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    Finite element analysis introduction

     

    : The following four-article series was published in a newsletter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). It serves as an introduction to the recent analysis discipline known as the finite element method. The author is an engineering consultant and expert witness specializing in finite element analysis. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS: Introduction by Steve Roensch, President, Roensch & Associates First in a four-part series Finite element analysis (FEA) is a fairly recent discipline crossing the boundaries of mathematics, physics, engineering and computer science. The method has wide application and enjoys extensive utilization in the structural, thermal and fluid analysis areas. The finite element method is comprised of three major phases: (1) pre-processing, in which the analyst develops a finite element mesh to divide the subject geometry into subdomains for mathematical analysis, and applies material properties and boundary conditions, (2) solution, during which the program derives the governing matrix equations from the model and solves for the primary quantities, and (3) post-processing, in which the analyst checks the validity of the solution, examines the values of primary quantities (such as displacements and stresses), and derives and examines additional quantities (such as specialized stresses and error indicators). The advantages of FEA are numerous and important. A new design concept may be modeled to determine its real world behavior under various load environments, and may therefore be refined prior to the creation of drawings, when few dollars have been committed and changes are inexpensive. Once a detailed CAD model has been developed, FEA can analyze the design in detail, saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes required. An existing product which is experiencing a field problem, or is simply being improved, can be analyzed to speed an engineering change and reduce its cost.

    In addition, FEA can be performed on increasingly affordable computer workstations and personal computers, and professional assistance is available. It is also important to recognize the limitations of FEAmercial software packages and the required hardware, which have seen substantial price reductions, still require a significant investment. The method can reduce product testing, but cannot totally replace it. Probably most important, an inexperienced user can deliver incorrect answers, upon which expensive decisions will be based.

    FEA is a demanding tool, in that the analyst must be proficient not only in elasticity or fluids, but also in mathematics, computer science, and especially the finite element method itself. Which FEA package to use is a subject that cannot possibly be covered in this short discussion, and the choice involves personal preferences as well as package functionality. Where to run the package depends on the type of analyses being performed.

    A typical finite element solution requires a fast, modern disk subsystem for acceptable performance. Memory requirements are of course dependent on the code, but in the interest of performance, the more the better, with 512 Mbytes to 8 Gbytes per user a representative range. Processing power is the final link in the performance chain, with clock speed, cache, pipelining and multi-processing all contributing to the bottom line. These analyses can run for hours on the fastest systems, so computing power is of the essence.

    One aspect often overlooked when entering the finite element area is education. Without adequate training on the finite element method and the specific FEA package, a new user will not be productive in a reasonable amount of time, and may in fact fail miserably. Expect to dedicate one to two weeks up front, and another one to two weeks over the first year, to either classroom or self-help education. It is also important that the user have a basic understanding of the computer's operating system. Next month's article will go into detail on the pre-processing phase of the finite element method.

    copyright 2005 Roensch & Associates. All rights reserved.

         
    Finite element analysis post processing

     

    : The following four-article series was published in a newsletter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). It serves as an introduction to the recent analysis discipline known as the finite element method. The author is an engineering consultant and expert witness specializing in finite element analysis. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS: Post-processing by Steve Roensch, President, Roensch & Associates Last in a four-part series After a finite element model has been prepared and checked, boundary conditions have been applied, and the model has been solved, it is time to investigate the results of the analysis. This activity is known as the post-processing phase of the finite element method. Post-processing begins with a thorough check for problems that may have occurred during solution. Most solvers provide a log file, which should be searched for warnings or errors, and which will also provide a quantitative measure of how well-behaved the numerical procedures were during solution. Next, reaction loads at restrained nodes should be summed and examined as a "sanity check". Reaction loads that do not closely balance the applied load resultant for a linear static analysis should cast doubt on the validity of other results. Error norms such as strain energy density and stress deviation among adjacent elements might be looked at next, but for h-code analyses these quantities are best used to target subsequent adaptive remeshing. Once the solution is verified to be free of numerical problems, the quantities of interest may be examined. Many display options are available, the choice of which depends on the mathematical form of the quantity as well as its physical meaning. For example, the displacement of a solid linear brick element's node is a 3-component spatial vector, and the model's overall displacement is often displayed by superposing the deformed shape over the undeformed shape. Dynamic viewing and animation capabilities aid greatly in obtaining an understanding of the deformation pattern. Stresses, being tensor quantities, currently lack a good single visualization technique, and thus derived stress quantities are extracted and displayed. Principal stress vectors may be displayed as color-coded arrows, indicating both direction and magnitude. The magnitude of principal stresses or of a scalar failure stress such as the Von Mises stress may be displayed on the model as colored bands. When this type of display is treated as a 3D object subjected to light sources, the resulting image is known as a shaded image stress plot. Displacement magnitude may also be displayed by colored bands, but this can lead to misinterpretation as a stress plot. An area of post-processing that is rapidly gaining popularity is that of adaptive remeshing. Error norms such as strain energy density are used to remesh the model, placing a denser mesh in regions needing improvement and a coarser mesh in areas of overkill. Adaptivity requires an associative link between the model and the underlying CAD geometry, and works best if boundary conditions may be applied directly to the geometry, as well.

    Adaptive remeshing is a recent demonstration of the iterative nature of h-code analysis. Optimization is another area enjoying recent advancement. Based on the values of various results, the model is modified automatically in an attempt to satisfy certain performance criteria and is solved again. The process iterates until some convergence criterion is met. In its scalar form, optimization modifies beam cross-sectional properties, thin shell thicknesses and/or material properties in an attempt to meet maximum stress constraints, maximum deflection constraints, and/or vibrational frequency constraints.

    Shape optimization is more complex, with the actual 3D model boundaries being modified. This is best accomplished by using the driving dimensions as optimization parameters, but mesh quality at each iteration can be a concern. Another direction clearly visible in the finite element field is the integration of FEA packages with so-called "mechanism" packages, which analyze motion and forces of large-displacement multi-body systems. A long-term goal would be real-time computation and display of displacements and stresses in a multi-body system undergoing large displacement motion, with frictional effects and fluid flow taken into account when necessary.

    It is difficult to estimate the increase in computing power necessary to accomplish this feat, but 2 or 3 orders of magnitude is probably close. Algorithms to integrate these fields of analysis may be expected to follow the computing power increases. In summary, the finite element method is a relatively recent discipline that has quickly become a mature method, especially for structural and thermal analysis. The costs of applying this technology to everyday design tasks have been dropping, while the capabilities delivered by the method expand constantly.

    With education in the technique and in the commercial software packages becoming more and more available, the question has moved from "Why apply FEA?" to "Why not?". The method is fully capable of delivering higher quality products in a shorter design cycle with a reduced chance of field failure, provided it is applied by a capable analyst. It is also a valid indication of thorough design practices, should an unexpected litigation crop up. The time is now for industry to make greater use of this and other analysis techniques. copyright 2005 Roensch & Associates. All rights reserved.

         
    Finite element analysis pre processing

     

    : The following four-article series was published in a newsletter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). It serves as an introduction to the recent analysis discipline known as the finite element method. The author is an engineering consultant and expert witness specializing in finite element analysis. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS: Pre-processing by Steve Roensch, President, Roensch & Associates Second in a four-part series As discussed last month, finite element analysis is comprised of pre-processing, solution and post-processing phases. The goals of pre-processing are to develop an appropriate finite element mesh, assign suitable material properties, and apply boundary conditions in the form of restraints and loads. The finite element mesh subdivides the geometry into elements, upon which are found nodes. The nodes, which are really just point locations in space, are generally located at the element corners and perhaps near each midside. For a two-dimensional (2D) analysis, or a three-dimensional (3D) thin shell analysis, the elements are essentially 2D, but may be "warped" slightly to conform to a 3D surface. An example is the thin shell linear quadrilateral; thin shell implies essentially classical shell theory, linear defines the interpolation of mathematical quantities across the element, and quadrilateral describes the geometry.

    For a 3D solid analysis, the elements have physical thickness in all three dimensionsmon examples include solid linear brick and solid parabolic tetrahedral elements. In addition, there are many special elements, such as axisymmetric elements for situations in which the geometry, material and boundary conditions are all symmetric about an axis. The model's degrees of freedom (dof) are assigned at the nodes.

    Solid elements generally have three translational dof per node. Rotations are accomplished through translations of groups of nodes relative to other nodes. Thin shell elements, on the other hand, have six dof per node: three translations and three rotations. The addition of rotational dof allows for evaluation of quantities through the shell, such as bending stresses due to rotation of one node relative to another. Thus, for structures in which classical thin shell theory is a valid approximation, carrying extra dof at each node bypasses the necessity of modeling the physical thickness.

    The assignment of nodal dof also depends on the class of analysis. For a thermal analysis, for example, only one temperature dof exists at each node. Developing the mesh is usually the most time-consuming task in FEA. In the past, node locations were keyed in manually to approximate the geometry. The more modern approach is to develop the mesh directly on the CAD geometry, which will be (1) wireframe, with points and curves representing edges, (2) surfaced, with surfaces defining boundaries, or (3) solid, defining where the material is. Solid geometry is preferred, but often a surfacing package can create a complex blend that a solids package will not handle. As far as geometric detail, an underlying rule of FEA is to "model what is there", and yet simplifying assumptions simply must be applied to avoid huge models.

    Analyst experience is of the essence. The geometry is meshed with a mapping algorithm or an automatic free-meshing algorithm. The first maps a rectangular grid onto a geometric region, which must therefore have the correct number of sides.

    Mapped meshes can use the accurate and cheap solid linear brick 3D element, but can be very time-consuming, if not impossible, to apply to complex geometries. Free-meshing automatically subdivides meshing regions into elements, with the advantages of fast meshing, easy mesh-size transitioning (for a denser mesh in regions of large gradient), and adaptive capabilities. Disadvantages include generation of huge models, generation of distorted elements, and, in 3D, the use of the rather expensive solid parabolic tetrahedral element.

    It is always important to check elemental distortion prior to solution. A badly distorted element will cause a matrix singularity, killing the solution. A less distorted element may solve, but can deliver very poor answers.

    Acceptable levels of distortion are dependent upon the solver being used. Material properties required vary with the type of solution. A linear statics analysis, for example, will require an elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and perhaps a density for each material. Thermal properties are required for a thermal analysis.

    Examples of restraints are declaring a nodal translation or temperature. Loads include forces, pressures and heat flux. It is preferable to apply boundary conditions to the CAD geometry, with the FEA package transferring them to the underlying model, to allow for simpler application of adaptive and optimization algorithms. It is worth noting that the largest error in the entire process is often in the boundary conditions. Running multiple cases as a sensitivity analysis may be required.

    Next month's article will discuss the solution phase of the finite element method. copyright 2005 Roensch & Associates. All rights reserved.

         
    Finite element analysis solution

     

    : The following four-article series was published in a newsletter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). It serves as an introduction to the recent analysis discipline known as the finite element method. The author is an engineering consultant and expert witness specializing in finite element analysis. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS: Solution by Steve Roensch, President, Roensch & Associates Third in a four-part series While the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the finite element method are interactive and time-consuming for the analyst, the solution is often a batch process, and is demanding of computer resource. The governing equations are assembled into matrix form and are solved numerically. The assembly process depends not only on the type of analysis (e. g. static or dynamic), but also on the model's element types and properties, material properties and boundary conditions. In the case of a linear static structural analysis, the assembled equation is of the form Kd = r, where K is the system stiffness matrix, d is the nodal degree of freedom (dof) displacement vector, and r is the applied nodal load vector. To appreciate this equation, one must begin with the underlying elasticity theory. The strain-displacement relation may be introduced into the stress-strain relation to express stress in terms of displacement.

    Under the assumption of compatibility, the differential equations of equilibrium in concert with the boundary conditions then determine a unique displacement field solution, which in turn determines the strain and stress fields. The chances of directly solving these equations are slim to none for anything but the most trivial geometries, hence the need for approximate numerical techniques presents itself. A finite element mesh is actually a displacement-nodal displacement relation, which, through the element interpolation scheme, determines the displacement anywhere in an element given the values of its nodal dof. Introducing this relation into the strain-displacement relation, we may express strain in terms of the nodal displacement, element interpolation scheme and differential operator matrix. Recalling that the expression for the potential energy of an elastic body includes an integral for strain energy stored (dependent upon the strain field) and integrals for work done by external forces (dependent upon the displacement field), we can therefore express system potential energy in terms of nodal displacement. Applying the principle of minimum potential energy, we may set the partial derivative of potential energy with respect to the nodal dof vector to zero, resulting in: a summation of element stiffness integrals, multiplied by the nodal displacement vector, equals a summation of load integrals.

    Each stiffness integral results in an element stiffness matrix, which sum to produce the system stiffness matrix, and the summation of load integrals yields the applied load vector, resulting in Kd = r. In practice, integration rules are applied to elements, loads appear in the r vector, and nodal dof boundary conditions may appear in the d vector or may be partitioned out of the equation. Solution methods for finite element matrix equations are plentiful. In the case of the linear static Kd = r, inverting K is computationally expensive and numerically unstable.

    A better technique is Cholesky factorization, a form of Gauss elimination, and a minor variation on the "LDU" factorization theme. The K matrix may be efficiently factored into LDU, where L is lower triangular, D is diagonal, and U is upper triangular, resulting in LDUd = r. Since L and D are easily inverted, and U is upper triangular, d may be determined by back-substitution. Another popular approach is the wavefront method, which assembles and reduces the equations at the same time. Some of the best modern solution methods employ sparse matrix techniques. Because node-to-node stiffnesses are non-zero only for nearby node pairs, the stiffness matrix has a large number of zero entries.

    This can be exploited to reduce solution time and storage by a factor of 10 or more. Improved solution methods are continually being developed. The key point is that the analyst must understand the solution technique being applied.

    Dynamic analysis for too many analysts means normal modes. Knowledge of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a design may be enough in the case of a single-frequency vibration of an existing product or prototype, with FEA being used to investigate the effects of mass, stiffness and damping modifications. When investigating a future product, or an existing design with multiple modes excited, forced response modeling should be used to apply the expected transient or frequency environment to estimate the displacement and even dynamic stress at each time step.

    This discussion has assumed h-code elements, for which the order of the interpolation polynomials is fixed. Another technique, p-code, increases the order iteratively until convergence, with error estimates available after one analysis. Finally, the boundary element method places elements only along the geometrical boundary. These techniques have limitations, but expect to see more of them in the near future. Next month's article will discuss the post-processing phase of the finite element method.

    copyright 2005 Roensch & Associates. All rights reserved.

         
    Foam just what on earth is it

     

    Just what on earth is foam? It is a question that has plagued mankind for centuries. Well, alright, maybe not. Nevertheless, foam has long been a mysterious material, yet useful in many ways, not least for insulation and packaging. Put simply, foam is plastic that has been melted, had bubbles of gas forced into it, and then been left to re-form. This produces a cheap, soft, spongy material, which can then be sliced into specific shapes or simply minced up into pellets. The kind of foam you’re probably familiar with is packing foam. Anytime you order something (or sometimes when you just buy it in a shop), it will come wrapped in a box surrounded by foam to protect it. This works because even relatively small amounts of foam are capable of taking the force of a large impact, preventing the object that is being protected from ever hitting a hard surface and being damaged. Packing foam comes in many forms: sheets, pellets (‘packing peanuts’), blocks, and more. If you want some, the best thing to do is probably buy it from an office supplies store or, in larger quantities, direct from a supplier. If you have things delivered in packing foam often, then you might also consider re-using that foam – after all, while foam is disposable, there’s absolutely no reason not to use it more than once. The other kind of foam that you might encounter at some point in your life is insulating foam. This foam might even be in your walls right now as you’re reading this article, without you even knowing it. The advantage of filling your walls with foam is that it can be easily squirted in through a relatively small hole, providing effective insulation without you having to do too much work on the wall. Like with packing, foam insulation is both cheap and effective, not to mention easy to use.

         
    From the atom to the black hole

     

    A black hole is a region of space with such intense gravity that nothing, not even light, can escape. This is the general understanding of the black hole. If gravity is still a phenomenon, how can we come to use this statement as if it was a fact? This is misleading. Besides, it is preventing our young thinkers from even to consider exploring the true nature of gravity. One of the things that irritate me most is, when scientists quote gravity and build up all sorts of formulae and equations around it, when they well know that they have no scientific proof of what gravity really is! As an authority, the majority of scientists are unwilling to admit that all they really know is what they have acknowledged from their tutors - a centuries-old legacy of scientific beliefs some of which were later proven wrong. It is no secret to say that scientific research is sometimes corrupted due to conflict of interests or the lure of profits. Personally, I do not believe that black holes really exist as described in the first paragraph. However, let us assume that they do! I consider myself as another Faraday. After many years of intensive study, searching for the secrets of gravity, I arrived to a point where I feel the need to share my theory of this so-called black hole. According to science, there is more space in an atom than there is matter. So, from where does all the energy come to keep the atom together and active, may I ask? This is my answer. The energy comes partly from the electrical field of the planet itself. This electrified field is generated by the planet’s inner core electromagnetism field, which as we know produces the north and south poles. And, the other part of the energy primarily comes from the planet’s nearest Star. This Star, in turn, radiates myriads of electrified particles that shower on to all the neighboring planets. By means of these electrified particles, the atom gets its energy and stays alive and active. The Auroras at the North and South Poles are a physical example of these electrified particles. Our solar system, and in turn our galaxy, works in the same harmony. That is why the planets revolve and hold their orbit around their Star. The planets and their Star attract each other because of these electrified forces. This is what gravity is all about. The same could be said of one galaxy to another that holds our universe together. My theory stands that a black hole is nothing more than a space in the universe where the electrified energy of the neighboring Stars do not reach - and therefore an atom cannot survive!

         
    Fuel cell power the energy of the future

     

    Many scientific and engineering thought leaders consider fuel cell power stacks as the primary technology in the evolution of electronic or alternative fuel automobiles within the next decade. According to Makino, a global provider of advanced machining technology, technologically advanced vertical machining centers are proven to be the ideal method for machining and manufacturing molds for the production of fuel cell power stack separator plate membranes. These membranes are the key to producing affordable fuel cell power stacks. Certain rigid and thermally stable vertical machining centers can produce a depth accuracy within 2 microns, and a superior surface finish quality of 0.4 microns in 40 Rockwell C steel molds, both of which are essential in making such plastic and rubber membranes. These membranes have to be of high quality and specification to establish the proper electrochemical conversion process to convert hydrogen and oxygen from the air into water. The process flow then produces electricity and heat, especially when configured in a fuel cell stack via a reformer, which controls and regulates the hydrogen for safety. Such an electrolyte or proton-exchange membrane separates and buffers the negatively charged anodes, repelling electrons, and the positively charged cathodes, attracting electrons. The membrane allows the electrons to flow through it to the cathode side of the fuel cell stack, generating electricitybustible fuels burn, and standard batteries store electrical energy as chemical energy and convert it back again. But a fuel cell stack provides direct current power. Unlimited supplies of fuel cell stack energy can be created via the mass production of low-cost membranes, which can be a growing market for most machine shops equipped with technologically advanced verticals. This energy source can not only be used as power for automobiles but also as power for utility companies and home generation units, offering the world low-cost, safe, quiet, efficient, environmentally friendly and readily available power solutions.

         
    Galactic mystery matter on the dark side

     

    Heralding a new age in the cosmos, Norwegian Kristian Birkeland predicted that the universe likely consisted of an exotic component that would later be called dark matter. His comments about this subject matter appeared in a description of the Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition (1902-1903). Birkeland's ideas about the Expedition were published in the fateful year of 1913 which would see the rise of the socialist Federal Reserve System and the Income Tax in the United States of America, two key components of the communist manifesto. Evolutionary processes were in motion throughout all fields of endeavor. Economics, politics, science and the hearts and minds of men and women were in the balance whilst relativism not truth held sway over the modern imagination. Cosmology would suffer from the same 'evolutionary' mindset and Birkeland wrote as much: "We have assumed that each stellar system in evolutions throws off electric corpuscles into space. It does not seem unreasonable therefore to think that the greater part of the material masses in the universe is found, not in the solar systems or nebulae, but in "empty" space." In this fashion, Birkeland predicted that because of the 'evolutions' present within the cosmos most of the matter in the universe must be found in 'empty' space rather than that which is observable in stellar objects. It is currently believed that only four percent of the universe is of this ordinary visible stellar type. Further, about a quarter of the universe is made up of the ubiquitous dark matter with the rest of the cosmos being filled with the even more bizarre dark energy. It was Fritz Zwicky, a swiss astrophysicist working for Caltech, who would further the concept of dark matter through the aegis of the Virial Theorem. This mathematical relation is a formula which bounds the energy of a set of particles. In another dark year in the steady evolution to slavery since 1933 saw the removal of gold from the accounts of american citizenry, Zwicky used the Virial Theorem in an attempt to ascertain the validity of the dark matter hypothesis. He focussed his attention on the Coma galactic cluster and his analysis provided prima facie confirmation for the existence of dark matter. By evaluating the amount of movement of those galaxies at the periphery of the cluster he was able to approximately surmise the aggregate of all the matter therein. He was astonished to learn that this sum total of mass is different from a separately computed estimate. This other value was obtained by analyzing the sum total of galaxies and the brightness of the Coma cluster. Juxtaposing this value with the periphery computation he observed that there was a discrepancy of at a minimum four hundredfold. Since the galaxies were insufficiently massive to cause the computed orbital velocities there must be some other mechanism to explain this phenomena. This conundrum became in the scientific lexicon the missing mass problem. Zwicky had established the need for the existence of an invisible source of mass hitherto unknown which must provide the necessary gravitational effect for the cluster. Thus, it is a fact of the current state of cosmology that the greatest set of evidence for dark matter comes from this galactic gravitational data. Scientists have even made galactic curves describing the rotational properties of stars versus the distance from the galactic center. When the gravitational data is plotted it can be shown that only a small portion of the observed speeds are explicable by classical computations. In other words, there is a scarcity of visible mass in the observed galaxies to attribute the sum total of gravitational effects to visibly observable stars planets and galaxies. Thus, the simplest way to explain this galactic mystery of insufficient mass is to hypothesize a non-detectable type of mass known as dark matter which can be the cause for the gravitational effects. As more and more data is collected on these and other aspects of the universe, formulae and cosmological postulates are generated describing the results so obtained. Fulfilling the requirements of the aforementioned aspects leads some scientists to propose several different types of dark matter. The four main types of dark matter are called 1- baryonic dark matter; 2- warm dark matter; 3- cold dark matter and 4- hot dark matter. Dark matter ranges from the known to the predicted, from black holes to brown dwarfs to the massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), the neutrino, axions, WIMPS or weakly interacting massive particles and the esoteric neutralino. However, there is an alternative explanation for the gravitational effects which originally created the dark matter concept. If an incomplete understanding of gravitation is factored into the picture, then it can be asserted that the dark matter interpretation is incorrect because some other cause is generating these phenomena. Several different contending theories have been developed to describe the observed galactic data. In particular, one of the main competing explanations is given by scalar tensor theories which try to combine the teachings of quantum mechanics with gravity. Amplifying these ideas leads to a variety of exotic ideas which challenge our most fundamental notions of physics and astronomy. Other concepts go even further and have been the subject of interest for astronomers like Dr. Riccardo Scarpa since these allow for a cosmology without the inclusion of the enigmatic dark matter. Dr. Scarpa works at the European Southern Observatory in Santiago Chile using the Very Large Telescope Array at Paranal. With all of his experience in this field, it is interesting to note some of his most recent comments on the superfluous dark matter: "Dark matter is the craziest idea we've ever had in astronomy. It can appear when you need it, it can do what you like, be distributed in any way you like. It is the fairy tale of astronomy." In view of these comments one should ask if another scientific idea might be on the verge of collapsing. Indeed, astronomers are routinely using these other theoretical principles on a daily basis in infrared observatories around the world. Thus, it is very likely that we are simply wrong about all of this dark matter. It is within all probability that the only dark matter that we will ever find is that ignorant dark matter between our ears.

         
    Gas is important

     

    In todays modern economy, Gas & Oil, have become such important aspects, that it would be safe to say that we rely on them. A few examples are gas in our cars, for our furnaces, and the production of plastics. How much do you really know about Gas though? A gas is one of the different phases of matter. Similar to liquids and plasmas, gases are fluids. This means that they have the ability to flow and that they will not usually return to their prior stage after they have been deformed. This doesn't mean that they don't have viscosity. A property of a gas that is different from that of a liquid is that; a gas does not occupy a fixed space or volume, but will instead expand to fill whatever container it is in, this is opposite of a liquid that will remain the same. After Plasma, gas has the second highest energy per molecule. Due to this extreme amount of kinetic energy, gas atoms and molecules of gas will usually bounce off any container they are placed in, and even off of eachother. This bouncing will occur with more power as the kinetic energy of the gas is increased. Many people, incorrectly believe that when these molecules collide provide the main basis in explaining gas pressure. This is not true because the random velocities of the gas are enough to define the gas pressure. Not to leave these collisions in the dark, as they are very important in establishing the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of the gas. It's interesting how we use the word "gas" every single day, and all that we relate it to is the rising gas prices, or something that we get when we eat too many beans. There is alot more to gas then that, and is an important part of our everyday lives.

         
    Get rid of acne

     

    Many people in the world think acne is something that is really negative. Although acne does not really affect anything else but the physical look of a person, but to some this may affect them very negatively. There are many different ways to get rid of acne, one might try different acne treatment products. Because acne affects all age group, there are products made for many different age groups to help getting rid of acne. Some acne treatment products include Zyporex and ClearPores. Usually these products should not give any side effects but in some cases they do give some side effects. Usually products like this usually get rid of your acne within a week and sometimes in a few days. Some of these products are very costly but sometimes they are very cheap, also sometimes they are even given out to you for free just so you can try it. Most of these products are simple to use and may also help you reduce any more acne appearing on your skin. The second type of acne treatment is using natural remedies. This is getting more and more popular over the past few years and many are using it. This is because of two main reasons; it is cheaper and it does not give side effects. Some think that if they do not give side effects it will take longer for them to get rid of the acne. That is not true because natural acne treatment products, such as Green tea extract and Licorice Root Extract, still get rid of the acne before a week but most of the time within a few days. They give no side effect and these natural remedies have been used for sometimes thousands of years and most of these remedies are being used to cure other medical things. The third popular way to get rid of acne is using home made acne treatments. This treatment is quite popular because one can use different remedies until they locate one they like and that functions best for them. So this way they can change around remedies a lot and usually these remedies are natural so it has the benefits of natural acne treatments.

         
    Global warming how can you help

     

    Global warming over the next half-century could put more than a million species of plants and animals on the road to extinction, according to an international study Thomas, lead author of the study published in the science journal Nature, said emissions from cars and factories could push temperatures up to levels not seen for 1 million to 30 million years by the end of the century, threatening many habitats. The sweeping new analysis, enlisting scientists from 14 laboratories around the globe, found that more than one-third of 1,103 native species they studied in six regions around the world could vanish or plunge to near extinction by 2050 as climate change turns plains into deserts or alters forests. Global warming is widely blamed on rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere linked to emissions of gases from burning fossil fuels in cars, factories and power plants. We can cut global warming pollution by reducing pollution from vehicles and power plants. We can increase our reliance on renewable energy sources such as wind, sun and geothermal. And we can manufacture more efficient appliances and conserve energy. But all this will take time, instead we should think of alternatives which can be done immediately like doing ridesharing or carpool, using clean fuel like CNG. There is no reason to wait and hope that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will solve the problem in the future. Right away, we should put existing technologies for building cleaner cars and more modern electricity generators into widespread use. If current trends continue Global warming will have catastrophic effects like: • Melting glaciers, early snowmelt and severe droughts will cause more dramatic water shortages in the American West. • Rising sea levels will lead to coastal flooding on the Eastern seaboard, in Florida, and in other areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico. • Warmer sea surface temperatures will fuel more intense hurricanes in the south-eastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. • Forests, farms and cities will face troublesome new pests and more mosquito-borne diseases. • Disruption of habitats such as coral reefs and alpine meadows could drive many plant and animal species to extinction. Such alarming facts call for some serious action on each one’s part and we can contribute by sharing our vehicles and making carpools in our cities.

         
    Grameen shakti and the solar revolution

     

    Grameen Shakti is a renewable energy resources company based out of Bangladesh. They are a part of the Grameen family of companies, which has been working for decades to alleviate the burdens of poverty in developing countries. The Grameen Bank, one of their founding companies, has become world-renowned for their charitable work and for helping to establish groundbreaking programs focused on the needs of people. In recent years, the Grameen Bank has financed and supported a number of projects aimed at removing social and financial barriers and creating opportunities for those less fortunate. Grameen Telecom is one such example. The central aim of this company is to provide collateral-free loans to rural villagers for use in establishing local communications networks. This model has become known as the Village Phone. They have now committed significant resources to sustainable energy development. The cornerstone of this effort is the Photovoltaic Program. In Bangladesh, only 30% of the population is receiving energy from the electrical power grid. In this developing nation, the infrastructure to provide energy to every household simply doesn't exist. In an effort to address this problem, Grameen Shakti has financed the installation of thousands of solar energy systems in rural communities. This has created immense opportunities for people in rural villages. Children now have the ability to pursue their studies long after the sun has gone down. Businesses now have the ability to operate beyond their traditional work hours, thus increasing productivity and sales. A world of opportunity has opened up for an entire generation of rural villagers. As a consequence, they are no longer rural villagers. They are now members of our global village. One of the most amazing consequences of this program has been the level of technological engagement that has occurred among the youth in Bangladesh. For young people in rural communities, the future is bright. Due to the advancement in technological knowledge and understanding, the demand for skilled workers has increased at a phenomenal pace. To address this concern, Grameen Shakti has also established training programs that educate young people in the principles of electronics and engineering. It is both exciting and encouraging to witness the immediate and tangible effects of an enlightened business model that measures its true profitability by its social impact. It is an idea that is completely foreign to the western capitalist mindset, and one that serves as a shining example of the power of an idea. Western corporations take heed; there are lessons to be learned in rural Bangladesh.

         
    Great astronomical observatories of the world

     

    The great observatories of the world are responsible for many of the prolific astronomical observations of the twentieth century. Telescopic photograpy, radio dish data collection, and infrared imaging are among the many different techniques observatories have been able to employ to learn about the heavens. The Palomar Observatory may be the most famous of all. With five telescopes operated by Cal-Tech’s graduate and post-doctoral students, the 200-inch Hale telescope is the most famous of all Palomar’s telescopes. Built in 1949, it was intended to overcome the onset of the southern California smog problem. Other noteworthy telescopes operated at Cal-Tech include a telescope to search for supernovae, a comet hunter, a trio of sky cameras looking for planetary and other celestial phenomena, an interferometer capable of detecting the slightest wobble in the orbits of a planet, and a sixty inch telescope responsible for spotting the first brown dwarf circling a companion star. Cal Tech is also directly involved in the operation of the Keck and Lick Observatories. The Keck Observatory, located on top of Hawaii’s dormant Mauna Kea volcano contains the world’s largest optical and infrared telescopes. Its twin Keck telescopes stand eight stories high and weigh 300 tons each. Lick Observatory is located on 4200 foot Mount Hamilton east of San Jose, California. It contains nine research telescopes with the largest being the Shane 3-meter Reflector. This telescope is used to observe everything from our local solar system to faraway galaxies. The Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles is known for its12-inch Zeiss Refracting telescope. This telescope’s fame is largely due to the fact that it has been used to allow public viewing of the universe since 1935. More than five million people have looked through its lenses since under the guidance of experienced Telescope Demonstrators. The Griffith Observatory was also known for its laserium light shows in previous years although they have been discontinued at present. The Hayden Planetarium in Boston is more than just a planetarium. It is also a museum. Along with its Gilliland Observatory, laser-light shows and a rotating star simulator are among some of the different multi-media astronomical experiences available to the public. The Greenwich Observatory in Cambridge, England was established in 1675 by King Charles II in order partially to fix longitude readings. It currently fixes the origin of the worldwide time reference point of Greenwich Mean Time. An observatory in Portland Maine is being restored as a famous architectural monument. Another observatory of note is the University of Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory with its five telescopes. All of these observatories have added to the vast array of knowledge now known about the universe. Their importance to the history of astronomy, as well as their continuing usefulness, can not be overemphasized. 1) Palomar observed: For more than 50 years, science above and beyond; Scott LaFee; San Diego Union Tribune; November 2, 2005 2) CalTech Astronomy Website; 3) UC Observatories Website 4) Yerkes Observatory Website; 5) Griffith Observatory Website; 6) Observatory view worth preserving; by John Alphonse. 7) Hayden Planetarium Website. 8) The Astronomical Society of Edinburgh: A Guide to Edinburgh's Popular Observatory

         
    Green and black tea are great for your health

     

    Many cultures around the world drink tea. Some people drink tea as part of social interaction, and others drink it for their health. Specific teas, such as black tea and green tea, have been tested for their positive affects on people's health. And studies have shown that these two teas can in fact benefit your body. And not just by providing a little pick me up in the morning either. Studies have shown that green tea can slow the growth of cancer cells. Everyone should take notice of these anti-carcinogenic properties, especially in an age of tremendous pollution. Studies by the National Cancer Institute, in America, have shown that powerful plant antioxidants within the tea will stunt the progression of cancerous cells. The cancer preventing properties of tea are just one of the wonderful properties of the drink. Black tea has been found to increase the presence of certain anti-bacterial proteins in the body. Not just by a little bit either, but a considerable amount. When compared to coffee drinkers, tea drinkers actually had a concentration of disease preventing protein that was 400% higher. Clearly, these are significant health benefits to be had from drinking tea. The are even more benefits though. Mental acuity can be increased as well. A study of elderly people found that those who drink tea actually reduce their risk of mental problems by half when compared to people who don't drink tea. And the tea drinkers only had to drink a couple cups a day to realize those amazing benefits. Green tea can help increase the rate at which calories are burned in the body. The chemicals found in green tea allow the body to more efficiently burn fat for energy. Evidence also exist to show that drinking this type of tea can help the body reduce chemicals associated with stress. While this tea forestalls senility, it also more generally improves brain functioning in all segments of the population. The caffeine contained in green tea will help improve memory and give one sharper thinking. This tea also contains chemicals specific to plants that slow down the growth of bacteria that cause bad breath. The health benefits of drinking green and black teas are quite remarkable. The same chemicals that slow bad breath can also help people with certain bowel diseases. The bacteria limiting properties of the tea helps ease the discomfort associated with such complications. While there are obviously a myriad of health benefits directly related to the physical properties of these teas, there is also mental health relaxation that is associated with preparing a warm beverage. Taking time out of your day to prepare something that is nourishing to your body can really allow you to calm down and retreat from the stresses of everyday life. Learning about all the different types of teas can be quite an enjoyable experience. Not only will you learn about the disparate boiling techniques for each tea, but you will learn each every tea's specific chemical properties.

         
    Hear your soon to be born baby

     

    Nothing is more exciting than expecting a baby and many expectant mothers and fathers can’t wait to hear the sound of their child’s heartbeat. Parents who cant wait and parents who want to share the amazing experience of listening to the beating sound can buy a baby heart monitor known as a fetal Doppler. The purpose of this article is to help you to the next level and show you what this amazing subject has to offer. A fetal Doppler uses sound waves to notice the sound of the infant’s cardio activity. The sound waves bounce off of the little ones heart and are sent back to the listener. The baby heart monitor sends these sounds, also known as high frequency waves into an inquiry badge close to the device. The high frequency waves don’t trek very well so it is necessary to use a gel or oil to help things along. The sound conductor is practical straight to the mothers belly and the baby heart monitor is located over the matter and enthused until sound is detected. The little heartbeat is larger through an earpiece and orator built right into the baby heart monitor. The role wearing the earphones can hear the infants beats and like every precious instant, at slightest until somebody else asks for a chance. During the next part, we must change to a more serious side to fully communicate the subject matter in a way for all to understand. The baby heart monitor is very reliable to use. It has been tested and released by the United States governmental agencies responsible for such regulations. No negative affects have been found in over thirty living of use. The baby heart monitor is the same technology worn in hospitals everyday on thousands and thousands of patients. Some claim that there are great benefits for with the badge while others think that too many sound waves can not be good for the developing fetus. The Food and Drug Administration recommends that you gossip to your physician and get permission before with a home baby heart monitor. This is forever good procedure. Since the baby heart monitor can be fairly a posh investment for such a short-term ingress many parents prefer to rent one. Renting a baby heart monitor is really less posh and the parents can forever change their minds and asset the part if they so decide. The renting choice is an appealing aspect unfilled by the manufacturers and the variety to asset the entry gives parents even more incentive to try the device. After all, most families have a baby in their coming plans, whether immediate or extended. A baby heart monitor is a great entry to have. If you could take the main ideas from this article and put them into a list, you would a great overview of what we have learned.

         
     
         
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