, peahen love peacocks with long elaborate tails. It’s true. Suppose it were true. Then peacocks with longer tails will mate with more peahens. Those happy couples will then produce more peachicks. Male peachicks will inherit long tails. Female peachicks will inherit preferences for long tail. So, peahens like peacocks with long tail. It looks like a circular argument. It is. The truth is we don’t really know for sure, at least just from the reasoning, why peacocks have long tail. However, we do know that traits that lead to gene pool survival through sexual selection tend to be positive feedback. Those are traits that either enhance gene pool survival through regular means or signal capability to survive on the females. Samples of the former are Cheetah’s speed and men’s wealth. Samples of the latter are peacock’s tail and sport cars. The more peacocks have longer tail, the more peacocks in the future, will have even longer tails. The more peahens in the future will get turned on by long tail even more. Now, most males are poor. Does that mean women like the poor? Does being poor serve gene pool survival? The answer to the first question is no. The answer to the second is, well, sort of due to various unnatural sex laws against consensual sex. It’s tricky.

         
    Besides potentially providing free cheap internet access

     

    SurfBest provides quality, cheap dial up internet access and a fast dial up internet that enables you to start surfing the web quickly. We are cheap web hosting, domain hosting, budget hosting, reseller hosting, linux hosting, internet Access provider. web hosting, cheap colocation, t1 and dialup internet access accounts in the boston, massachusetts area. If one or two people on your network use the Internet just to read e-mail and text-oriented Web pages, cheap access works. mission is to combine the cheap high speed internet access provider of choice with ... We are cheap web hosting, domain hosting, budget hosting, reseller hosting, linux hosting, internet Access provider. Whether you want a free isp provider, cheap internet access, or to compare discount internet service providers, All Free ISP can help you out. Sign up with UKO2 now for a free ISP account and start to get the benefits of cheap internet access. SurfBest provides quality, cheap dial up internet access and a fast dial up internet that enables you to start surfing the web quickly. There is no reason to pay this much for internet access when there are fast, reliable and cheap internet service providers. a purpose to provide an easy way to find and review free or cheap Internet access. We simply provide you with a reliable, cheap internet access account. There is a broadband package to suit any budget, so cheap Internet access is definitely available. Go to your favorite search engine and type in Ccheap internet access and see what comes up. These internet access providers have hundreds of internet access numbers to enable easy and cheap local access to almost everyone. In my experienced opinion, and that of many of my colleagues, no greater danger to universal cheap Internet access could easily be imagined. It is extremely cheap for Europe, where Internet access tends to be a bit of a highway robbery. If one or two people on your network use the Internet just to read e-mail and text-oriented Web pages, cheap access works. web hosting, cheap colocation, t1 and dialup internet access accounts in the boston, massachusetts area. Step up to cheap isp internet access information you can count on from a company you can trust. To us, that has to be the basis of cheap internet access. How to describe cheap internet access There are a variety of ways to access the internet today. This is because dial up internet access tends to be the cheaper than broadband services such as DSL or cable Internet. While not free, dial up Internet access is generally cheap by comparison to broadband. In this article, you'll learn about the amazing things that these networks can do besides potentially providing free or cheap Internet access. Right now internet access is relatively cheap and, for those who have enough interest in computers to read this newsletter, it is relatively easy. access-cheap-internet/

         
    Big bang booming back to the future

     

    Theoretical cosmologists spend much of their time perfecting what is now known as the 'Big Bang' theory. This concept originates from ideas percolating in the minds of scientists, theologians and astronomers down through the ages. However, much of what they consider as proof for the 'Big Bang' is dependent upon uncontrolled experimentation that is molded to meet their expectations. Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. This ancient description of the creation of the universe found in the Book of Genesis may be accurate after all. The big bang theory describes the beginning of the universe as having been precipitated from an infinitesimally small point. In this small volume, all matter and energy was concentrated until its contents exploded in either a smooth expansion or an incredibly violent energetic explosion that formed the planets, stars and galaxies. Originally this theory had competition from what is called the 'steady state' theory whereby the universe is forever expanding and new matter and energy is created spontaneously within the space left by the receding galaxies. However, empirical observations have directed astronomers and scientists into the acceptance of the big bang model. But how did we get to this point in our understanding? In the early part of the twentieth century the American astronomer Vesto Slipher and the German Carl Wirtz made some important astronomical discoveries. Using spectral analysis, Slipher deciphered the mixtures of gases contained in planetary atmospheres as well as nebulae. What distinguishes his findings is the discovery that most if not all galaxies outside of our own demonstrate what is called a 'Red Shift.' This shift is simply a change in the wavelength of the light emitted by those objects under investigation towards a longer wavelength. Wirtz similarly catalogued many red shifts of the nebulae which he chose to study. But it was still to early for them to realize the full potential meaning of their observations. That would wait until Einstein's General Relativity would be interpreted by other scientists through further mathematical analysis. His contemporaries demonstrated to Einstein that his new Theory of General Relativity published in 1916 was not compatible with a 'static' universe of space time. The theory predicted an expanding or collapsing universe but not a fixed cosmos. Because he personally believed the universe to be an invariable space time continuum, Einstein engaged in a degree of scientific legerdemain. To correct what he perceived to be as 'flaws' in his theory he added the contrivance of a cosmological constant known as lambda to force the static universe into reality. Einstein's view of perfection in an unchanging space time continuum had led him down a blind alley as much as Aristotle's concept of perfection had brought that great philosopher into the error of believing in a static Earth at the center of the universe. But even with the addition of the cosmological constant lambda, the universe was still found to be unstable and this whole affair would later be viewed by Einstein as his "greatest blunder." His cosmological acrobatics behind him, Einstein yielded the stage to others for a clearer understanding of his own theory. It fell to Alexander Alexandrovich Friedmann to consider the consequences of General Relativity without the constant lambda interfering with his study of these relationships. In doing so, the Russian mathematician and cosmologist derived the solution which predicts an ever expanding cosmological structure (1922), a prediction which was disagreeable with Einstein's concept of universal perfection. A couple of years later, Friedmann published his findings in "About the Possibility of a World with Constant Negative Curvature of Space." But the entire hypothetical construct still lacked a complete verbalization mathematically and theoretically. Enter the Reverend Father Georges Lemaitre, a Catholic priest from Belgium. Rev. Fr. Lemaitre provided the equations necessary to formulate the basis of Big Bang theory in his work entitled "Hypothesis of the Primeval Atom." He postulated that the universe began as a primordial atom of infinitesimal volume and enormous mass energy as well as space and time and everything else comprising the future universe. At some point the universe began with the explosion of this super atom. Lemaitre published his theoretical ideas between the years 1927 and 1933 and speculated that the movement of the nebulae demonstrated the validity of the explosion of his cosmic super atom. Unfortunately, he also wrongly believed that cosmic rays might be an after effect of the super atom's big bang. These are now known to be generated not from a universal conflagration but from galactic sources unrelated to the big bang. However, the new theory still lacked a major source of observational support. This would be provided by Edwin Hubble's observations of the redshift of galaxies. Taking up where Slipher and Wirtz left off, Hubble employed a novel technique to discern the properties of the galactic movements. By choosing to observe stars that are known as Cepheid Variables he could more accurately make measurements. Cepheids are a type of star that brighten and darken and lighten back up in regular periods of time that are well known. Cepheids that have identical cycle times of brightening darkening and brightening again also have identical or nearly identical luminosity. Thus, if one compares the length of the cycle to the amount of light apparent to the observer it is possible to accurately prepare an estimate of the distance to the cepheid. In this manner, Hubble had found that the nebulae or galaxies exhibited a galactic red shift; in other words, that galaxies were receding away from ours at a speed which is correlated directly with the distance between our vantage point and the galaxy being studied. The further away the galaxies were the faster they appeared to be going in moving away from us. The results of these investigations is now known as Hubble's Law. Essentially, this law states that universe is in an ever expanding mode whereby the intergalactic distances continue to grow without bound into infinity. Hubble's Law depends upon the shifting of the wavelength of light and after having been delineated in 1929 has been subsequently proven over and over again. Further, Hubble's constant has been recalculated to a more 'perfect' value and retains a great probability of being 'recomputed' in the future based upon new observations. Thus, it should be clear to the reader that our scientists have a fateful habit of introducing their preconceived notions of beauty into their models. From Aristotle's static Earth to Einstein's greatest blunder, the constant which forces a static universe, we proceed only from the wisdom of our weak minds. The more things change the more things stay the same. Man's hubris knows no limits in our attempts to understand things without the wisdom to comprehend its underlying meaning. Humble we are not. We are making the same mistakes we always have. Back to the future. To be continued...

         
    Biotechnology

     

    Biotechnology is not a new advancement in the area of science. It actually has been utilized for years, but was not significantly described as biotechnology. In its simple form, biotechnology means utilizing living organisms or their products to revise or change human health or the environment, or to run a process. Biotechnology itself is the combination of biology and other sciences to create new, innovative products in the agricultural sector, industrial sector and environmental industries. The products include medicines, vaccines, growth hormones for plants and food additives. There are nine major areas of this technology and its applications in the field of biotechnology. These nine major areas are bioprocessing technology, monoclonal antibodies, cell culture, recombinant DNA technology, cloning, protein engineering, biosensors, nanobiotechnology and microarrays. Bioprocessing technology refers to use of living cells to produce preferred products. This method has been utilized for thousands of years without knowing the actual scientific implications of it, such as in beer brewing, winemaking and even for making bread and pickles! Microorganisms were first discovered in the mid-1800s, and people came to realize that their biochemical machinery was the substance for these useful products. In-depth research and further experiments have led us today to the production of amino acids, birth control pills, pesticides, antibiotics and also vitamins, just to name a few. Monoclonal antibody technology uses the cells from the immune system to make antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are extremely useful to locate any pollutants found in the environment, detect microorganisms that may be harmful in food, differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells, and also diagnose in a more precise manner any infectious diseases that may be present in humans, animals or plants. Cell culture simply means growing cells outside of a living organism. There are 3 areas in this study, which include plant cell culture, insect cell culture and mammalian cell culture. Recombinant DNA technology, in the plain sense of the word, means recombining 2 pieces of DNA from 2 different species. This is used to produce new medicines and vaccines, slow down the process of food spoilage, control viral diseases and hamper inflammation, just to name a few. Cloning became well-known after the cloning of Dolly the sheep years back. Cloning technology actually allows for the generation of genetically identical molecules, plants, cells or animals. Protein engineering is a DNA recombinant technique that is meant to improve existing proteins to create new proteins that do not exist in nature. These proteins may then be used in food processing, drug development and industrial manufacturing. Biosensors are a combination of biology and the advances in microelectronics. Biosensors are detecting devices that rely on the specificity of cells and molecules to identify and measure substances at extremely low concentrations, which is why they are highly used to measure the nutritional value, safety and freshness of food, detect explosives, toxins and bio-warfare agents, locate and measure pollutants, and also to provide emergency room physicians with bedside measurements of vital blood components. Nano-biotechnology refers to the study, manipulation and manufacture of ultra-small structures and machines that can consist of only a single molecule. This field of study enables us to improve the specificity and timing of drug delivery, increase the speed and power of diagnosing diseases, and also encourage the development of green manufacturing practices. Microarray is the study of gene structure and functions which enable us to analyze tens of thousands of samples simultaneously. This field allows us to monitor gene activity, identify genes that are important to crop productivity, and also to detect mutations in disease-related genes

         
    Biotechnology timeline important events and discoveries in biotechnology

     

    1977: The Age of biotechnology arrives with “somatostatin” - a human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor, the first human protein manufactured in bacteria by Genentech, Inc. A synthetic, recombinant gene was used to clone a protein for the first time. 1978: Genentech, Inc. and The City of Hope National Medical Center announce the successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology. Hutchinson and Edgell show it is possible to introduce specific mutations at specific sites in a DNA molecule. 1979: Sir Walter Bodmer suggests a way of using DNA technology to find gene markers to show up specific genetic diseases and their carriers. John Baxter reports cloning the gene for human growth hormone. 1980: The prokaryote model, E. coli, is used to produce insulin and other medicine, in human form. Researchers successfully introduce a human gene - one that codes for the protein interferon - into a bacterium. The U. S. patent for gene cloning is awarded to Cohen and Boyer. 1981: Scientists at Ohio University produce the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice. The first gene-synthesizing machines are developed. Chinese scientists successfully clone a golden carp fish. 1982: Genentech, Inc. receives approval from the Food and Drug Administration to market genetically engineered human insulin. Applied Biosystems, Inc. introduces the first commercial gas phase protein sequencer. 1983: The polymerase chain reaction is invented by Kary B Mullis. The first artificial chromosome is synthesized, and the first genetic markers for specific inherited diseases are found. 1984: Chiron Corp. announces the first cloning and sequencing of the entire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome. Alec Jeffreys introduces technique for DNA fingerprinting to identify individuals. The first genetically engineered vaccine is developed. 1985: Cetus Corporation's develops GeneAmp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, which could generate billions of copies of a targeted gene sequence in only hours. Scientists find a gene marker for cystic fibrosis on chromosome number 7. 1986: The first genetically engineered human vaccine - Chiron's Recombivax HB - is approved for the prevention of hepatitis B. A regiment of scientists and technicians at Caltech and Applied Biosystems, Inc. invented the automated DNA fluorescence sequencer. 1987: The first outdoor tests on a genetically engineered bacterium are allowed. It inhibits frost formation on plants. Genentech's tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), sold as Activase, is approved as a treatment for heart attacks. 1988: Harvard molecular geneticists Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart awarded the first patent for a genetically altered animal, a mouse that is highly susceptible to breast cancer 1989: UC Davis scientists develop a recombinant vaccine against the deadly rinderpest virus. The human genome project is set up, a collaboration between scientists from countries around the world to work out the whole of the human genetic code. 1990: The first gene therapy takes place, on a four-year-old girl with an immune-system disorder called ADA deficiency. The human genome project is formally launched. 1991: Mary-Claire King, of the University of California, Berkeley, finds evidence that a gene on chromosome 17 causes the inherited form of breast cancer and also increases the risk of ovarian cancer. Tracey the first transgenic sheep is born. 1992: The first liver xenotransplant from one type of animal to another is carried out successfully. Chiron's Proleukin is approved for the treatment of renal cell cancer. 1993: The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are "not inherently dangerous" and do not require special regulation. Chiron's Betaseron is approved as the first treatment for multiple sclerosis in 20 years. 1994: The first genetically engineered food product, the Flavr Savr tomato, gained FDA approval. The first breast cancer gene is discovered. Genentech's Nutropin is approved for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. 1995: Researchers at Duke University Medical Center transplanted hearts from genetically altered pigs into baboons, proving that cross-species operations are possible. The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae is the first living organism in the world to have its entire genome sequenced. 1996: Biogen's Avonex is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The discovery of a gene associated with Parkinson's disease provides an important new avenue of research into the cause and potential treatment of the debilitating neurological ailment. 1997: Researchers at Scotland's Roslin Institute report that they have cloned a sheep--named Dolly--from the cell of an adult ewe. The FDA approves Rituxan, the first antibody-based therapy for cancer. 1998: The first complete animal genome the C. elegans worm is sequenced. James Thomson at Wisconsin and John Gearhart in Baltimore each develop a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells. 1999: A new medical diagnostic test will for the first time allow quick identification of BSE/CJD a rare but devastating form of neurologic disease transmitted from cattle to humans. 2000: "Golden Rice," modified to make vitamin A. Cloned pigs are born for the first time in work done by Alan Coleman and his team at PPL, the Edinburgh-based company responsible for Dolly the sheep. 2001: The sequence of the human genome is published in Science and Nature, making it possible for researchers all over the world to begin developing genetically based treatments for disease. 2002: Researchers sequence the DNA of rice, and is the first crop to have its genome decoded. 2003: The sequencing of the human genome is completed.

         
    Cassini confirms enceladus plume responsible for e ring of saturn

     

    The Cassini-Huygens exploration of Saturn, a seven-year joint venture of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, is realizing more surprising discoveries. In addition to discovering that Cassini is geologically active in contrast to its nearby neighbor Mimas, Cassini has now proven that it is Enceladus indeed that is responsible for the E ring of Saturn. The E ring of Saturn is Saturn’s broadest, faintest ring. Enceladus is a small moon 314 miles across that so bright it reflects nearly one hundred percent of its heat. For this reason, it is a very cold moon, with a temperature of near minus 330 degrees Fahrenheit. Its orbit is influenced under the large gravitational pull of Saturn as well as the gravitational influence of large nearby moons Tethys and Dione. Previous voyages by Voyager as well as Cassini have shown it to be a moon having sharp geological contrasts over its surface for a moon of such small size. It has long been speculated that Enceladus has somehow been responsible for the E ring of Saturn. An ice particle stream propelled by water vapor was first detected through the use of the High Rate Detector (HRD) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on Cassini’s approach of 286 miles in July. However it was not confirmed until November 26, 2005 when Cassini made the closest approach of any of Saturn’s moons yet. This orbit of 109 miles used infrared detection to confirm the ejection of ice particles in a plume from the south pole. This plume of ice particles confirms a theory proposed that Enceladus is a source of the fine ice particles responsible for making up one of Saturn’s rings, the E ring. The E ring is composed of ice particles near the 3 micron range. The average size of particles emitted by Enceladus is in the 10 micron range. However, this theory is still consistent because the largest particles are believed to be too large to escape the moon’s gravity. The medium-sized particles probably leave the atmosphere but are pulled back before fully escaping. Only the finest, tiniest particles of the plume make it out to form the E ring. Enceladus is very similar to a comet in the way it ejects ice particles. The difference lies in the fact that in a comet the ice is warmed by sunlight. The source of Enceladus’s heat is largely unknown. Some sort of internal mechanism, possibly a tidal force or a radioactive mechanism, is creating an enormous amount of heat for such a small moon. This is the wonderful unsolved mystery behind Enceladus, and the ultimate reason for the existence of Saturn’s E ring. 1) Enceladus Erupting – A Nasa Report – 12-7-05 2) Enceladus Plume – Jet Propulsion Laboratory – 12-6-05 3) Possible Source of E Ring – Bill Arnett – 2-17-05 4) Saturn: Moons: Enceladus – Nasa: Solar Systems Exploration – 10-6-03 5) Enceladus’s Tiger Stripes are Really Cubs – Nasa Release

         
    Chandrayan i

     

    It was on July 20, 1969 that "Eagle", the lunar module landed on the moon and American Astronaut Neil Armstrong took "that one small step" paving way for "a giant leap for mankind" . In 2007-08, India will launch Chandrayan I, which will be closely followed by China's CHANGE-I. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is spear-heading all the activities in the field. Chandrayan I, India's first unmanned mission to moon was announced on August 15, 2003. The Chandrayan I mission envisages placing a 525 kg satellite in a polar orbit 100 km above the moon and it will be launched using a modified version of India's indigenous Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The main objectives of the Chandrayan include obtaining imagery of the moon's surface using a high resolution remote sensing instruments in the visible, near infrared, low and high energy X-ray region. Considering the interest shown by the international scientific community, a provision has also been made to accommodate instruments from other countries, on Chandrayan-1. ISRO signed an agreement with ESA for including European instruments on board Chandrayan-1. The European Instruments are to complement the main India experiments. The US is also considering placing up two instruments on Chandrayan-1. Whether India should embark on a manned mission or not is a subject of national debate since sending a man to the moon is a very costly affair. A manned mission would take seven to ten years to accomplish and would cost at least$2.2 billion.

         
    Characteristics of sound

     

    : Sound in brief but remarkeable terms is a vibration, that our ears percieve by the sense of hearing. Most commonly vibrations travel to our ears via the air. The ear then converts these sound waves into nerve impulses that are sent to our brains, where the impulses become sound. To say all that in a more technical language: Sound "is an alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material" (Olson 1957). Sound is also a series of mechanical compressions and rarefactions or longitudinal waves that successively propagate through media that are at least a little compressible. What causes sound waves is known as "the source of waves". Examples of sounds sources is: A violin string that vibrates upon being bowed or plucked. The four characteristics of sound are frequency, wavelength, amplitude and velocity. The frequency of sound is the number of air pressure oscillations per second at a fixed point occupied by a sound wave. The amplitude is the magnitude of sound pressure change within the wave. Basically this is the maximum amount of pressure at any point in the sound wave. A sound wave is caused literally by increases in pressure at certain points causing a "domino effect" outward, the higher pressure points are the crests in a sound wave, and behind them are low pressure points which tail them. These are known as the troughs on a wavelength graph.

    Sound's propagation Velocity depends largely on the type, temperature and pressure of the medium through which it propagates. Because air is nearly a perfect gas, the speed of sound does not depend on air pressure. The frequency range of sound that is audible to humans is approx. between 20 and 20,000 Hz. This range of course varies between individuals, and goes down as are age increases.

    Sounds will begin to damage our ears at 85 dBSPL and sounds above approximately 130 dBSPL will cause pain, as a result are known as the: "threshold of pain". Of course again this range will vary among individuals and will change with age.

         
    Chemical element silver

     

    Silver, a chemical element, exists in the periodic table with the symbol "Ag" and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft white lustrous transition metal. Due to the fact that it has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal, silver is widel used throughout the world, used in used in coins, jewelry, tableware, and photography. Silver occurs in minerals and in free form. I'm sure if you looked you would have in your household several objects that are made of polished silver. For example: Silver dollars, or Silver cutlery, or photography equipment. Being just a bit harder than gold, silver is very ductile and malleable. Because of silver's physical properties as a brilliant white metallic luster it can take a high degree of polish. Copper has replaced silver in several instances due to it's hire cost, this is especially true for electrical purposes. Silver has a number of other notable characteristics: - Silver has the whitest color of any metal - Silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal - Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal - Silver has the highest optical reflectivity of any metal Silver is stable in both pure air and water, but does tarnish when it is exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide, or air with sulfur in it. The most common use of silver is as a precious metal and its halide salts. This is especially true of silver nitrate. Silver is also widely used in photography, which has today, become the biggest single industry in which silver is used.

         
    Chocolate the answer to hydrogen fuel supplies

     

    Many people look to hydrogen fuel cells as the answer to our energy issues. The only problem, of course, is creating usable hydrogen. Chocolate production may be the answer. Chocolate – The Answer To Hydrogen Fuel Supplies? Mention hydrogen as a fuel source and politicians, scientists and techies get that glassed over look in their eyes. Simply put, hydrogen is a perfect fuel. It can be combined with oxygen to produce electricity. Hydrogen is the most comment element on our planet. When used as an energy source, it produces no greenhouse gases or other pollutants. Sounds great, right? There is just one problem with the idea of using hydrogen as the solution to all of our energy problems. While hydrogen is the most common element on our planet, it is rarely found in a usable form. Instead, hydrogen tends to cling to other elements such as oxygen, which gives us H2O – water. The power required to separate hydrogen from these other elements is shockingly large. In the United States, Honda has a number of hydrogen vehicles it is testing on the road via some families. The cars work well. Powering them, however, is the problem. The families must take the cars to a specific station at a Honda facility. There, they will find a few hundred feet of solar panels and a hydrogen tank. It takes the system roughly two to three weeks to create enough usable hydrogen for one full tank for the car. Given the fact there are millions of cars on the road, you can see the problem. Yes, there are more efficient methods for conversion than solar power, but nothing remotely efficient enough to create enough usable hydrogen. In a humorous turn, scientists in the UK have discovered that hydrogen can be produced from the wastes of creating confectionaries such as chocolate. The waste is treated with e coli bacteria. Yes, that e coli. The bacteria then process the food material and produces gas. Guess what kind of gas is produced? Yes, hydrogen. Could it be that chocolate will play a fundamental role in a hydrogen fuel future? Could we really be that lucky?

         
    Choose your cover finding effective sun protection

     

    With all of us feverishly trying to keep up with the latest fads Hollywood exports, finally there is a fashion tip that will truly enhance our lives. Recently, Tom Cruise’s former sidekick Nicole Kidman was quoted by the Associated Press as saying: “I wish that I hadn’t been born with red hair and fair skin” as she is concerned about the amount sun exposure and its direct link to an increased risk for skin cancer. She should know, too. After all, she hails from Australia where skin cancer is an exploding epidemic. Subsequently, Australia is the leading the world in heightening the quality of skin cancer prevention education and proactive sun safety behavior. Truth be told, skin cancer is the world’s most common cancer. Americans are no exception to the rule either! Every hour someone in the United States dies from skin cancer, according to the American Academy of Dermatology ( AAD. org). Perhaps, Kidman’s example will encourage the propagation of a new fashion wave - sun protective clothing. Whereas, sun protective clothing (also known as ultraviolet radiation protective clothing; or “UVR”) is widely used in Australia, Europe, and South Africa, it is still relatively unknown here in the U. S. Sun protective clothing, however, is a highly effective option for individuals to protect themselves from the harmful affects of UV-rays all day, every day. If you consider that the average white 100% cotton t-shirt is equivalent to only a SPF 6 (which provides about 14% worth of sun protection), clearly there is a need for light-weight, functional, stylish, economical, clothing that also provides exceptional protection from over-exposure to the sun. On the other hand, sun protective clothing blocks out more than 97.5% of UV rays (which is an equivalent to a SPF 30 sunscreen). This is considered by the Skin Cancer Foundation to be “the best of the best” as it were when it comes to effective sun protection. If you consider that a SPF 20 sunscreen is allowing only five out of every 100 UV protons to reach your skin; it is 95% protective, than sun protective clothing is quite simply the most revolutionary new product available on the market today for those looking for a viable, yet extremely effective, way to protect themselves and their loved ones from sun damage. Dermatologist-oncologist, Sancy A. Leachman of the Tom C. Mathews Jr. Familial Melanoma Research Clinic at The Huntsman Cancer Institute ( HuntsmanCancer. org) recommends that everyone use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 for daily, year-round use; SPF 30 is recommended if we are outdoors between 10:00 a. m. and 4:00 p. m. when UV rays are most intense. SPF 30 sunscreen is also highly recommended for those of us who possess multiple risk factors for skin cancer such as blonde or red hair, blue or green eyes, fair or sensitive skin, many atypical moles, and even family history of skin cancer – like Nicole Kidman. Wearing sun protective clothing, coupled with proper year-round use of sunscreens, is the quite simply the best protection available, Sancy says. And her colleagues in the field of dermatological medicine agree. “Appropriate sun apparel should offer effective protection against both short term and long term photo damage [such as wrinkling, skin cancer, and even cataracts],” says Dr. J. M. Mentor, who also teaches dermatology at the Morehouse School of Medicine ( MSM. edu). In other words, effective sun safety apparel ought to protect against both UV-B and UV-A rays, and sun protective products such as those specially manufactured by Stingray in Australia, do exactly that. Stingray is the original sun protection clothing company to specialize in UV protection swimwear and daily attire for children and adults. “As a result of listening to the needs of our many customers, we are able to deliver products that take the ‘sting out of the sun’s rays,’” says Wendy Lister, Managing Director of Stingray. “[People] are now getting the best possible UV protection.” Those living at high altitudes or near the equator, have the highest risk in for skin cancer, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. Glen and Liisa Tomson, both natives of South Africa, know first-hand the devastating toll sun damage can take on our health. As such, they have recently partnered up with The Cancer Crusaders Organization ( CancerCrusaders. org) in a five-year international skin cancer prevention education campaign called “Only Skin Deep?” This program aims to actively engage parents and young adults in the fight against the world’s most common, yet preventable, cancer. “We see a great and pressing need for increased awareness and education here in the U. S.,” says Glen Tomson. “Too many times my wife and I will be at the pool, and see all these children running around sun burnt. Often, we’ll offer shade [clothing] and sunscreen to the parents so they can better protect their children.” Glen and Liisa, in addition to being entrepreneurs and experts, are parents and realize the importance of instilling the practice of sunscreen usage and the wearing of sun protective clothing at a young age so as to develop a lifelong habit of sun safety behavior. In fact, the American Academy of Dermatology reports that sustaining just one severe “blistering” sunburn before age 18 increases one’s likeliness of a future skin cancer diagnosis by an estimated 60%. In other words, 80% of one’s lifetime skin damage occurs in the first 18 years of life. This is of particular concern the mountain states where high elevation exposes us to more intense UV irradiation. Dr. Leachman illustrates it best by saying, “Someone standing on the summit of Mt. Timpanogos [Utah] will burn 66-to-77 times faster than someone standing on a beach in Los Angeles [California].” Lechman adds, “Skin cancer incidence is increasing at an alarming rate here in the United States, so it is important that we all take proper precautions to protect ourselves.” The AAD solidifies Leachman’s remarks, reporting 1.3-million Americans will be diagnosed with some form of skin cancer this year. The risk is real,” Leachman says. “There is a real need for people to take necessary precautions and to teach patients how to advocate for themselves [in reducing their risk for skin cancer].”

         
    Clean sources of energy to avoid contributing to global warming

     

    Many people wonder what they can do to help dampen the effects of the climate crisis. One method of doing so incorporates the usage of ‘clean' energy; that is, energy that does not contribute to the levels of greenhouse gas present in our atmosphere. There are several sources of clean energy, and although it may cost more, the benefit on the planet's ecosystem is well worth the extra moneymonly known as ‘green power', the Environmental Protection Agency has formed a partnership to help encourage the usage of these alternative sources of energy. Wind energy is one option when it comes to renewable power. Large spinning turbines harvest the movement of the air, and the energy is transferred into an electricity generator for usage in any application. While it's not available everywhere, wind energy represents one of the fastest sectors of growth when it comes to alternative power sources, and it is consequently one of the most widely used alternative sources. As a matter of fact, since the year 2000, the number of wind turbines present in the United States has more than doubled! Solar power is another significant source of renewable energy. Solar cells known as photovoltaics are placed on sun-catching areas such as the roof of a house. These cells turn light energy into electricity, and enough electric panels can provide power for an entire home, leaving you independent of the energy companies altogether. Geothermal energy represents a source of energy that is not commonly discussed. Heat from underneath the earth's surface is harvested as steam, which helps to spin a turbine much in the way of wind power. The spinning motion is sent to an electricity generator, and the power can be used in any modern application. Low impact hydropower represents another significant source of renewable energy. Incorporating the use of a turbine, hydropower is created in streams and rivers which produce enough of a force to properly spin the turbines. Many aspects of hydropower need to be approved to ensure that the turbines do not significantly effect wildlife that may be living in the area where the energy is being harvested. Most hydropower sources do not dam a river up; they operate with the river in free-flow as to minimize the effect on the environment. While these sources may not be easy to come by, your conscience can be unburdened regarding the climate crisis by switching to one of these environmentally friendly sources of energy. Do your part in helping to change our planet for the better!

         
    Comets

     

    Comets are small celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. They have a nucleus center and may or may not have a tail. They orbit the Sun at very long intervals in highly elliptical orbits. They pass by the Earth on a cyclical schedule. Comets have a central nucleus called coma. This coma is composed of rock, dust and ice. As the comet gets closer to the Sun, the ice melts and this creates a lot of dust and debris. As the pressure of the sun increases, the solar wind pushes the dust and debris into a beautiful comet tail. The sun illuminates the tail and we can view the comet from Earth. Before the invention of telescopes, comets would appear out of nowhere. It seemed like they would illuminate themselves all of a sudden, not unlike the recent comet, Comet Holmeset Holmes saw a flareup in just a few days that made it visible on Earth with the naked eye. Before, it had only been visible as a faint image in a telescope. Now scientists are able to see and discover comets that would otherwise not be visible on Earth. Because of the cyclical nature of comets, some comets may only appear every several hundred years. There's always a chance for an amateur with a telescope to discover a never before seen comet, much like the discovery of the Hale-Bopp Comet in 1996. Comets are believed to originate in the Oort Cloud. The Oort Cloud is located in the farthest reaches of our solar system and is nearly 3 light years in size. It is in the Oort Cloud that comets originate and return to. Because of this huge distance and the huge size of the Oort Cloud, Comets come at regular intervals of hundreds of years. This is compounded by the highly elliptical orbits of Comets. For example, the most famous comet, Haley's Comet comes every 76 years. Unfortunately, it's the only naked eye viewable comet that comes so often. Comets are the source of folklore and beauty in our sky. A comet gives us a chance to really see the beauty in astronomy.

         
     
         
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