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    On the nature of the nazca lines

     

    In my prior posting, entitled "Ancient Astronauts and Contemporary Skepticism," I challenged the skeptics (assuming they do not want to acknowledge that the Nazca Lines were made to be viewed by an ancient astronaut) to provide a credible explanation of those geoglyphs. I argued that the people of Nazca cannot be considered unique in human history and that the skeptics need to find parallels elsewhere. However, I imagine that, instead of trying to produce a mundane explanation of the Nazca Lines, the skeptics could simply argue that I have not proven the contrary case. The basic facts of the Nazca desert are easy to comprehend. Those large geoglyphs cannot be grasped by humans from the ground; in most cases, the hills or mountains are too distant for anyone to even notice that they are there. The figures on the ground can only be recognized from the air. Since humans were unable to fly until relatively recent times, it is logical to consider extraterrestrials as a potential explanation. I have seen skeptics, in desperation, argue that the people of Nazca, in the sixth century, knew how to make air balloons, but I do not believe it for one second. For whom or for what did the people of Nazca make those ground drawings? Surely, they made those geoglyphs to be viewed by someone or something. That is unquestionable; it is not rational to believe that mass insanity could last the more than one hundred years it took to complete the project. If they made the geoglyphs to be viewed by an ancient astronaut, then where are their drawings of the ancient astronaut? Such drawings do exist. I provide one of them on my website, in a footnote to Gersiane De Brito's "Tiwanaku Alien and Evolution" article. That picture is not a geoglyph, however; it comes from Nazca pottery, but the timing coincides. This makes sense. They likely thought it might be offensive to the alien to draw a picture of the alien on the ground so they only put it on the pottery, where the alien could not see it. Beyond any doubt, the ancient astronaut depicted on the Nazca pottery is the same ancient astronaut depicted in the Tiwanaku engravings. In the Tiwanaku versions, the aquatic, alien nature of the creature is easier to spot. Also in Tiwanaku, with all that bird symbolism, it is apparent that this ancient astronaut could fly, freestyle, up and through the air. Thus, the Nazca Lines have a viable explanation: the geoglyphs were made to be seen by an ancient astronaut that could fly like a bird with the aid of anti-gravity hand-held propulsion devices, without the use of aircraft or spacecraft of any kind. The people of Nazca drew diverse animal figures on the ground to attract the alien's attention and to entertain it, and they drew lines and directional arrows on the ground to lead the alien back to the people of Nazca. I think it time for the world's scientists, archaeologists, anthropologists, psychologists, etcetera, to come to their senses and try to evaluate, objectively, the thinking behind the Nazca geoglyphs. The potential for uncovering an instance of genuine alien contact makes it a worthwhile endeavor.

         
    Open letter to richard dawkins and to the uk s channel 4 television

     

    I watched your programme broadcast on 16th January on Channel 4. You expressed indignation that Christians and Jews should be allowed to teach their faith to their children. Does it ever occur to you that what you believe about the origin of life is equally a ‘faith’ which is to be accepted without question by millions of children and adults who are taught it in the education system and the media? Since none of us were there when life began everything we believe about it is an act of faith. You are reading back into time supposedly scientific conclusions, which are actually extremely questionable. I have never found a satisfactory explanation from evolutionists for some very basic questions about your theory. 1. Where did the matter which exploded in the ‘Big Bang’ come from? 2. If the Big Bang is the explanation for the existence of the universe, how did an ordered world come into being out of something which would have generated disorder (an explosion)? Our observation of explosions (e. g. a bomb going off) shows that they cause matter to move from order to disorder, not disorder to order. How can you explain our marvellous planet which has all the hugely complex parameters necessary for life (distance from the sun, atmosphere, water cycle, soil, plants able to provide food etc) coming into being by a random process? 3. Darwin himself had little to say about the origin of the first life form by the forces of natural selection. Since the discovery of DNA we now know that there are no simple life forms but every cell contains a huge amount of information. To believe that this could have come about by random forces is the equivalent of believing the information in the Encyclopaedia Britannica could have been put there in the same way. According to your belief not only did such incredibly complex matter have to arise by accident it also had to have the power to reproduce itself otherwise the arrival of life would have been no more than a very temporary blip on the evolutionary horizon. All reproductive systems are highly complex but vital to the survival of the species. 4. Darwin acknowledged that 'to suppose that the eye could have been formed by natural selection (evolution) seems absurd in the highest possible degree.' You are on record as saying that 'it would only take about 364,000 generations to evolve a good fish eye with a lens.' This does not explain how a creature which needs sight to survive managed to carry on living for all these millions of years without eyes. Hugely complex organs like the eye, the heart, the brain etc are all vital to survival. Even more vital are the reproductive systems of creatures. All creatures that reproduce sexually require a perfectly functioning male and female to produce the next generation. How can such a system have developed over millions of years of trial and error as must be assumed by evolution? If the system is not functioning in the first generation the species dies out. The Genesis record that God made all creatures able to reproduce after their own kind makes much more sense on this issue than the conclusion of evolution. 5. Darwin acknowledged the absence of transitional forms in the fossil record and in observable life forms. There is no problem in believing in variation within species (short beaked and long beaked finches etc). But there is absolutely no evidence of variation from one species to another taking place or in the fossil record. There are also huge problems with this theory. For example how did the first bird develop the power to fly? If wings evolved over millions of years during the time they were evolving they would have been an encumbrance not an advantage. What would stop cat eating bird before the bird developed its wings? In which case bird species dies out before it learns to fly! No doubt you have answers to these questions which satisfy you, but they do not satisfy everyone. You are asking people to believe that something could come out of nothing, that an explosion could create an ordered universe, that incredibly complex life forms could arise spontaneously out of non life and have the ability to reproduce and develop higher life forms. I don’t believe this! But you are allowed to teach this to our children and to ridicule those who don’t believe your theory on TV without giving them a fair opportunity to give a reasoned defence of your faith. The Christians you chose to interview were either on the very wacky end of the US evangelical scene like the man who agreed with killing those who work in abortion clinics or liberals like the Bishop of Oxford who agrees more with you than with what the Bible teaches. On the subject of the Bible, your highly selective use of quotations to pillory the God of the Bible as a sadist ignored context and the overall teaching of the book. The significance of the Abraham and Isaac story is that Abraham did not sacrifice Isaac. Child sacrifice was common in the pagan religions of the tribes around Israel at the time and is consistently condemned in the Bible. In our time child sacrifice has again returned as we sacrifice unborn children to our gods of convenience and lust. There is a deeper message about faith in Genesis 22 which is beyond the scope of this letter. The incident of the man sending his daughter out to be raped by the mob in Judges 19 is hardly held up as a model of practice in the Bible! As the Bible is a realistic book it tells it like it is and does not gloss over gross acts. The period of the Judges is summed up in the last verse of the book ‘Everyone did what was right in his own eyes’ – i. e. everyone did their own thing rather than doing what was right in the eyes of God – rather like today! Finally your view that supposedly scientific developments and the influence of evolution have always exercised a benign influence on the human race does not stand up to examination. Nietzsche, a disciple of Darwinism, wrote in his diatribe against Christianity, ‘The Antichrist’, ‘Pity on the whole thwarts the law of evolution, which is the law of selection. It preserves what is ripe for destruction; it defends life’s disinherited and condemned.’ The Nazis took hold of this idea to justify eliminating what they considered to be ‘life’s disinherited and condemned’ in the Holocaust. On the other side of the same coin, the Soviet Communists used pamphlets like ‘The part played by labour in the transition from ape to man’ written by Engels as the basis for their indoctrination of society with atheism and evolutionism. The end result was the gulags and the KGB and the persecution of non-believers in Soviet atheism (in particular believing Christians). Not many people would agree that we are doing as marvellously in the moral sphere in our present society as you concluded in your programme. In fact we are on the brink of a collapse of the whole social and economic order as drug taking and alcoholism, sexual immorality, pornography and the breakdown of the family, violence and debt spiral out of control. We are fouling up the only planet we can live on and creating weapons of destruction which threaten the whole survival of humanity. All these things happening can be seen as the result of a rejection of God and the salvation offered us through the Lord Jesus Christ, not the result of following Him. It would be interesting if Channel 4 or the like would be willing to put on a real debate on these issues, with Christians who know what they are talking about. Yours sincerely, Tony Pearce.

         
    Outstanding neuro linguistic programming biology science fair projects

     

    : No matter if you are shopping for the best physics Science Fair Projects or biology Science Fair Project suggestions, have a line of work online, or are a college professor or father, you will want to discover a little about the subject in the field of high School Science Fair Projects or NLP Science Fair Projects called Neuro Linguistic Programming or NLP "reframing." Several marvelous high school science fair projects can be executed in this field of human psychological science! Similar to a picture frame positions borderlines or perimeters on a portrait, the attitudes that you pick out can limit things you debate as possible or can evoke all sorts of potentialities. All of you (and if you authorize them, family) are continually producing timeframes, limits or barriers on what you can and can not achieve, ofttimes without any tangible thought concerning the consequences or if the limitations are true. Altering the framework of an ordeal might exemplify a big influence on how you understand, interpret and function to that incident. This is where you could make reeeally cool super Science Fair Projects. I'm not saying easy science fair projects but fantastic and at least a good science fair project. Changing ones perspective is known as reframing in Neuro-Linguistic Programming. The intent of reframing is to assist a human undergo their responses and the buffeting of their beliefs from a unique angle (frame).

    The human might potentially be much more enterprising or experience many more alternatives in the way they respond. Reframing is carrying on all around people
    Statesmen are masters at reframing. It looks as if no matter what exactly occurs statesmen can insert a positive twist on it for them or a negative spin for their foes. Jokes eipitomize reframes. You are guided to consider in 1 outlook and then the outlook (significance or conditions) changes. Fairy tale stories typically utilise reframes to assist children in seeing dissimilar mind-sets or natural results. An example is a crying wolf. A cover-up is a reframe that attributes a different meaning or context to your reactions. Some more notable reframes are A dad brought in his head strong girl to visit Milton Erickson, the notable hypnotherapist. The daddy remarked to Erickson, - My girl does not obey me or her mother. My daughter is regularly articulating her own position.- After the daddy completed specifying his girl's trouble, Erickson said, "So is it not superb that she'll be free to help herself after she's ready to get a place of her own?" The father sat in dumbfoundment. That constituted the extent of the psychotherapy and the father Nowadays comprehends his teen's behavior as a advantageous asset down the road in her life span. Content and Context Reframes
    In NLP, you may find 2 primary styles of reframes. They're subject matter (or interpretation) and a context reframes. Content Reframe The message or substance of a condition is specified by what you prefer to scrutinize. We select our experience by the interpretation we grant to the experience.

    Your middle school teacher mouthed the words Science Fairs. Your quick response, "Uh oh, another three to five month assignment." To reframe this case, Remember the Neuro-Linguistic Programming postulation "Any repsonses has a suitable purpose" and communicate questions like: What other interpretation can I provide to this circumstance? A probable reframe can be: "Neat, I am excited to accomplish cool science experiments for 3 to 5 months and i can have fun whether I prove my hypothesis or not! With this reframe you have forthwith signed up with the Science Fair Fan Society! What makes up the goodness in this reaction? You've converted into a more adventurous human and the effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming Good science fair projects may in all likelihood be spectacular.
    Context Reframe
    Just about all actions are practical or appropriate in some circumstances. If you disturb a instructor by standing up and offering your opinion halfway through a talk, it may be estimated as unconventional. The same behavior at the ending of the class to lend a differing mindset could be satisfactory. One possible reframe: "Is not that an amazing skill to have if I need to get things done or to refrain from likely problems?" You're forthwith in a more purposeful position and can now support yourself to find out responses that might be more advantageous in different context. Remaining ideas Whenever you are teaching a reframe to an acquaintance: Make sure you have their approval to provide the reframe. You might believe your reframe is best you can do and yet it might not satisfy for the friend, just because they have a unique view of their environment than you possess. Understand the Neuro-Linguistic Programming hypothesis,"There exists no failure, only feedback," and observe different possible reframes. Neuro-Linguistic Programming Biology science fair project ideas
    Ask the Head to allow you use 5 minutes at a faculty meeting to talk to the instructors. Tell the instructors that you have to have their guidance to accomplish a Neuro-Linguistic Programming Science Fair Project. You cannot state to them what your hypothesis is because that will twist the final result. Verbalize to them it is going to be a brand new method of communicating to children. When you have your volunteers for your Neuro-Linguistic Programming Children's Science Fair Project, randomly decide on instructors that will practice "reframing." Teach them what exactly it is and how to accomplish it. Verbalize to the instructors that they should not tell anybody about the undertaking. Do not talk to the other teachers exactly what to do except to do the most excellent work ever in educating than they've done. Administer a pretest and post test to the people (let the Head teacher guide you in determining a test). And ascertain if the people who were reinforced with positive reframing for Two months enhanced their grades.

         
    Pearl jewelry fashion trends for modern age

     

    The classic elegance and luster of pearls has become more of a curse than a blessing. They may be considered lovely jewelry but are usually relegated into the background, in stuffy events like weddings, christenings and coming out balls. Pearl necklaces have sometimes been equated with "squares", spinster aunts, grandmothers and the old South. Pearls have had a hard time competing with more edgy jewelry like the luscious and high-class gemstones like diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and even semi-precious stones like opal and garnet. Pearls have therefore become remnants of the past than beautiful gems that can be used as modern accessories. That has changed. Pearls have made a huge comeback into the modern scene just a few years ago. They did not really leave the fashion world but only had limited and specialized use. Today, pearls can be found in almost all kinds of fashion-related items. The reason for this is the accessibility of pearls in the form of freshwater pearls. Japan has started this industry in the 1920s by culturing pearls using freshwater mussels. However, it has declined production but China has claimed the production of cultured pearls because of the high demand for them. Donor mussels are inserted with irritants that form the pearls and some of these mussels can produce up to 40 freshwater pearls. The pearls are not as high-quality as the ones made naturally but the color and shape can be controlled and some freshwater pearls can be breathtakingly beautiful as natural ones. A pearl strand belonging to Mary, Queen of Scots dating from 1550 is made of freshwater pearls. Scotland has been cultivating freshwater pearls, as well as North America but the extinction of almost 35 species of mussels in Europe and America has left Asia with this booming industry. Because of its reentry into the world of edgy fashion, more and more pearl companies are striving to provide jewelry ideas for the modern woman. There are many ways that freshwater pearls can be used and integrated into a woman's fashion sense. They can be used as accessories. Pearl jewelry today tries to incorporate contemporary design and color into pearl necklaces. The classic pearl necklace and pearl choker has given way to long strands of irregularly shaped freshwater pearls in all sizes and colors. They can be paired with casual wear such as jeans, blouses and short dresses. Pearl bracelets and pearl earrings come in magnificent colors such as red, turquoise and canary yellow that makes any outfit pop. Other jewelry options for pearls include adding beads made of semi-precious stones or crystals. Pearls have dominated all aspects of the jewelry trade. Even the mother-of-pearl shell of mollusks is used for inlay work on bracelets with freshwater pearls as accentuating items. Pendants for necklaces and rings are now also popularly made of freshwater pearls. Even younger people have seen the flexibility and the touch of beauty that pearls give to an otherwise ordinary outfit and include these accessories while shopping. Office women rely on pearl necklaces to give them that polished corporate look. Jewelry designers are coming up with more and more ideas for pearls. Edgy and contemporary jewelry designs have freshwater pearls in them, either as the main piece or an accentuating item. Indeed, pearls are here to stay.

         
    Peru wants archeology back from yale

     

    Rising proudly at over 7500 feet high ( 2300 meters ), Inca citadel of Machu Picchu was so inaccessible that the Spanish conquerors were never able to found it. But in 1911 Yale historian Hiram Bingham rediscovered it, and between 1912 and 1915, directed the National Geographic Society in a series of expeditions that ended in many archaeological finds that were transferred to Yale University, allegedly with the permission of Peruvian president, Augusto Leguнa. 90 years later, Peruvian authorities wants all those objects back, and had notified the Yale University President that a lawsuit is being prepared in case that an amicable resolution would not be reached. Although I found this kind of matters very, very complex, I think that the Peruvian claim must be taken in consideration. This would not only be a case of historical justice (in 1911 Peruvians authorities were not conscious of the artistic and historical value of the Inca artefacts) but also an uncommon opportunity to end with an old case of “art without context”. This kind of claims had been historically futile. From the old one made by the Greek government to the British Museum asking for the Elgin marbles, to the recent demand made by the Nigeria government around stolen Nok objects. But also remember that the Michael C. Carlos Museum of Atlanta has recently returned to Egypt the mummy of Pharaoh Ramesses I, given the “historical importance” of the object. So I will raise one question here: is it more historically important to a country the old, nasty corpse of an ancient King or the artistic artifacts from its most famous heritage city?

         
    Polar bears rulers of the arctic north

     

    Polar Bears, the Rulers of the Arctic North The polar bears (Thalarctos maritimus) live in the Arctic regions of the north near open water where they can find their main source of food which are seals. These bears are huge with adults at 7 to 8 Ѕ feet tall and up to 1,600 pounds. Polar bears are white to creamy white all year round which gives them excellent camouflage against the Arctic snow when hunting. Along with the Arctic fox, the polar bear is the most northerly located land mammal on earth. Unlike other species of bears, polar bears have longer necks and smaller heads making them appear more streamlined. Despite their large sizes, they are incredibly fast being able to run up to 25 miles per hour. At speeds like this, a polar bear can outrun a reindeer. They are also excellent swimmers being able to swim at about 3 miles per hour but for considerable distances. During winters, they spend most of their time on the ice floes hunting seals. Polar bears have rough, leathery pads on the bottoms of their feet to maintain footholds on slippery ice surfaces. Their adaptation to the cold Arctic waters is even more impressive. Their thick coats of fur traps a deep layer of insulating air around their bodies. An inner layer of fur is so compact that it is almost impossible to wet it. An outer layer of long guard hairs mat together in the water which forms another layer over the inner layer. After a polar bear leaves the water, it simply shakes its body which results in most of the water being thrown right off leaving the bear almost dry. These protective layers of fur ensure that the polar bear’s skin is kept dry most of the time, even while in the Arctic waters. Polar bears hunt seals by waiting for seals to come through holes in the ice to breathe. They also stalk their prey utilizing their white camouflage abilities against the mounds of ice. Sometimes polar bears have been known to crawl on their bellies until they are close enough to rush their prey, particularly if no cover is available. Besides seals, polar bears will eat Arctic foxes, birds, baby walruses and even man if they are extremely hungry. Males and females stay apart for most of the year except during the summer mating season. Females tend to breed only every other year and when they do, usually 1 to 4 cubs are born during March to April. The polar bear cubs stay with their mothers for 1 to 2 years. The life span of polar bears can be up to 34 years. The Inuit hunt polar bears for their fat, tendons and fur. Scientists say that climate changes have been reducing the ice floes in the Arctic which has disrupted the polar bear’s feeding grounds and migration patterns. There are estimates of about 22,000 to 25,000 polar bears left in the world with 60 percent of them in the Canadian Arctic region. Their populations are thought to be stable for now but some speculate that the species is at risk. Some think that if climate changes continue at its present rate and if worldwide hunting is not adequately controlled, polar bears could face extinction in about 100 years. There is presently much debate on adjusting annual hunting quotas of polar bears, even for Inuit hunters, to further help protect these great bears. Polar bears have become the most popular symbol of the Arctic north with representations used in everything from soft drink commercials to corporate logos of northern based companies including Canadian North airlines. Nunavut even has their license plates cut in the shape of a polar bear. Tourists can see polar bears in the wild through unique tours on specially designed tundra buggies in Churchill, Manitoba Canada. It’s also not surprising that polar bears are some of the most sought after Inuit art sculptures. Polar bears are definitely the rulers of the Arctic north.

         
    Pregnancy and the flu

     

    Getting the flu is bad enough, but getting the flu while you’re pregnant can be a nightmare. There is a greater chance that you will stay sick longer, there are only have a few medications that you can take to safely relieve flu symptoms, and your risk for developing flu-related complications is increased. That’s why the best thing for pregnant women to do during flu season is to take all possible precautions to avoid the virus, including getting a flu shot. Influenza, or the flu, is a very contagious virus that affects the upper respiratory system causing fever, muscle aches, cough, sore throat, runny nose and weakness. The flu usually makes its appearance in winter and early spring, but it can also strike in the fall and late spring as well. While the virus is a nasty thing for anyone to catch, with pregnancy and the flu it can be particularly risky because a woman’s immune system has weakened slightly during the pregnancy. Because of this, pregnant women are more likely to experience symptoms for a longer period of time, and their risk of developing complications, such as pneumonia, is increased. Studies have shown, however, that pregnancy and the flu poses little risk to an unborn child. The best way for pregnant women to avoid the flu is to get a flu shot. Flu shots are recommended for nearly all pregnant women and are usually given in October or November right before flu season starts. Getting vaccinated is the best way to protect yourself from the virus and can save you a lot of discomfort during the flu season. Other ways to avoid combining pregnancy and the flu include: Frequent hand washing: This is one of the most important things you can do for yourself to avoid illness. Wash your hands thoroughly before and after meals, after using the bathroom and frequently throughout the day. Washing your hands with antibacterial soap to get rid of germs is one of the easiest ways to stay healthy. Stay away from people who have colds or the flu: Common sense should tell you to avoid people who are already sicking into contact with contagious individuals is an easy way to get sick yourself, so if possible, just avoid sick people altogether until they are no longer contagious. Keeping your hands away from your nose, mouth and eyes: Germs like to come in through these particular places, so try not to touch them. If you are unfortunate enough to get the flu, there are a few things that you can do to ease the symptoms and recover faster. Remember though, with pregnancy and the flu, there are many medications that you cannot take because they could be harmful to you or your baby. Be sure to talk to your doctor before taking any medicine to treat your flu symptoms. The following treatments can help if you come down with the flu: -Acetaminophen for fever, aches, and pains -Chlorpheniramine, an antihistamine -Honey or other natural ingredient lozenges for a sore throat -Lots of rest -Increased fluid intake, especially water, juice, and tea Getting the flu is no fun. Getting the flu while you’re pregnant is REALLY no fun. Pregnancy and the flu just don’t mix, so do your self a favor by getting a flu shot and taking preventative measures to avoid the virus.

         
    President clinton says biotech industry has a job to do

     

    At the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) convention earlier this month in Chicago, former President Bill Clinton sent a message to those in attendance: the biotechnology industry has a job to do. In his speech, the former President discussed the importance that biotechnology has in food security and health issues in the developing world. He said the first obligation of society is to feed people and that biotechnology can help individuals feed more people while addressing environmental concerns. He also stressed the need for interdependence in the world today as well as the unsolved problems that biotechnology is uniquely suited to face. Clinton also discussed the need to efficiently manage agricultural production. He mentioned several key aspects of environmental health that agricultural biotechnology can address, including climate change and top soil erosion. “All of these applications of biotechnology have the potential to lift people out of poverty,” he said. The former President also asserted that scientific evidence should rule any debate over issues such as genetically modified foods. He said that in America, we “should be driven by science, evidence, and argument, not by assertion and fear.” Former President Clinton called upon the biotechnology industry to work to reduce the spread of a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, guard against pandemics, create genetically engineered foods that will feed more of the world’s hungry, tap into sources of renewable energy, and confront global warming head on. “When we empower individuals to feed and care for their families,” he said. “It is a good thing.” As President, Bill Clinton supported the development of biotechnology and its practical applications in American life, as well as the development of genetic engineering and agriculture, and since he left office in 2001, President Clinton has dedicated almost all of his time to support causes, from raising funds for Hurricane Katrina victims in the United States to helping individuals with AIDS receive the drugs they need. He has seen first hand the needs that biotechnology can address around the world and the good that genetically modified foods can bring to developing nations in feeding the poor. I agree with what former President Clinton said in his speech. Modern biotechnology holds such an importance in the world today and these continued developments should not be driven by the fearful beliefs that those opposed to biotechnology and genetically modified foods continuously try to impose upon the general public. The world needs to support biotechnology, genetically modified foods, and the innovative developments the technology can bring in order to ensure a better future and life for all.

         
    Producing energy from geothermal resources

     

    Geothermal energy is a platform tapping the inherent energy found within the Earth. Her is an overview of how the process works from a practical perspective. Producing Energy From Geothermal Resources There are several types of energy used in the world that are considered eco-friendly. These energy types include solar, which harnesses the power of the sun, and hydroelectric, which uses the power of water to generate electricity. One often neglected ecologically sound energy source that should be grouped with the others is geothermal energy. Geothermal energy involves using the Earth's own heat to create energy and warmth to be used by people. Geothermal energy is so named because it derives from the Greek words for “earth heat”, “geo” and “therme”. Extreme amounts of heat are generated in the Earth's core, which reaches temperatures of up to 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The Earth's core then transfers heat to the mantle, a crust of rock surrounding the core. This rock liquefies due to the intense heat becoming magma (molten rock). In this magma layer, water collects in columns or reserves. This trapped water, which can be heated to temperatures of about 700 degrees Fahrenheit, is known as a geothermal reservoir. When engineers want to use geothermal energy, they “tap” in to this geothermal water and use the resulting hot water and steam for various purposes. Geothermal energy plants work by using the steam resulting from tapping into the geothermal water reservoirs to power turbines. These turbines spin producing electricity which can then be used to power industries or even residential areas. The first geothermically engineered power plant was built in Italy in 1904. These days, roughly 7000 megawatts of electricity is produced by geothermal power plants per year. Geothermal power plants are located in 21 countries throughout the world. In the United States alone, enough geothermal power is generated per year to be the equivalent to the burning of 60 million barrels of oil, to wit, geothermal energy is a major source of power. Geothermal energy has been used by cultures throughout history for thousands of years. The process used to harness geothermal energy has always been relatively simple compared to that of other energy processes, and the components used are familiar to everyone. The concept of using super hot water from the Earth's magma layers may seem high tech, but once you have tapped into this resource, it is easy to maintain and use as a continual power source. The best analogy for geothermal energy production is another alternative energy source. It works in the same way as hydropower. Water is used to spin turbines which produce electricity. In the case of geothermal energy, however, the water comes from the internal chambers of the Earth in, most often, the form of steam.

         
    Quantum gravity may explain dark matter

     

    In the quantum vacuum there are many transient acceleration vectors of mean magnitude a randomly oriented. If the vacuum is viewed from an accelerated frame, the vectors going with the frame appear diminished, and the vectors going against the frame appear enhanced, resulting in a net polarization of the vacuum. If the frame's acceleration g is small, the effect is linear, and if the vacuum is filled with vectors the coefficient of the polarization will be unity. The standard exponential term for suppressing high-energy fluctuations must also be applied. Hence the vacuum polarization is g exp (g/a). The terms of the exponent when multiplied by the dipole moment have the dimensions of energy. The rest frame of the galaxy, for example, is accelerated with respect to local inertial frames that fall into the center. In this rest frame the vacuum appears polarized and enhances the galaxy's gravitational field g. So we have g= - GM/r2 + g exp (g/a) where g is understood to be negative. For g much greater than a, the exponential is negligible and Newton's law results. But for g less than a, the exponential can be expanded to 1 + g/a and we get g2 = aGM/r2 This is precisely the formula found empirically by Milgrom to explain the motion of stars and galaxies in the weak-field region, except the law of gravity is altered, not the law of motion (Scientific American, August 2002). He finds that a is about one Angstrom per second squared, which is near the "surface gravity" of an electron, the field of a one-kilogram mass at one meter, or the field of a galaxy in its outer parts. Also, the square of a is not far from the value of the cosmological constant, in units where c=1. In this model, a may be viewed as the saturated field strength of the quantum vacuum. The observations can be adequately explained by assuming a plausible amount of ordinary matter M and using the correct quantum law of gravity. There is no need for dark matter. As space accelerates away from us, the resulting apparent polarization would enhance the acceleration, and indeed might cause the acceleration, once the process has begun, due perhaps to some disturbance long ago. If space is collapsing in some remote region, the same process would enhance the collapse. So the cosmos may consist of interspersed regions of expansion and collapse. When expansion becomes extreme, a big bang would result as virtual particles are ripped out of the vacuum. A collapsing region would produce a big crunch, where matter is crushed back into the vacuum. The whole process is presumably infinite and eternal.

         
    Ranting and raving about renewable energy

     

    Renewable energy is not a new concept. While it may appear to be a rather fashionable topic of conversation in certain circles, renewable energy initiatives have been with us since the dawn of man. There is some debate about the accepted definition of renewable energy, but it can be loosely defined as a form of energy that is essentially inexhaustible. Furthermore, the resource is continually replenished by various natural processes identifiable in the natural world. One key distinction to make when discussing the concept of renewable energy is that of sustainability. One could make the argument that, in the long term, fossil fuels are a renewable energy resource. While the logic stands on its own, this is a failed notion. The central difference between fossil fuels and other forms of renewable energy is that fossil fuels are being depleted at a rate faster than they can be replenished. For this reason, fossil fuels cannot be considered truly renewable. They are simply not sustainable, due to the accelerated rate of consumption. Some of the more popular renewable energy resources include sunshine, water, and wind. Solar energy refers to the energy that is collected from sunlight. This form of energy is captured using a photovoltaic array, more commonly known as a solar panel. The solar radiation is captured by the photovoltaic array and converted to direct current (DC) electricity. From there, the direct current electricity must be converted to alternating current (AC) for use in most applications. The converted electricity is then stored in a battery for use at a later date. There are also various forms of energy that exist in water. One of the most commonly acknowledged is that of hydroelectric energy, but there are a number of others including tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion. Hydroelectric energy generally employs the use of a dam, wherein the energy of the water flow is captured and used to power a turbine. The turbine then generates a supplementary form of electricity. Tidal power attempts to make use of the natural energy potential of tidal activity in the oceans and seas. In simple terms, the high tide is captured and fed through a turbine to generate electricity. Ocean thermal energy conversion attempts to exploit the variances in water temperature, from the warmer surface water to the cooler deep water, resulting in a cyclic heat engine. Wind power is one of the oldest accepted forms of renewable energy. It has been used for centuries as a source of power, dating back to the creation of the sailboat. The innate potential of wind power was realized a number of years later in the form of a wind mill. In this instance, the kinetic energy of wind is used to drive a turbine which, in turn, generates electricity. Wind energy possesses immense potential for sustainable energy generation, and a number of large-scale development projects are currently underway throughout the world. One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is to discover a way to reduce our reliance on unsustainable resources, like fossil fuels. Most, if not all, modern industrial societies rely far too greatly on fossil fuels and increasingly, this is becoming an undeniable reality. Wars of conquest are being waged to secure what is left of the world's oil reserves. If only the resources of the powerful nations were channeled into developing sustainable energy alternatives, as opposed to driving a war machine bent on dominating the oil markets. Our modern way of life is going to undergo some difficult times in the very near future, if this reality continues to be ignored. Ask yourself what you can do to make a difference. You might be surprised at what you can accomplish.

         
    Relativity of simultaneity versus other relativistic effects

     

    Relativity of Simultaneity Versus Other Relativistic Effects (A Scandal in the "relativistic" family) Ravil Kalmykov The requirement of Einstein's second postulate regarding constancy of the speed of light in all inertial reference frames is a singular deviation from the canons of classical mechanics. It creates a basic distortion in the habitual representation of space and time. Persons beginning their study of special relativity, should be ready to experience a surprising metamorphosis. However one of problems of science consists in the exceptional number of these novel theoretical representations. It is no secret that physicists-theorists are at times ready to bring down a huge cloud of new and absolutely mad hypotheses on heads of unsuspecting people. The problem facing the general scientific community in maintaining a healthy world outlook consists, whenever possible, in limiting the revolutionary aspirations of some of the excessively zealous authors with their novel and singular concepts, to a pragmatic and necessary minimum. In opinion of the author of this article, not all is right with special relativity. They have obviously overdone the scale of novelty and have run counter to the requirements of the principle of necessity. One should try to find a more simple theoretical explanation, which is less bulky and less burdensome for the human mind. Historically, the first idea that came to the minds of physicists was that in a condition of relative movement of inertial systems with near-light speeds, a transformation of space is inevitable. So the formulas of Lorentz's transformations were born. However people have the right to question why it was decided to begin with spatial distortions and not with time? Apparently, the human mind is arranged to begin with something small, close and clear. Probably, changes in space are perceived to be easier than changes in time. However, it turned out that transformations in space were not sufficient, and it was necessary to subject time to distortions as well. But what else distorts? According to the Lorentz transformations, a double change in time takes place: time intervals are reduced, and there is the phenomenon of “the relativity of simultaneity”. Thus, the initial "cautious" idea of transformation of space to which physicists have so amicably clung has generated a whole bouquet of shocking effects. We have a right to ask: what would be the result if we started with the other end? The author tries to prove below, that another theory leads to a result that is simple, has a minimum of novelty, and is more sparing of human credulity. In stating the contents of special relativity one usually finds the relativity of simultaneity right at the beginning. But it has for some unknown reason only a qualitative character. The existence of this strange effect is only mentioned. The quantitative formula is deduced much later, after calculations of the reductions of space lengths and timepieces according to Lorentz's transformations. As a result, it is given a "third-rate" dependency. After all of that, it is forgotten. The author sees a basic mistake in this fact. He considers that value of this phenomenon is wrongly underestimated. Actually, it is the main thing (and as it will be shown below – the only thing). Therefore it should be investigated first, and deeply. As to the concrete formula describing the phenomenon, it will be found in the thought experiment of Einstein's train. Direct derivation of the scale of infringement of simultaneity This well-known experiment has a train, which we will consider as having a relativistic speed. There are two observers. One is in the middle of the train, the other – at the station. All is organized in such a manner that during that moment when the observers are opposite each other, they simultaneously receive two light signals, emitting earlier from the two ends of the train. Each draws a conclusion about the ratio of the moments of emission of these signals. With the observer who is in the middle of a train, all is simple: both signals have in his opinion, traveled identical distances (half the length of the train), and were received simultaneously. This means that he considers they were emitted simultaneously as well. A more difficult situation exists with the observer at the station. First, he understands that during the moments of release of the signals, the middle of a train was some distance away from him. Thus, the head of the train was closer to him, than the tail. As a result, the light signal from the tail covered a greater distance and required a greater time interval. Hence, it should have been emitted earlier than from a head. It is accepted that a qualitative conclusion of this situation that two simultaneous events in one reference system (train) are not at all simultaneous in another (station). That due to the fact that there was a mistiming of clocks in the two systems. But for some reason, this is not quantified. This is obviously the place to deduce a concrete quantitative ratio of the scale of infringement of simultaneity or the change in time rather than later, in the Lorentz's transformations. Here, in our opinion, is an obvious deviation, from proper experiment. For a meticulous observer at the station, it would be natural to "take the bull by the horns" at once, and to try to deduce the required quantitative ratio. A little about the nature of the relativity of simultaneity. Actually, it is a question of relative displacement (shift) of events of some interval of a time scale in the transition from one system to another. The size of this displacement depends on the position in space (along an axis of mutual motion of the systems). This displacement (we shall name it a discrepancy of events in time) leads to an interesting quantitative phenomenon. The observer at the station wishes to calculate the size of the discrepancy using elementary improvised means, without the use of the Lorentz transformation formulas, but being guided by Einstein's postulates. At the same time, our observer is so enamored with space that he does not wish to transform its characteristics without due cause. Station inspectors, as a rule, have plenty of time so time is no problem for them. Let's represent a situation at the moment of emission of a signal from the tail of the train in fig.1: Fig. 1. Einstein's train Here O - position of the middle of a train; O?- position of the observer at station; A - position of the head of the train; B – position of the tail; AB = l – length of the train; BO = OA = ; V – speed of the train. The Signal from the tail should reach the observer at the station in the following time interval = = = From here = The time necessary for the arrival of the signal from the head of the train is calculated in a similar fashion. (The moment of emission of the signal will be different, but the situation will be similar, therefore it is possible to use the same fig.1) = = = It is received = The difference between the two intervals is calculated easily ?t = – = - = (1) So, for the observer at the station that received the simultaneous arrival of the signals, the signal from the head should have been emitted before the signal from the tail of the size,?t (1). From here, without resorting to a transformation of space, he reaches an elementary conclusion about mistiming of clocks (discrepancy of events) in two systems in any two points, A and B on the axis of their mutual motion. From formula (1) it is obvious that the size is proportional to the speed of relative motion of systems and the distance between the investigated points on the axis of motion, l. Where is the mistake? As we see, the observer's result does not coincide with what ensues from Lorentz's transformations. It is easier, and is not concerned with the deformation of space and time scales. Who is right? Let's remind ourselves that the transformation formulas were derived from an interpretation of Michelson's experiment which showed that rays moving in different directions in a frame of reference were received simultaneously regardless of motion of the source. Let's recap this situation, remembering the relativity of simultaneity. In the system attached to the interferometer, the ray of light, having run over the course of the interferometer and having reflected back from a mirror, comes back to the initial point, the starting point. In stationary system in which the interferometer is displaced, the event – the light beam does not return to the starting point, but to another, because during the time of travel? t of this beam, the interferometer itself was displaced in space by l = V t. An important result is found here. According to the relativity of simultaneity, in this other point the displacement (shift) of events takes place in the time scale. That is, the event at this point occurs earlier on the clocks of one system than on the clocks in another. In particular, when the process of movement in one system is already finished, it still continues in the other! There is a very puzzling methodological problem: given these conditions, to broadcast events from one system to another. How can we carry out direct comparisons of space and time? There is a suspicion that physicists have given insufficient thought to this question. Really: except for one initial moment all events in two moving systems do not synchronize, and the size of the discrepancy is not constant, continuously progressing with the increase in relative displacement of the systems in space. The serious analysis of this problem leads to a sad fact: it is impossible to reach a situation when the beginning and the end of any physical process is synchronized in both systems. One moment, only the beginning or the end ofa process can coincide. In Michelson's experiment, only the beginning coincides. In Einstein's train experiment, only the end coincides. Let's recollect that the analysis of Michelson's experiment resulting in the Lorentz's transformations were calculated from a simple right angled triangle. On the hypotenuse of this triangle, the transverse light beam in the system of the stationary observer moved (see fig.2,) in a continuous line). However the presence of a displacement (shift) of events on the time scale considerably complicates this situation. The return of a light beam in the moving system arrives earlier (point A). At this moment in the stationary system, the beam continues to run cheerfully on the hypotenuse (to point A'). At what moment should the stationary observer determine the length that has been traversed by a ray of light, and the time interval expended for it (at point O' or point A ')? Our poor stationary observer will certainly as himself this question: if the beginning of motion in both systems is synchronous, and the end is not, how dos this look to the moving observer? The stationary observer will want to try to diagram his version of the process in his own system, taking into account the displacement (see fig.2, a dotted line). Fig. 2. Motion of the transverse beam in Michelson's experiment He will certainly not be enthused by the comparison of the two diagrams. In his opinion, the braking process in the direction of motion in moving system are obviously observed. And also acceleration takes place in the opposite direction, considering a change of sign V in the formula (1). In particular, in the mutual displacement of the two systems V ' there is a slowing down from the starting point. To the fixed observer, it is clear why it occurs: , And in view of the discrepancy t ' = t +?t, then - From here is given the illusion of the delay of motion. And with movement in the opposite direction, V changes to minus and the size? t becomes a negative value (see the formula (1)), that generates the illusion of acceleration. An uncomfortable conclusion inevitably follows from this situation. If it is impossible to determine the beginning and end of any process, the spatial positioning and timing of all its intermediate stages and all local events occurring in the framework of the two systems moving with near-light speed becom highly problematic. In this connection, that charming simplicity which authors of special relativity attribute to the Lorentz transformations is difficult to understand. Obviously, these transformations should be reconsidered. It is necessary to subject special relativity to serious modification. What will the occur to its well-known effects and paradoxes? Problem of direct comparisons in details Let's try to consider a simple example from the very beginning, given theexistence of the relativity of simultaneity. In a classical example with a moving rod, we shall try to compare the results of measurement of its length by two researchers. In the system of the first researcher moving with the rod, the process of measurement is very simple: it is possible use a ruler and to note on it position at the ends of the rod. In system of the fixed researcher observing the rod moving at near-light speed, the situation is little bit more difficult. He must organize a special measuring experiment. Experiment 1. The first researcher arranges flashes of light to occur simultaneously at two ends of therod. The second researcher must mark these flashes on a ruler, for example, by means of a photosensitive cover. For simplicity in the thought experiment, we shall assume that the rod travels very close to the ruler, therefore the delay between the moment of flash and the act of measurement can be neglected. Fig.3. Experiment 1 The first researcher synchronizes time at the ends of the rod and creates simultaneous flashes. But the second researcher is indignant: in his system, the flashes were not simultaneous. That is, he registers a flash at one end of the rod, then after a pause, on the other. He quite reasonably considers result of experiment incorrect because during the pause the rod was essentially displaced in space. This ill-fated experiment shows a discrepancy of events at the ends of the spatially extended rod – the result of the relativistic effect called by us, the - relativity of simultaneity. So, experiment 1 is defective. Researchers agree to make it otherwise. Experiment 2. Now the second researcher organizes a simultaneous flash of light along the in his system. For this purpose, he projects a large number of parallel rays of light from one source perpendicular to the motion of the rod. He needs only to mark the edges of the shadow of the moving rod on his ruler. Again, we consider that the rod moves vary close to the ruler of the second observer. Fig.4. Experiment 2 The act of measurement is accomplished. But now the first researcher is indignant. He is disappointed that the rod in his system was not illuminated simultaneously along all its length. This is again the effect of the relativity of simultaneity: instead of simultaneous flashes it has turned into a kind " moving flame": first one end has been illuminated, and then the light beam has run speedily along the rod to other end. As a result, there was a time lag between the illumination of the two ends. If we consider that during this lag, the ruler of the second researcher was essentially displaced in space in relation to the rod. The result of the measurement, in the opinion of the first researcher, was incorrect. Again, the same discrepancy of events at the ends of the rod! It turns out, that a pause in the act of measurement as the result of the effect of the relativity of simultaneity is the cause. What is the result? If we consider the situation correctly and take into account the relativity of simultaneity it is necessary to say that it is impossibe to simultaneous fix the ends of a rod in two systems at once. In systems moving relative each other it is impossible to directly compare lengths of the segments located along the line of motion. Similar reasoning leads to the same conclusion with respect to time intervals. the discrepancy of events at makes it impossible to simultaneously determint the beginning and the end of a time interval in the two systems. It would be reasonable to consider that nothing unusual occurs in the scale of space and a time in general. There is only the of displacement of events on the time scale. Thus, the basic impossibility of direct comparison of lengths of segments and time intervals forces us to radically change the attitude towards the Lorentz's transformations equations and the well-known consequences of special relativity. Due consideration of the effect of the relativity of simultaneity leads us through necessity, not only to reconsider all former calculations, but also to cancel all other "relativistic" effects. For all these imaginary "reductions", the paradox of "twins" and other amusing things it is sadly necessary to throw them out of the basket of history. In case of the "twins" all that happens is simply another is displacement on the time scale. When returning, the sign on the speed becomes negative, and displacement occurs in the opposite direction. As a result, there will be no difference in age when they meet. So, the special theory of relativity reduces to only one phenomenon – spatially caused displacement of events on the time scale. It is the only new element to be brought into classical mechanics. Thus, the minimum requirement is reached. It is necessary to alter transformations for coordinates and time. There is a reason to avail oneself of the formula of the discrepancy of events, determined by us in the example of Einstein's train. As the result of the new transformations, one system will determine: x' = x - t Where = dx/dt ; For the other system ,: x = x' - 't' Where ' = dx'/dt' Thus it is important to note, that = - ' only in the combined origin of coordinates of the two systems at the moment of intersection. Generally they are not equal. In view of the change of direction of vector ' to the opposite in the second case, it is possible to write a scalar, x = x' + 't' From the formulas in particular, it follows, that in the system moving in the other direction on axis X, events advance relatively, and in an opposite direction, they are delayed. And it is the sole effect which has a place in reality. This situation may surprise some; some will be certainly upset or annoyed. The author perceives all this with a large degree of condescension because he considers this annoying misunderstanding only as one of the many problems in the methodology of physics in the XX century, mentioned earlier. The new transformations open the gate for other methodologies and philosophies in physical research. Actually it is a question of refusing the current domination of neo-positivism in favour of materialism. It is interesting to see how physicists will look to science fiction writers.

         
    Relieve sinus headaches using the neti pot

     

    The word neti is and abbreviation of the sankskrit word Jala neti which means “water cleansing”. Though the technique has been unknown in the West until recently, Indian Yogi’s have been performing the procedure for thousands of years as a pert of their daily cleansing ritual. The concept is really simple. You simply fill the neti Pot with warm salt water and poor it in one nostril until it comes out of the other one. This basically clears out all of that nasty stuff up there and prevents bacteria from having a pool party in your sinuses. Though the concept is simple, the actual technique and preparation does require a little practice. You should always use salt water for the best results. I personally opt to buy the refills, but you can make your own mixture if you run out of the refill packets. Non-iodized salt is best and the mixture should be at a ratio of approximately 1 1/2 teaspoons per liter of warm water. One advantage with the pre-mixed packets, is that they are able to have a higher saline content since special buffering agents prevent discomfort to the nasal cavity. The water should be as close to body temperature as you can get it without being too hot. If the temperature is too cold, you will fell like you are drowning in the ocean. After stirring the mixture thoroughly, lean over a sink and tilt your head down and slightly to one side. You then place the spot of the neti pot in the nostril, establishing as tight of a seal as possible, and raise the pot slightly allowing the water to flow slowly into the nasal passage. Continue to breathe normally through your mouth. If you are positioned correctly, you should feel the water going from one side to the other until you have a steady stream flowing out of the nostril. It took me about three attempts before I felt that I was doing it correctly, so don’t get too discouraged if it doesn’t go well the first few times. Also, if you have a lot of blockage then you may have to switch from side to side several times blowing your nose in between flushes. I recommend using just half a packet starting out, and one full pot for both nostrils. After a few weeks, you can do a full pot for each nostril for the maximum effect. So far, I have been using the neti pot nightly for about 6 weeks and I have not had any of the usual sinus problems that have plagued me constantly for the last two years. It has also alleviated my snoring, since I am no longer struggling to breathe at night.

         
    Renewable energy biodiesel

     

    Copyright 2006 Donovan Baldwin You may have heard of biodiesel (or even biowillie), but for those who don't know much about it, we will get to an explanation of it in a moment. I just wanted to start with a small list of the benefits of using biodiesel. BENEFITS OF BIODIESEL Requires no special delivery equipment and can use existing infrastructure. Can be used in present diesel engines without modification Reduces carbon dioxide emissions from 15% to over 75% over petroleum diesel, based on the biodiesel blend. Emits fewer air pollutants in general. It is a completely renewable fuel. Reduces dependence on foreign oil. It is safer to handle, store and transport than petrolem diesel. WHAT IS BIODIESEL? Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel which can be made from waste products such as vegetable oils and animal fats, or even from vegetable matter, such as corn, which is specifically intended to produce it. While not often used as "neat" or pure biodiesel, also known as B100, blends of up to 20% are common and can be used in most diesel powered equipment with no modification at all. There are some engines, built since 1994, which can use B100. It should be mentioned, however, that experts recommend that users check with their engine manufacturers to see if there might be a conflict or problem. There is still some uncertainty about how the use of biodiesel fuel, particularly B100, may affect the life of the engine. As pointed out in the section on benefits (above), biodiesel fuel reduces air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. MAKING BIODIESEL Three great things about biodiesel fuel is that it is renewable, biodegradeable, and non-toxic. Biodiesel is the name given to acid methyl esters intended for use as fuel. Another product formed during the production of biodiesel is glycerol, which is widely used in cosmetics. Slightly over half of the production resources can use any fat or oil, including recycled cooking grease. The remaining producers primarily uses vegetable oils. Due mainly to cost considerations, soy oil is the prime source for most commercial production. It is estimated that approximately 5% of on-road biodiesel could be produced from all sources under optimum conditions. THE MARKET AND THE INCENTIVES Biodiesel is in wide use among such entities as the U. S. Postal Service and the U. S. Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture. Many school districts, municipal transit authorities, national parks, public utility companies, and garbage and recycling companies also use the fuel. It is also becoming more popular among trucking companies, truck owners, and farmers thanks in part to the efforts of country singer Willie Nelson, who now has his own brand known as BioWillie. At the time this article is being written, there is a tax incentive offered as a federal tax credit. This incentive is mainly being taken by producers who are passing it on to consumers in the form of a price reduction at the pump. The USDA estimates this incentive will bring production of biodiesel to at least 124 million gallons per year. Other factors, such as costs of petroleum sources could cause an even higher production. AVAILABILITY Fleet owners have found that it is not particularly difficult to set up their own biodiesel fueling facilities. While there are some practical considerations which might need to be overcome, fleet owners are finding that it offers some rewards economically as well as in terms of safety and responsibility as this fuel is, and is seen by the community as, being ecologically sensible. Some of the business and government entities happy with their biodiesel refit are: L. L. Bean, the U. S. Military, and Cranmore Mountain Resort in New Hampshire. Of particular interest was that Yellowstone National Park confirmed in their study of the feasibility of using biodiesel fueled trucks that park bears did not seem to be particularly attracted to vehicles fueled by this food-based diesel product. While commercial availability is growing and more stations and truck stops are adding biodiesel, it can still be difficult to locate, particularly for the traveler. The federal government offers a Biodiesel Locator service at its Alternative Fuel Data Center at eere. energy. gov/afdc/infrastructure/locator. html , and there is a BioWillie Locator as well at wnbiodiesel/locations. html .

         
    Reversing mother nature part one

     

    We talked to North America’s leading In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining engineers, and had them explain exactly how ISL worked. Most of the significant ISL operations in the United States were designed and/or constructed by these engineers. They explained how ISL mining is really just reversing the process of Mother Nature. “Blossom” is what underground uranium miners called the crystals forming on the tunnel walls. Because the ore was in contact with air inside an underground mine, and as ground water moved slowly against the mine’s walls, a visible crust of uranium crystals would precipitate, or blossom along those walls. Making the uranium soluble doesn’t require a lot of oxygen and water because oxidization is a natural process. Adding more oxygen to the groundwater found in, and around, a uranium-mineralized orebody is the principle upon which present-day In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining is based. Eons ago, the uranium was soluble and moved, on or below the surface, with the ground water. “In roll front uranium deposits the uranium was transported into the area through the natural groundwater system and precipitated from solution due to some reducing environment,” explained Harry Anthony, Chief Operating Officer of Uranium Energy Corp. Often, the reducing agent was something organic, such as coal, deep-seated oil and gas deposits, or hydrogen sulfide gases. In its reduced form, the uranium crystals are insoluble. “It will precipitate as a coating on the existing sand grains of the sandstone,” added Anthony. “As more water containing uranium sweeps through this area, and encounters this reducing environment, more uranium is precipitated until there is a sufficient concentration to make it a commercial deposit.” After the geological team has delineated a company’s uranium “roll front” deposit and determined it is of economic value, the company must turn to its ISL design engineers to complete the “mining” process. While it takes stellar geologists such as David Miller of Strathmore Minerals, Bill Sheriff of Energy Metals, or William Boberg of UR-Energy to accumulate large, proven uranium-mineralized holdings, as they have done in Wyoming, New Mexico, Texas or elsewhere, each must turn to their engineers to extract the uranium from those sand grains and process them to produce an economic quantity of uranium oxide, or U3O8. The overwhelming majority of ISL facilities, designed in the United States, were engineered by Harry Anthony, Doug Norris and Dennis Stover. Trained as a mechanical engineer, Harry Anthony has been involved with more than ten ISL uranium operations from Union Carbide’s Palangana in 1976 to Uranium Resources’ Bruni, Benavides, North Platte, Kingsville Dome and Rosita ISL projects. Anthony’s consulting work has taken him to ISL projects in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and the Czech Republic. Dennis Stover is best remembered for designing Smith Ranch in Wyoming, now owned by Cameco Corp. With a PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan, Dr. Stover helped develop the first commercial alkaline ISL project in south Texas for Atlantic Richfield and helped develop an additional five small ISL operations in south Texas. Also a chemical engineer by training, Doug Norris’s paths have crossed with both Stover and Anthony. He helped build the Highland and Smith Ranch ISL operations in Wyoming, and designed Mestena’s Alta Mesa ISL operation in south Texas. HOW DOES ISL MINING REVERSE MOTHER NATURE? “In its natural, reduced environment, uranium exists as a solid in the +4 valence,” Anthony explained. “In the mining stage, we are reversing Mother Nature’s process by adding oxygen, oxidizing the uranium from a valence of +4 to a valence of +6.” The uranium was oxidized at one time, but then reduced by Mother Nature. By drilling wells into the ore zone, circulating the water and adding oxygen to it, the uranium is made soluble again. Is it really this simple? Yes and no. Energy Metals Chief Operating Officer Dennis Stover outlined the process, “You’re simply adding, into the injection well, gaseous oxygen, just pure oxygen, but you’re doing it under the water level in the well. The natural pressure, created by that column of water above the injection point, allows the oxygen to dissolve into the water so that there’s no free gas being put into the well.” Stover compared the oxygen dissolved in the liquid to the carbon dioxide dissolved in a bottle of soda. The soda remains clear, dissolved in the liquid, when stationery. “But when you shake it up, the gas will break out,” added Stover. “The pressure that’s available that lets you dissolve the oxygen is determined by the amount of naturally occurring water pressure that’s on the uranium deposit.” Stover explained that if the deposit is 100 feet below the water table, you can dissolve a certain amount of oxygen. “If the uranium deposit is 200 feet below the water table, or twice as deep, you can dissolve twice as much oxygen.” Historically, ISL mining evolved from acid leaching to leaching with sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate. “Most people add only carbon dioxide in dissolved oxygen at this point,” Stover explained. “There’s a chemical relationship between carbon dioxide gas, bicarbonate, and the carbonate ion. The host rock typically contains calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate minerals.” By adding the carbon dioxide, Stover said, “It will lower the PH of the solution just slightly.” That enhances the solubility of the naturally occurring calcium carbonate.” According to Stover and the other experts, the addition of carbon dioxide is an effective replacement for the previously added bicarbonate ion. The goal is to get the uranium out of the sandstone and soluble. “We’re accelerating Mother Nature and making the uranium soluble again,” said Doug Norris, engineering manager for Uranium Energy. “When it’s soluble, we can just pump it out of the ground. But it is dissolved in the water like salt in sea water. You can’t see it, but it’s there.” “MINING” THE URANIUM ISL “mining” and processing the uranium is a very simple process. It’s a water treatment plant with hundreds of water wells. There are two types of wells: injection and production. The water plus reagent (oxygen, carbon dioxide) is injected into the ground via water wells. Outside the United States, where environmental regulations may be less restrictive, an ISL’s aquifer may be bombarded with harsh acid leaching. On Harry Anthony’s engineering services website, he describes the process he observed in the Czech Republic, “Over 4,100,000 tons of H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), 270,000 tons of HNO3 (nitric acid), 100,000 tons of NH3 (ammonia), and 25,000 tons of HF (hydrofloric acid) were consumed by the mine.” It would be nearly impossible to get an ISL project permitted in the United States using these chemicals to leach the uranium. The water quality division, within a state’s Department of Environmental Quality (DQE), demands restoration to background, which is about where the groundwater was before ISL mining began. “The less things you add, the less you have to reclaim at the end of the process,” Doug Norris pointed out. “The more stuff you add trying to get it out of the ground, the more you have to clean up.” Dennis Stover explained how the fluids presently used came about, “Historically, most ISL operations had a great deal of difficulty with plugging or fouling of their injection wells due to the precipitation of excessive amounts of salts.” He pointed out that the chemistry miners were using in conventional milling operations didn’t work in ISL mining. “Because they had very high concentrated salt solutions, they were trying to accelerate everything,” Stover told us. “When you take those concentrated solutions and put them underground, Mother Nature is not always happy. Other salts that were present in the rock would dissolve, solutions would become supersaturated and they would precipitate out. The wells would plug up.” Some of the early U. S. operations tried to enhance their production, for example, by using ammonia to enhance the pH of their water. “They forgot that ammonia is easily locked up by clay and almost impossible to get back to background,” explained Norris. “It’s pretty reactive and doesn’t occur that much in nature.” Norris would give anyone using ammonia during the mining procedure, “a 95 percent chance of having a very bad time.” Why, we asked? Norris responded, “It’s bad from the fact that nobody has been able to successfully clean up a site that has used ammonia.” Norris explained that sometimes you have to add a carbonate source, such as carbon dioxide “to stabilize the dissolved uranium as uranyl dicarbonate.” Norris said, “The uranium is in a solid state in the ore, as Mother Nature left it. We oxidize it and turn it into uranyl dicarbonate.” What goes to the processing plant is called lixiviate, the dissolved uranium in its ionic form. According to Anthony, “Today, most ISL mining operates at neutral pH, and the uranium is complexed as a dicarbonate.” Water is circulated through the injection wells with the expressed purpose of separating the uranium coating the sandstone. Each time you circulate the water through the orebody, you are capturing some of the uranium. Each pass through is called a pore volume. “It’s like filling up a bucket of sand with water,” explained Anthony. “Once you have the bucket full of sand, you can still pour in water. The amount of water you can pour in until you just bring it up to the top of the sand is termed a ‘pore volume.’ Pore volume is the interspatial volume.” In Anthony’s models for operating an economic ISL plant, he calculates 20 pore volumes (PV). Porosity, or the spaces in between the sand particles, where the water can travel (permeability), helps determine how much uranium can be recovered. “It takes about 20 PV to 30PV to recover the highest percentage,” said David Miller, who was Cogema’s chief ISL geologist in the United States, before becoming President of Strathmore Minerals. “But, as the price of uranium keeps going higher, it may be economic to recover a higher percentage of the orebody. Maybe 40PV to 50PV will be possible with the direction the prices are moving. Of course, your average processed grade will go down. A few years ago, you would want to shut wells off at 15 parts per million (ppm), but now you might want to run them at 10ppm. At $50/pound uranium, you may be able to run at 7 or 8ppm.” Typically, an ISL operation should recover about 70 percent of the uranium in the ore, under the 20PV to 30PV scenario. However, in the case of the Czech Republic’s Diamo project, once Europe’s largest uranium mining operation, only 55 percent was recovered. Clearly, the more uranium recovered with the least number of pore volumes, the lower the operating costs. Trying to recover more uranium is only possible if you have the plant capacity. Because of the rising price of uranium, we would expect more companies to attempt to recover a higher percentage of uranium. Miller warns, however, “You will not make your production quota if your plant is ‘sized’ at a certain gallons per minutes at a certain grade to meet your annual production. If you lower the average grade and fail to increase your flow rate, your annual production will decrease.”

         
     
         
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