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    Is there a waterproof solar charger

     

    Many people using solar chargers want to know if there is a waterproof solar charger available. Most of these people who like to use their solar chargers while at the beach are afraid that the water splashing around will ruin their chargers. Solar chargers are very durable and most can withstand the normal splashing that occurs at the beach. The sun power that is used to operate a solar charger is a great way for people at the beach to keep their electrical devices running. Because solar chargers are meant to be used outside, they are naturally waterproof. They are made to withstand rain and other natural weather that may occur around them. Weatherproof solar chargers are easy to find, the actual concern is more for the devices you are going to be charging with your solar energy charger. Most electrical devices that you will be charging with your charger are not weatherproof or waterproof at all. So even though your solar charger may be able to withstand a little water being splashed on it, that does not mean that your cell phone will be equally capable of operating in those watery conditions. It is extremely important to keep all your electrical devices out of any water. Most devices will be ruined with very little water coming into contact with them. For those people who like to use their solar chargers at the beach, this can present a huge dilemma. They want to use a solar charger while relaxing at the beach, but they do not want to risk ruining their expensive electrical devices. A simple solution is to remain far enough away from the water that you will not risk getting your device wet. You can also use an umbrella or other shading device to keep your electronics out of the weather in case it suddenly starts to rain. Just remember if you are using an umbrella to make sure and put your solar charger in the sunlight. If your charger is not in full sunlight, it will take much longer to charger your batteries or other devices. Another solution for people who are afraid of water getting to their electrical devices is that they can put them in a plastic bag and only have the cord of the solar charger coming in through a small opening. This will protect the electronic device while still allowing it to be charged. This is a great option for sitting around the pool or at the beach. If the weather gets really bad, you should consider just packing everything up and heading for cover. Solar chargers are very durable and can withstand most weather related conditions. It may still be necessary to remove your portable solar chargers from the weather if it is very stormy or windy out. A little rain should not bother them. Just make sure you have taken care of the devices you were charging because they are much more susceptible to rain and water damage than a solar charger is.

         
    Lasik eye surgery and the benefits of the procedure

     

    LASIK (Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis) is a common type of eye surgery that many are using to be able to decrease their dependency on glasses and contact lenses. LASIK is a method of refractive surgery that is a regular procedure, often used for treating nearsightedness. Its popularity is due to the improvement of vision, without the major side effects that other eye surgery methods may produce. With the eye being one of the most sensitive areas of the body, it might be somewhat surprising to learn that the LASIK procedure is relatively simple. In fact it's not uncommon for those patients that have undergone the procedure to be working again the following day. The eye is firstly washed out with a solution to numb the area. The next step is to hold the eyelids open using clamps. This will prevent blinking. After the solution begins to take effect, the surgeon will make an incision in the cornea. Once enough tissue is removed using the laser, the surgeon can then close where the incision is made, and the procedure is complete. The benefits of LASIK eye surgery is there for all to see (excuse the pun!). Thousands of people have undergone the procedure, but for some the apprehension to go through with eye surgery may be attributed to the main benefits not being made clear, which are mainly two-fold: 1) The possibility to live life without the need for glasses or contact lenses. 2) An increase in the quality of vision. The cost of having LASIK eye surgery performed can vary. The price depends on factors such as the equipment used for the surgery and also the testing carried out before the procedure. You may find that different providers will perform different levels of testing, so ensure that you research into different providers and find out what is included in the price. Of course you cannot put a price on your vision, but there is certainly no harm in discovering which provider offers the required features in the quoted price. One point that must be considered though is to find a surgeon that has experience with the procedure. Do not simply opt for the cheapest as they may not necessarily be the best.

         
    Lasik eye surgery complications

     

    What are some of the possible complications of Lasik eye surgery? Undercorrection – this occurs when the expected vision correction falls short of the desired outcome. This occurs more commonly with patients who have a high degree of nearsightedness (only objects close up are clear), farsightedness (only objects far away are clear) or astigmatism (images both far and near are distorted). Why? There is more laser corneal sculpting that needs to occur with patients having higher degrees of vision imperfection. When choosing your Lasik eye surgeon, it’s important to ask them what percentage of their patients need retreatment for undercorrection. This should be something that they are willing to freely discuss with you. If not, walk away! This is not to be confused with a planned slight undercorrection for nearsighted patients over forty years old which aids their reading vision. But this is something that you and your Lasik eye surgeon would have discussed before your surgery. Overcorrection – this complication occurs less frequently than undercorrection and results when the amount of correction (corneal laser sculpting) exceeds what is planned. Slight overcorrection can be temporary and may resolve itself in the first month following Lasik eye surgery. Patients can manage slight overcorrections by wearing glasses until their vision resolves. Some patients with overcorrection may need additional Lasik eye surgery 3 to 6 months following their first surgery. Dry Eye – many Lasik eye surgery patients may experience the feeling of ‘grittiness’ in their eyes following surgery. This condition usually resolves itself in 3 to 6 months and may be helped by using lubricating eye drops. Patients using birth control pills and patients going through menopause may experience this condition more often. If ‘dry eye’ continues beyond 6 months, your Lasik eye surgeon may recommend blocking your tear ducts with tiny silicon plugs to prevent tears from draining away too quickly. Corneal abrasion – a small percentage of Lasik eye surgery patients may develop a small corneal abrasion (scrape) caused by the microkeratome (instrument used to create corneal flap) used during surgery. This abrasion is generally not serious and will heal quickly. Your Lasik eye surgeon may temporarily place a thin bandage contact lens on your eye to promote healing. While your abrasion is healing, your vision will be blurry. Night glare – this annoying condition may not affect your vision clarity but patients may see halos or ghosting of images at night during the first month following surgery. Night glare generally improves in 3 months and often disappears within 6 months. Patients with large pupils and more severe vision impairment may be more prone to night glare. Corneal flap complication – this occurs when the corneal flap is too small, too thin or is an irregular shape. In some cases the corneal flap may shift slightly following surgery if a patient rubs their eyes during the first 6 hours after surgery. If the flap does shift, ‘wrinkles’ can form causing distorted vision. A second procedure may be necessary to ‘smooth out’ the wrinkles and improve vision. Infection – although this is the most feared complication of Lasik eye surgery patients, it is extremely rare. If your eye is going to become infected, chances are it will happen in the first 72 hours following surgery and will be treated with antibiotic eye drops. For this reason it is very important to avoid eye makeup, hot tubs and swimming pools for at least the first week following Lasik eye surgery. The risks of Lasik eye surgery are low with an experienced Lasik eye surgeon but you need to be aware of possible complications prior to surgery. Your Lasik eye surgeon should freely discuss all possible complications of Lasik eye surgery prior to surgery. Do everything you can to put your eyes in the best possible hands.

         
    Latest technology transfer could reduce chinese coal mining deaths

     

    China is eager to address one of the primary culprits behind its alarming coal mining fatalities, as evidenced by the Pre-Mining Degasification Symposium held in South China’s Guizhou province on March 31st and April 1st. Sponsored by the province’s Coal Mines Administration Bureau and the Coal Mine Safety Inspection and Supervision Bureau, coal mining executives gathered in Guiyang, a modest-sized city (by China’s standards) of more than three million people, to discuss how the latest foreign technologies could help degasify China’s 2,000 coal mines, both improving mine safety and reducing China’s global output of air pollution. More than 80 representatives from 40 coal mines attended in China’s second largest coal-producing province to find out about the latest foreign technology transfers, which might help reduce coal mining deaths. Over the centuries as organic matter is converted to coal, methane, also known as CH4 and the primary constituent in natural gas, is produced during this process and stored in pockets within a coal seam. For every ton of coal produced, during the “coalification” process, more than 5000 cubic feet of methane is created. Coal mining releases this methane into the atmosphere. Over 90 percent of methane emissions come from underground coal mining. Because gas content is greater with depth, safety hazards increase during the underground coal mining process. Degasifying coal mines has been proven to help make those underground coal mines safer for miners. Volatile gases produced during the coal mining process reportedly kill more than 15 miners every day in China, about 80 percent of the world’s coal mining deaths. Prime Minister Wen Jiabao, a mining engineer by training, has demanded China improve conditions for Chinese coal miners. Critics, such as the Chinaworker. org, say the “underlying cause is a lack of investment in degasification equipment.” The website claims, “Managers calculate that it’s cheaper to pay out meager death benefits to miners’ families than (to) raise investment.” The Economist magazine reported that Chinese coal miners make as little as $60/monthly. China is also concerned about its air emissions from coal mining. Worldwide, the coal mining industry released over 436 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2000. That accounted for about 8 percent of the total industrial methane emissions that year. China, Russia, Poland and the United States account for over 77 percent of coal mining methane emissions. Through the year 2020, China’s share of worldwide emissions will jump to 45 percent. These emissions could be severely reduced if Chinese coal mines captured the methane gas for use in meeting its soaring energy needs, rather than vented into the atmosphere each time a new coal tunnel is opened. One of the major draws at the Guiyang Pre-Mining Degasification Symposium were presentations about the latest coalbed methane drilling innovation by Tunaye Sai, Director of China Operations for Pacific Asia China Energy (TSX: PCE; Other OTC: PCEEF), and Nathan Mitchell of Mitchell Drilling Company (MDC) in Brisbane, Australia. Coal mining companies opened discussions with PCE after their presentation. “Executives from fifty mines showed interest in the Dymaxion® drilling technology to improve mining safety,” said Tunaye Sai. All of them showed interest? “All of them,” responded Tunaye Sai. PCE reported in a news release on Wednesday, “The PACE-MDC joint venture group is currently preparing a business plan for the immediate development of this new strategy in order to address the demand, which arose from the attendees at this symposium.” “They are having problems in their mines,” explained Tunaye Sai, who is also a member of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum. Because they have not been able to effectively degasify their mines, four of the attending Chinese coal mining companies immediately approached Tunaye Sai and Mitchell about using this state-of-the-art drilling technology. Earlier this year, PCE and MDC announced they were forming a joint venture to offer MDC’s proprietary Dymaxion® drilling technology to companies in China, to help degasify their coal mines. MDC is Australia’s largest privately owned drilling company, and their Dymaxion technology has been widely discussed by coal mining insiders. The PCE and MDC joint venture company has the exclusive rights to use the Dymaxion technology in China. In a tape-recorded interview, Tunaye Sai told StockInterview, “The combination of a horizontal and vertical intersection draws the methane gas from the coal seam and captures it at the surface.” Australian newspapers have been exuberant over the Dymaxion® technique, calling it “revolutionary” and “radical.” In its headline, one Australian newspaper called MDC’s state-of-the-art G-55 drill rig “the Lamborghini of drill rigs,” and remarked how their drill rigs offered improved flexibility and cost efficiency. The Dymaxion surface to in-seam (SIS) drilling method uses modified multipurpose mineral drill rigs, specially designed bottom-hole assemblies and specially trained personnel. The technique involves drilling a 60 to 90 degree hole from the surface and steering it through a medium radius bend to enter the target coal seam horizontally. The 96mm hole is then steered for up to 1200 meters in the seam towards a previously drilled vertical production well. A homing device, lowered down the vertical well to the target seam, aids the intersection with the vertical well. The vertical well is also equipped with a suitable pump to dewater the seam. After the hydrostatic head has been sufficiently lowered, the methane gas will flow to the surface. Newspaper reports also say this technique allows for significant savings over alternate underground gas drainage drilling methods. The Dymaxion technology obviously turned heads at the recent Gasification Symposium. “One of the companies is a big company, mining 10 million tons of coal per year,” said Tunaye Sai. “Last December, 12 people died in one of the coal mining company’s tunnels.” He explained that when coal miners are opening a tunnel, the gas comes out – sometimes explosively. “By using the Dymaxion technique, they can let the gas out before they begin mining a tunnel,” he added. Discussions with the Chinese coal companies are in the initial stages. “They want to give us a block – not one that is being mined now, but one that may be mined in a few years,” said Tunaye Sai. “We’re working on an arrangement right now because they are very interested.” He explained that the relationship would involve a continuous process. “We wouldn’t just drill it and then abandon it,” he added. “We will be making sure that the gas will come out continuously and monitoring it.” Tunaye Sai said that Pacific Asia China Energy was targeting the larger mines. “Among them, about ten companies mine about four million tons per year or more. Those are the ones we are talking to.” PCE has ordered the drilling equipment, and it should arrive in China around October. “As soon as it is there, we can implement our plan, maybe in November or December.” He told us, “They have been asking us to demonstrate the equipment for them.” This may be an unexpected revenue surprise for Pacific Asia China Energy, and a blessing for Chinese coal miners whose lives may be spared, thanks to this latest technology transfer to China.

         
    Learn from earth science

     

    There is so much to be learned in life, sometimes I find myself overwhelmed with all that I do not know. I've heard it said, however, that the smartest people are the ones that know that they do not know much. I like that. I like it because I am acutely aware that there is so much that I have yet to discover and understand. I am committed, however, to the process of constantly learning more. My latest subject of fascination has been wondering and learning about earth science. I haven't honestly thought that much about earth science since I took a class in it in junior high school. At that time I hated everything to do with science and so I didn't give much thought one way or another to earth science. I dreadfully made it through that class learning only the basics enough to get by (not the least of which I can remember now). I'm not quite sure what inspired me to attempt to discover facts about earth science. I guess I began to become more interested in earth science as I had children and they grew up asking question after question. I could barely take them on walks at night without them asking me questions about the ground, the soil, the trees or the sun. I would fumble through answers and try to change the subject quickly as I admitted to myself that I really did not know much. So on my next trip to the library I picked up a few general books on earth science and began learning with my kids. I have found that learning with my kids has become one of the best ways to grow in knowledge. I utilize their curiosity and take every chance I can at learning with them. It has been a great way for me to learn more about earth science and other things. I never knew how much motherhood would affect me, but I certainly didn't know how much I would learn because of my children's hunger for knowledge. I have learned many things about earth science since our studies have begun. One of the biggest things I have learned is a deeper sense of appreciation for the world I live in. I have grown in amazement and wonder about the way the world works and about my small and insignificant place. I simply am astounded by the intricacies and details of our earth. Earth science has made me even more curious about the world around me. If you have a craving to learn more about the world you live in, then start with grabbing a few books on earth science. You'll love learning so much that you won't be able to stop.

         
    Learn more about diamonds

     

    A Diamond is a mineral made of carbon that is crystallized. In fact a diamond is more than 99.95% pure carbon. The remaining 0.05 percent of the elements often influences the crystal's color and shape. The diamond is also by far the hardest natural substance known to man. Diamonds form between 75 and 120 miles below the earth's surface. Only at these great depths do the necessary temperature and pressure exist to form this unique gem. Diamonds were delivered to the surface by volcanic eruptions. These eruptions occurred over 50 million years ago. Geologists believe that the first delivery occurred more than 2.5 billion years ago. After reaching the surface, some diamonds settled back into their volcanic pipes. Other diamonds were washed hundreds of miles away by floods and rivers. Some diamonds reached the oceans and were washed back onto the beach. The first diamond mines were discovered in India before 500 BC. India has been the world's major supplier of diamonds for over 2,000 years, producing some of the most famous diamonds. Today, India accounts for only a tiny percentage of the world's diamond production. Today's diamond production leaders are currently Australia, Botswana, Russia, South Africa, Zaire and Canada. Before being transformed into a beautiful piece of jewelry, the diamond must undergo several stages. STAGE 1 - MINING The diamonds that made it to the surface were forced up volcanically, through kimberlite pipes. A typical pipe mine consists of a large vertical shaft with tunnels running from the main pipe. The deepest mine runs about 3,500 feet down into the earth. More than 200 tons of rock, gravel and sand need to be blasted, crushed and processed to yield just one carat of gem quality diamonds. Finding diamonds and getting them out of the ground may require the use of jet engines to thaw the frozen ground or to endure the sweltering desert heat. Only about 20% of all rough diamonds are suitable for polishing; the rest are used for industrial purposes. Once the rough is found the diamond's journey begins. STAGE 2 - ROUGH REACHES THE MARKET A large proportion of the world's rough supply finds its way to De Beers' Central Selling Organization (CSO). The rough the CSO buys is sorted into more than 5,000 different categories. Once the rough is sorted and priced, it is sold to manufacturers at sights. There are ten sights a year, each lasting a week. The chosen few afforded the chance to purchase at these sights are called sight holders. The balance of the world's rough supply is sold to private buyers, and some through private auctions. STAGE 3 - MANUFACTURING THE DIAMOND Regardless of the source, all rough eventually finds its way to the cutting centers. Today, the major cutting centers are Antwerp, Israel, Bombay, Johannesburg, and New York. Upon reaching its destination the rough is carefully examined to decide how it should be cut to yield the greatest value. After the stone's shape and size are determined, taking into consideration the rough's shape, as well as the number and position of its internal inclusions, the stone is marked and usually sawed or cleaved. The stone then goes through a series of cutters who each have their own specialty. Finally the diamond is polished and ready for sale. STAGE 4 - THE FINAL JOURNEY After a diamond is manufactured it needs to be sold. For decades diamond manufacturers have sold their cut diamonds to jewelry manufacturers and diamond wholesalers who in turn, sell to jewelry wholesalers and to retail jewelry stores. Today's technology is changing the diamond pipeline. Diamond manufacturers now have a direct link to the final customer. By learning the 4C's and buying only certified diamonds it is possible to purchase the same quality diamond for a significantly lower price, over the internet.

         
    Life of leonardo da vinci

     

    Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, cartographer, engineer, scientist and inventor in the 15th century. Yet, despite his genius, he referred to himself as "senza lettere" (the illiterate, the man without letters). For good reason: until late in life, he was unable to read, or write, Latin, the language used by virtually all other Renaissance intellectuals, the lingua franca, akin to English today. Nor was he acquainted with mathematics until he was 30. Leonardo was born out of wedlock but was raised by his real father, a wealthy Florentine notary. He served at least ten years (1466-1476) as Garzone (apprentice) to Andrea del Verrocchio and painted details in Verrocchio's canvasses. Only in 1478, when he was 26, did he become independent. He was not off to an auspicious start. He never executed his first commission (an altarpiece in the chapel of the Palazzo Vecchio della Signoria, Florence's town hall). His first large paintings were left unfinished ("The Adoration of the Magi" and "Saint Jerome", both 1481). Most of the sketches and studies for Leonardo's works of art and engineering are found on his shopping lists, personal notes, and personal expenditure ledgers. No one was allowed to enter Leonardo's den, where he kept, as Giorgio Vasari in "Lives of the Artists", describes: "a number of green and other kinds of lizards, crickets, serpents, butterflies, locusts, hats, and various strange creatures of this nature". Leonardo's clients were often dissatisfied with his glacial pace, lack of professional discipline, and inability to conclude his assignments. He was frequently involved in litigation. The Cofraternity of the Immaculate Conception sued him when he failed to produce the Virgin on the Rocks, an altarpiece they commissioned from him in 1483. The court proceedings lasted 10 years. The head of Jesus in "The Last Supper" was left blank because Leonardo did not dare to paint a human model, nor did he trust his imagination sufficiently. Leonardo worked four years on the Mona Lisa but never completed it, either. He carried it with him wherever he went. Leonardo's terra cota model for a colossal bronze sculpture of the father of his benefactor and employer, Ludovico Sforza, was used for target practice by invading French soldiers in 1499. The metal which was supposed to go into this work of art was molded into cannon balls. Leonardo was a member of the commission which deliberated where to place Michelangelo's magnificent statue of David. His cartographic work was so ahead of its time, that the express highway from Florence to the sea - built in the 20th century - follows precisely the route of a canal he envisioned. His scientific investigations - in anatomy, hydraulics, mechanics, ornithology, botany - are considered valuable to this very day. Bill Gates owns some his notebooks containing scientific data and observations (known as the Codex Hammer). But Leonardo's loyalties were fickle. He switched sides to the conquering French and in 1506 returned to Milan to work for its French governor, Charles D'Amboise. Later, he became court painter for King Louis XII of France who, at the time, resided in Milan. In 1516, he relocated to France, to serve King Francis I and there he died. Leonardo summed up the lessons of his art in a series of missives to his students, probably in Milan. These were later (1542) collected by his close associate, Francesco Melzi, as "A Treatise on Painting" and published in print (1651, 1817).

         
    Looking to the past of geothermal energy

     

    Geothermal energy is often viewed as a relatively new form of alternative energy. In truth, the use of geothermal energy stretches far back into the past. Looking To The Past Of Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is literally, “earth heat”. This type of energy's name comes from two Greek words: “geo” meaning earth, and “therme”, which means heat. While it may seem that the use of geothermal energy is a relatively new idea, it is actually an ancient practice. Many different cultures have used geothermal power to their advantage, dating back to some of the Earth's earliest civilizations. In order to use geothermal energy, the energy source itself must be tapped into. Geothermal energy comes from reserves of water located in the Earth's layer of magma. Magma, otherwise known as molten rock, is a super hot substance that springs directly from the Earth's core, which is a scalding 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Magma heats the reserves of water located in its midst to very high temperatures, around 700 degrees Fahrenheit. These geothermal reservoirs, as they are known, can be drilled into or can escape naturally through cracks in the Earth's crust. These natural formations create such places on Earth as hot springs and geysers. Geothermal energy can be traced back to 10,000 years ago when Native Americans used geothermal water found in hot springs to cook and for use as medicine. The geothermal energy found in hot springs was also used by the Romans. The ancient city of Pompeii used geothermal energy to heat homes. Romans also were known to use geothermal water for its medicinal properties; such as in the treatment of skin and eye diseases. Romans and other ancient civilizations also used the soothing geothermal waters found in hot springs for relaxation and natural bathing places. In more recent times, France started using this type of energy in the 1960's to heat their homes. More than 200,000 homes in France are now heated by geothermal water. Scientists and other researchers are constantly coming up with new ways to use the Earth's latent powers. While geothermal energy has not yet shown us all it can do, it is evident that many cultures have enjoyed its power already. From the comfort of a hot springs bath to the warmth of a geothermal water heated home, the Earth has just begun to use the energy contained within its crust.

         
    Lysenko and stalin s genetics

     

    Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (1898-1976) was an agronomist. During the reign of Lenin and Stalin years in the Soviet Union, he became the chief proponent of the work of the self-taught plant breeder Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin (1855-1935) and his brand of Lamarckism - a pre-Darwinian theory of evolution of the species proposed in the French scientist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). He was appointed as the president (1938-56) of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the director (1940-65) of the Institute of Genetics, USSR Academy of Sciences. The leadership of the USSR believed his promises to deliver rapid increases in crop yields. Lamarck proposed that organisms can inherit traits acquired by their ancestors. The first giraffes stretched their necks to eat leaves on tall trees. Their offspring acquired this elongated neck and the desire to further stretch it. A species with long necks was born. The Soviet leadership sought an indigenous theory to counter the "capitalistic" works of Mendel and Charles Darwin and to separate evolution from genetics. Following a speech he gave at a conference in 1948 denouncing Mendelian genetics as "reactionary and decadent", Lysenko rose to prominence. Geneticists who opposed Lysenkoism were dispatched to the gulag as "enemies of the Soviet people". Most confessed to their "errors" in propounding Mendel's and Darwin's teachings - and, consequently, kept their jobs. No one dared challenge Lysenko until 1964 - 9 years after Stalin died - even when he claimed, between 1948 and 1953, that wheat plants can produce seeds of rye. But, as the Encyclopedia Britannica observes, "he and his followers, however, long retained their degrees, their titles, and their academic positions and remained free to support their aberrant trend in biology."

         
    Making math fun with everyday activities

     

    Ever wonder if your insecurities about math will be passed down to your children? You're not alone. Many parents who struggled with math in the past believe that their children may have similar problems in the future. Relax. Remedial and even advanced math skills are not genetic. You can help your child acquire a love of math by turning everyday activities into learning opportunities. According to Dr. Andrea Pastorok, education psychologist for Kumon Math and Reading Centers, fostering a child's love of math should be fun and stress-free. "Children have a natural ability to reason and problem solve. Parents who show enthusiasm for math will help build these important skills needed for life," says Pastorok. Here are some simple activities that can make learning seem more like child's play: • Draw a large number on a piece of paper and encourage your child to transform the number into his favorite animal, food, person or imaginary character. •Involve your child in measuring ingredients when you cook or in figuring out if a container is big enough to hold her toy cars and blocks. •Ask your child to count each apple slice or pretzel while dividing snacks onto two plates to share with a sibling or friend. • When you ask for something, ask for a certain number. ("Can I please have five crayons?") • Count together daily; count cars, trees, homes, stoplights. Each day, add a few numbers to your child's vocabulary. • Teach fractions by cutting a whole sandwich in half and then in fourths, showing the relationship between "whole, half and fourths" - and then have your child put the sandwich together as a whole. • Hands should be washed for a minimum of 10 seconds. Have your child count to 10 or 15 each time he washes his hands. • Teach the logic of adding numbers. As she progresses, teach your child to count by twos, fives and tens. • Talk about the shapes on a tiled floor. If you look at them one way, they're squares; if you look from a different angle, they're diamonds. • Help him to see counting as a pattern and predict what comes next by asking such questions as, "We're reading page six in our book now. What will the next page be? What was the page we just read?" These easy activities can build the foundation for an appreciation of numbers. In addition, you'll be delighted to see your child demonstrate creative reasoning, knowing you have stimulated it.

         
    Malaria the silent killer a simple guide for travellers

     

    What is malaria? Malaria is a very serious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Four species of the parasites produce the disease which is transmitted by the female anopheline mosquito. The most dangerous is P. falciparum. If untreated it can lead to fatal cerebral malaria. What are the symptoms? Flu-like symptoms: headaches, muscle aches, confusion, dizziness, vomiting (lasting several hours), sweating, tiredness, but most of all, fever. Anemia and jaundice can occur. Symptoms generally occur from 7 days to a few weeks after being bitten, however may not occur for up to one year. How is it prevented? The following drugs should be taken before embarking on a trip to a country where malaria is prevalent: Atovaquone/proguanil Doxycycline Mefloquine Primaquine (in special circumstances) Visit your doctor or health clinic several weeks before travelling as these drugs need to be administered in advance. A good insect repellent should also be applied to exposed skin whilst abroad; preferably one containing DEET (N. N - diethyl meta-toulamide) which is the only ingredient guaranteed to work and is long lasting. There are other repellents on the market for those not wishing to use DEET, but they need to be applied frequently. What countries are at risk? Afghanistan. Angola, Brazil, Benin, Burkino, Cambodia, Camaroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial New Guinea, Eritrea, Faso Burindi, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Bissau, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Principe, Rwanda, Sao Tome, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia. BE SAFE!

         
    Metal detectors pre purchase guidelines

     

    Metal detectors – When people think of Metal Detectors, some people think of combing a beach in search of coins or buried treasure while other people think of security, or the handheld scanners at a concert or sporting event. Metal detector technology is a huge part of our everyday lives, with a range of uses that span from recreational activities to work and to safety. The metal detectors in airports, office buildings and prisons for example help ensure that no one is bringing a weapon onto the property. Consumer oriented metal detectors provide entertainment to people and give chance in discovering hidden treasures. There are many different kinds and styles of metal detectors - gold detectors, coin and jewel detectors, beach-hunting detectors, underwater metal detectors, handheld and walk through metal detectors. Buying a metal detector can be complicated. Before deciding on a metal detector, there are a few points you should carefully consider. Where it will be used? Who will use it? How often will it be put to use? How much do metal detectors cost? Metal detectors range greatly in price… anywhere from $75.00 to all the way into the thousands. It’s advisable to do your research thoroughly and find out which features you should be looking for when purchasing. Another option to consider would be purchasing a used metal detector. It is best to buy used metal detectors from a respected dealer as apposed to advertisements found in newspaper classifieds. Most dealers will not have the manufacturers warranty but will offer a money back guarantee or trade-in options. By carefully examining your options you will be able to find a metal detector that is suitable for your needs without the need to dig deep unnecessarily.

         
    Nanotechnology

     

    As the horizons of technology expand, the real world is shrinking into a Global Village; Nanotechnology is the new area of interest in technology. Nanotechnology is an umbrella term that covers many areas of research dealing with objects that are measured in nanometers or billionth of meter. It is a hybrid science combining engineering and chemistry. The goal of nanotechnology is to manipulate atoms individually and place them in a pattern to produce a desired structure. Nano-sized machines called assemblers, that can be programmed to manipulate atoms and molecules at will, would be used to build consumer goods. Some nanomachines called replicators, would be programmed to build assemblers. Nanotechnology would enable creation of new generation of computer components with enormous storage capacity. But the greatest impact of nanotechnology could be the medical industry. Patients would drink fluids containing nanorobots programmed to attack and reconstruct the molecular structure of cancer cells and viruses to makes them harmless. Nanorobots could also be programmed to perform delicate surgeries. For environmental clean-up, airborne nanorobots could be user programmed to rebuild the thinning ozone layer. Contaminants could be automatically removed from water sources, and spill could be cleaned up instantly. Nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959, in a talk by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, entitled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom", Feynman proposed using a set of conventional-sized robot arms to construct a replica of themselves, but one-tenth of the original size, then using that new set of arms to manufacture an even smaller set, and so on, until the molecular-scale is reached. if we had many million or billions of such molecular-scale products built from individual molecules - a "bottom-up manufacturing" technique, as opposed to the usual technique of cutting away material until you have a completed component or product -"top-down manufacturing".

         
    Nitrous oxide laughing gas uses in modern society

     

    Laughing gas, N2O, dinitrogen monoxide or to use its older name, nitrous oxide has a range of uses in our society. Most of these would have to fall into the category of non-essential. Nitrous oxide is well known as a dental anaesthetic gas. Having gas at the dentist though, is much less common nowadays, because of accidents that have happened. There have been occasions where patients have had the wrong percentage of oxygen mixed with the nitrous oxide they were given. The requirement in some states that a fully qualified anaesthetist is present when nitrous oxide is used. It is not as pleasant to be given nitrous oxide as it sounds, it often causes nausea and dizziness. Whipped ice-cream uses nitrous oxide as the gas in the tiny bubbles. Nitrous oxide ice-cream chargers have caused death to individuals who have inhaled the gas directly. Nitrous oxide is not poisonous, but inhaled in large amounts, like this and without any added oxygen, it causes the lungs to collapse. Inhaling nitrous oxide in this way is illegal in many jurisdictions. Accidents have also occurred when people have confused nitrous oxide with the highly poisonous nitric oxide gas. Nitrous oxide is used in rocket fuels and also by custom car enthusiasts to boost the performance of their engines. The nitrous oxide is a more powerful oxidizing agent than the 21% oxygen in the atmosphere. Temperatures in the engines are higher and specially designed valves are necessary to withstand the extra heat. Nitrous oxide is extremely harmful to the atmosphere. It has 250 times the greenhouse gas effect as carbon dioxide. This means that 1 litre of nitrous oxide has the same climate changing effect as 250 litres of carbon dioxide. The quantities of nitrous oxide released to the atmosphere are small, so it still only contributes a small fraction of the total greenhouse effect.

         
    No more distractions with noise reduction headphones

     

    The world is a very noisy place with loud, intermittent sounds and constant, droning noises – noise reduction headphones can help you get a little peace amongst the distractions of everyday life. Headphones can block out the myriad of sounds that occur in a variety of setting and are helpful to many different people. Sleeping – If you have trouble sleeping, noise reduction headphones may aid you in getting some rest. Barking dogs, traffic, and awake family members can contribute to sleepless nights, and for those who are sensitive to noise when they're trying to sleep, noise reduction headphones create a sound-free environment so they can rest. Playing Music – Musicians often use noise reduction headphones to help them block out sounds that may interfere with them hearing their instrument. Once the background noise is blocked, they are free to concentrate purely on the sounds they are making rather than the sounds around them. This creates an environment of total immersion into their music and allows them to perfect their work without being in a studio. Autistic Students – Noise reduction headphones can also be used in the classroom to help autistic children. Often classroom environments can be distracting to children with autism. Headphones for the children help teachers instruct each student individually so others aren’t confused or distracted by the instructions for the other students. Studying – Noise reduction headphones are very useful in situations where you need peace and quiet but can't always control the environment. Students who are studying may find noise reduction headphones helpful in blocking out the distracting sounds around them. Headphones create a peaceful world in which they can focus on their work, rather than environmental noises or the sounds of others. Working – If you work in a cubical or an open-plan office but find yourself regularly distracted by people walking by, phones ringing, others talking, and the general chaos that can be office life, noise reduction headphones can make a difference. They can help you focus on the task at hand rather than everything going on around you which can boost your productivity and the quality of your work. Noisy Neighbors – Living in an apartment building, condo or townhouse may include noisy neighbors. Depending on the thickness of your walls and ceiling, you may hear your neighbors walking around above, or hear their music or talking. Noise reduction headphones can block these sounds so you can enjoy being at home, even if the neighbors are loud. These are only a few examples of the sorts of noise disturbances you may come across in daily life. Where once you had no choice but to be distracted, noise reduction headphones put you in control. Never again do you have to experience a sleepless night or a ruined project. Noise reduction headphones can be used to block out the noises around you: voices, car engines, train noises, barking dogs, loud offices, airplane engine noise, city sounds, loud neighbors, etc.

         
     
         
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