With gasoline prices rising higher and higher, with no relief in sight, consumers are becoming more aware of and more interested in alternative fuel sources. One of those viable fuel sources is E85 ethanol. These days, there is quite a bit of talk about this fuel, and why shouldn’t there be? After all, it costs close to thirty five percent less than gasoline and is quickly becoming a preferred choice for motorists at the pump stations. E85 ethanol is already widely used in Brazil with about 90 percent of Brazil’s vehicles able to use E85 ethanol. Although a much lower percentage of vehicles in the United State’s are flexible fuel vehicles, and therefore able to burn E85 ethanol, it is quickly gainer favor. What is E 85 Ethanol? When 15 percent of leaded gasoline is combined with eighty five percent of ethanol, the result is the low-cost E85 ethanol fuel. It is an alcohol-based fuel that can be produced from employing the use of two methods. The first source of production involves the fermenting and distilling of starch-like feedstock. They include corn, barley, and wheat. The next method, which is referred as bio-ethanol, involves extraction from trees and grasses. Although the price of the Ethanol E85 may be foremost on consumer’s minds, it also gets the nod from earth activists because it is an environmentally friendly product. It burns clean and its key ingredient source is renewable. Ethanol E85 also lessens the need for imported crude oil because it is locally produced, and is also known for increasing the octane rating in fuel while decreasing the harmful emissions caused by gasoline. If you are consciously trying to use less gasoline because you are aware of toxins it releases into our air think about this: if you convert to a flexible fuel vehicle and you burn E85 in that vehicle you will automatically be using 85 percent less gasoline that you previously had because 85 percent of your fuel is now ethanol and only 15 percent is gasoline. Ethanol E85 will run well in flexible fuel vehicles like those manufactured by Daimler Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Isuzu and Nissan to name a few. But, if you don’t own a vehicle by one of the above-mentioned manufacturers, you need not fear. Some people are not aware that many other cars manufactured today are Ethanol E85 compatible. It is best to find out from your car dealer if you have a flexible fuel vehicle. How is E85 Ethanol Made? The method for producing Ethanol E85 is long and complex. The maker has to first extract sugar from biological feedstock in order to begin the process. Corn is the leading ingredient in Ethanol E85 gas in the United States. In Brazil, sugar cane is the leading ingredient in ethanol. The starch in these crops can easily be converted into sugar. Sugar for this fuel can also be extracted from cellulose, which is a sugar based ingredient found in trees and grasses. Once the feedstock is collected, it goes through a grinding process to extract the sugar. Sugar fed into microbes quickly produces ethanol and carbon dioxide, which is purified to get the ethanol to the right consistency. There is another method of manufacturing Ethanol E85 oil or grain alcohol, as it is also known, and this is through a wet-milling process. This is also the method that large-scale manufacturers use when producing high-fructose corn sweetener. Ethanol E85 is an innovative and renewable resource with many positive characteristics, making it one of the leading topics of discussion for those looking to help the earth and looking to keep a few extra bucks in their wallet. Although E85 is currently only available at approximately 600 pumps in the United States, that number is expected to grow significantly in the next few years.
The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel is becoming increasingly popular by ever conscious consumers wishing to do their little bit for the planet. It may even be a better alternative to bio fuel, it seems that it is a lot more pleasant to make at any rate. What is Ethanol? Ethanol is a grain alcohol, or plant mass formula derived from the natural sugars found in bio mass, or vegetation such as corn, wheat, barley, potatoes and sugar cane. This is then processed to make a renewable form of fuel or fuel additive, which is both cost effective and good for the planet. Many cars are able to run on Ethanol and gasoline mixtures. Although at the moment, the mixtures are only a ratio of 10% Ethanol, to 90% fossil fuel. Benefits of Ethanol There are many benefits of using an alternative fuel such as Ethanol, for starters it is a renewable resource, fossil fuels used to make gasoline is not renewable, so one day they will run out, it is because of this that people, have become more aware of alternative fuels and additives. Another good reason for using an alternative fuel such as Ethanol is the reduction of pollution, we only have one planet and if we keep polluting it we may very well find ourselves with nowhere to live. Any steps that we can make toward reducing pollution is a positive. Another good reason to consider a fuel alternative such as Ethanol is that it is far more cheaper to use and make, the main cost involved in making Ethanol is in the processing method. How is Ethanol Produced? The process used consists of 8 stages, corn is the main product used in this method, Milling the corn, to make it into a fine powder, or meal Liquification, which is mixing the meal with water and Alpha-amylase, then heating it at temperatures of 120-150 deg Celcius, the heat reduces bacteria. Saccharification, is the process of cooling the mash, and adding glucoamylase, this converts the starch to dextrose, Fermentation, is where the yeast is added to ferment the sugars to convert it to Ethanol. This process consists of the mash going through several different tanks, and takes about 48 hours. Please note that this procedure is risky and I do not recommend making biodiesel without further research of the process, these are just general guidelines of the making process, if you wish to actually make your own bio diesel please consult expert companies or professionals. Distillation, the mash now contains about 10% alcohol and 90% non fermentable solids, the solids are now separated from the alcohol, to reach about a 96% strength of alcohol. Dehydration, is where the last of the water is removed to make the alcohol about 200 proof. Denaturing, is used then to make the alcohol unfit for human consumption, this is done by adding a small amount of gasoline, like 2-5%. There are 2 co products derived from this process as well. The first is the non fermentable product, this is used as a livestock feed, the second is the carbon dioxide which is collected from the process and sold to other industries. There are many reasons to use Ethanol as either an additive or an alternative fuel; one of the main reasons is the reduction of pollution. Regular fossil based fuels are not only damaging to the environment they are a non-renewable resources; once they are gone they can never be replaced, or regenerated.
The Car Care Council reports that one out of 15 vehicles inspected at its National Car Care Month Vehicle Check-Up Events had its "check engine" light illuminated. This light is one of the most vital components to a properly functioning vehicle. It alerts the driver to a variety of potential problems based on the vehicle's on-board diagnostic system. When the check engine light comes on, it means that a system in your vehicle - such as ignition, fuel injection or emission control - is not operating at peak performance, even if your vehicle appears to be running normally. A glowing check engine light doesn't mean you must immediately pull over to the side of the road, but you should get the car checked out as soon as possible. Ignoring the warning light could severely damage engine components and incur additional repair expenses. If your check engine light comes on, first check the gas cap to make sure it wasn't left loose after refueling. Sometimes this can trigger the light. If the cap was loose, the light should go out after a few short trips. If the light remains on, have the system checked out as soon as possible. A light that flashes indicates a more severe condition that should be checked out immediately to prevent damage to the catalytic converter. When you experience a flashing light, minimize driving at high speeds or under heavy loads. When scheduling service, make sure the automotive shop that diagnoses your car has professional technicians who are properly certified for OBD II (on-board diagnostic systems) diagnosis and repair. The technician will connect your vehicle's computer to a diagnostic computer, which will provide a "trouble" code indicating why the light was activated. While the diagnostic computer is connected to your car, the technician can check the idle speed, throttle response, engine temperature, fuel system pressure, manifold vacuum, exhaust emission levels and many other key indicators. Once the problem is diagnosed and fixed, your car's computer makes sure everything is back to normal, then turns off the check engine light. The Car Care Council recommends reading your vehicle owner's manual and familiarizing yourself with the purpose of the check engine light and every other gauge and warning indicator on your dashboard. The Car Care Council is the source of information for the "Be Car Care Aware" consumer education campaign, promoting the benefits of regular vehicle care, maintenance and repair.
Our standard magnets, MMINTS TM magnets, and the custom magnets produced for group orders are all manufactured in the US. Outdoor magnets are .034 mil thick, guaranteed not to chip, peel, or fade. We do not skimp on design, color, or quality! Many of our designs are specialized and are only printed on a limited basis. This makes our magnets more costly to produce, but allows us to offer so much more. For us to continue to offer you this type of variety, design choice, and keep the ribbon prices reasonable, we are not able to provide free shipping. Our shipping charges are nominal, and based on actual mailing costs. There are no extraneous shipping & handling charges. We offer you the most for your money, whether you are purchasing one stock magnet from us...or having us design and manufacture your own custom magnets. If you are looking for basic magnets check out our Economy Line. Click Here Have a simple design you want to produce? Have a more complex design you want to produce? We produce better magnets at lower prices! If you ever have any questions or concerns please feel free to ask. Email us at: MilitaryMagnets@aol
Okay, you've decided you want to make money with Affiliate Marketing. So, you join some affiliate programs and start submitting free ads to newsletters and free advertising classifieds sites. You're going to make BIG money now -- right? Nope! Sorry! Just sending out a few ads is not going to do it. Not if you want to be a real success. You must first determine your passion. I mean other than making the money! What is your hobby? What do you know how to do REALLY well? What is your job? Everyone has something that is their own special talent. Find yours. You probably have more than one thing that you are very interested in and do well. See if you can find five (ten if you're really ambitious). Write them down in a list. Remember, you are going to be spending a lot of time working with this subject. Make sure you enjoy it! Go down each item on your list. Start writing a rough outline of everything you know about the topic. It doesn't have to be elaborate. This is just to give you an idea of how much information is available for a given subject. Try mind mapping. Write down the main subject of your idea. Draw a circle around it. Now, start thinking of sub-categories that are related to your main category. Draw a line from your main category and end it with a circle. Put the sub-category title inside this circle. Find as many sub-categories (and sub-sub-categories) as you can. Go through each of your interests with this procedure. Choose the one that you know the most about and that you can write about comfortably. What if you "think" you don't know enough about your topic? Then, do some research. Read books and magazines. Do some searches on the Internet. Who knows? You might find an area, a niche, that is just waiting for you to fill it with useful information. There's a lot more to affiliate marketing, of course. But the first step is to find your passion. Your "passion" doesn't have to be making money on the Internet. It can be cooking, sewing, billiards, or whatever. In fact, it's better if you find a niche that isn't in the online marketing arena because that's what nearly everyone else is doing. Make your topic unique. Make it yours. And make it your passion. It will pay you well.
Eventually, all the muscle cars from the 20th century will return to the Earth in various altered physical states. The sport obviously can’t continue forever in current form. But a great assurance of its future is the imminent resurgence in modern-day successors to the cars that hot-rodders worship so dearly. The new movement started in 2005 with the first new Ford Mustang since the late 70s. All the basics were there – rear-wheel-drive, V8, classic looks, cheap sticker – and it fit the profile of being designed and built in America. Even better, the Mustang’s V8 is now a modern piece that will pass all emissions standards in the foreseeable future and finds application in many cars and trucks within the lineup, satisfying that essential Hot Rod need of “cheap parts.” Better yet, this 1990s-conceived engine is now developing a history and lineage (dare I say legend) of its own. Lastly, the Mustang is selling well. Ford fans, at least, can relax. Moparheads have the next-best news. While they have nothing as cheap, focused, or American as the Mustang, their triplets of Chrysler 300C, Dodge Magnum, and Dodge Charger form a close second. Those will soon become quadruplets if the Dodge Challenger coupe (the most historically faithful) becomes a reality later this decade, probably sporting the two Hemi V8s (the 5.7-liter and the 6.1-liter) found in existing models. Like Ford’s V8, the current-day Hemi is in great demand. Followers of the General will probably get something of their own. The Chevy Camaro concept has sparked just as much serious interest as the Challenger, meaning enough to warrant production. It too will hold the Corvette’s LS7 V8 good for 400 horsepower, prompting another few decades of Mustang-vs-Camaro wars. And while there won’t be another Pontiac Firebird, Pontiac is supposed to get a replacement for the GTO, as much as the current one fizzled. The funny thing is that these cars will have so much muscle straight from the factory that it’s boggles the mind thinking of ways to get any more speed out of them, especially on the cheap. But that’s a challenge any true hot rodder would happily take on.
Beginning on July 1, 2006, California granted its car-buying residents a new set of protections under the Car Buyer’s Bill of Rights. Not only will these new rights change the way cars are bought and sold in California, they're already spreading across the country and being adopted by other states as well. The protections under the new law apply to vehicles (cars, trucks, SUVs) purchased in California for personal use from a dealer/dealership. They do not apply to private sales, out of state purchases, commercial vehicles, RVs and motorcycles. What are the protections? 1. The Two Day Return Used car buyers now have the opportunity to protect themselves with a two-day return option. This is designed to help buyers who may not have had the time to have the vehicle properly inspected by a mechanic, for those who are purchasing a car "as is," or for those car buyers who might have succumbed to the pressure to buy on the spot. There are a few limits on the two-day return protection. First, the option only applies to used vehicles purchased through a dealership for personal use that cost $40,000 or less. Second, the dealership can charge you for this option (anywhere from $75 to $400, plus a restocking fee, all depending on the price of the vehicle). Additionally, the vehicle must be returned within two days, having been driven fewer than 250 miles, and be in the same condition as when it was purchased. 2. Trade-Ins With the two-day return option, the dealer is required to hold onto your trade-in until the option expires. If the dealer sells your trade-in early, you're entitled to the vehicle's fair market value or the price listed in the cancellation agreement, whichever is more. 3. Certified Used Cars In the past, any used car that a dealer has had inspected by a mechanic could be advertised as a "certified pre-owned vehicle." This is no longer the case. Dealers can no longer advertise (or sell) certain problem cars as "certified pre-owned vehicles." 4. Seller Disclosures Under the new law, auto dealers must provide the following in writing: a. The price of the vehicle without extra options and add-ons. b. The specific price for add-ons, such as anti-theft devices, fabric protection, extended service contracts and "gap" insurance. c. A copy of your credit score if you're getting a loan through the dealership. Your credit score will range from 300 to 900, and reflect your credit worthiness as primarily determined by the timeliness of your past loan payments. If your credit score is high enough, you can often benefit from lower interest rates. 5. Limit On Interest Rate Markups It's a common practice in the industry for auto lenders to pay dealers an incentive for getting buyers to pay a higher interest rate than they should be paying, according to their credit history. This additional boost in the interest rate is referred to as a "markup." The new California Car Buyer’s Bill of Rights limits the markup a dealer can receive from a lender to a maximum of 2.5% for loans up to 60 months and to 2% for longer loans. The New California Car Buyer’s Bill of Rights is designed to make it safer for you to purchase your next used vehicle through a dealership without fear that you're going to get stuck with something you either don't want or something that doesn't live up to its advertising. Knowing your rights can save you both months of headaches and significant money, but only if you take advantage of them.
Sometimes, warning lights get people all frazzled and lose control of the whole situation. Experts in the field of driving, automobiles, and driving safety say that people should not panic when this kind of thing happens to you. If you notice that the "check engine" warning light suddenly appears and alerts you, what do you exactly do? First, do not panic and calm yourself down. It may become the very reason for you to get into further trouble or accidents. The truth is, these “check engine” warning lights could actually mean a couple of things. So there is no need to panic. Remaining calm and collected would keep you in control of the situation. The "check engine" warning light is a part of the car’s system and onboard diagnostics. This is the computer part of the car that monitors and controls the performance of your vehicle. It also oversees the car’s engine speed, ignition timing, fuel mixture, and the like. The warning light comes on when this computer detects something that is not correct. What would be the best defense when the "check engine" warning light comes on? It would be your owner’s manual. Be sure that you have read and understood important details of your owner’s manual. That way, you can check what the warning light is trying to tell you. Once the warning light comes on, try to pull over first. Then try to look for signs of serious car problems that need your immediate attention. Check the gauges. Your car may be just overheating or there might be a low oil pressure. It may be a very simple solution however it would help if you try to tighten your gas cap. For most cars, if the gas cap is not tightened enough, the "check engine" warning light goes on. Try reducing your speed and the load of your vehicle. The loss of power could actually trigger the "check engine" warning light to go on. Or you can also try slowing down, or remove any accessories that need the power of your engine. If, however, despite your efforts at trying to check what could be the problem and still you cannot find the source or the problem itself, go to the nearest professional mechanic or technician. By doing such, you are entrusting your vehicle to people who have been trained and have the knowledge on such situations.
Did you know that the VIN number to your automobile is more than just a series of numbers used for identification? In fact, the VIN number of your car can actually reveal to you the history of your vehicle. How can this be so? With a VIN number, you can find out who owned you are car in the past, whether or not the vehicle has been in any accidents and more. In fact, the VIN number is often used from car dealers that travel from home to automobile auctions to determine whether or not a vehicle is worth bidding on before they travel to the auction and place their bids. Much like a strand of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the VIN number of your vehicle is an identification number like no other—the VIN number of your vehicle relates solely to the vehicle you have purchased or you plan on purchasing and no other vehicle in the world has the same VIN number as the one your car possesses. In fact, there is even a decoding process when it comes to VIN numbers—a VIN number can be decoded by breaking down the various combinations of letters and numbers—all which have a significant meaning. For example, one number will denote the country that the car was built in, another number will denote the manufacturer, and certain numbers even denote the cars features. Conversely, the VIN number can also provide you with information about odometer readings; whether or not the car has ever been stolen; if the car has experienced flood damage; and whether or not there have been recalls on parts associated with the vehicle. You can also find out if there is or ever was a lien on the car’s title, if it had ever been repossessed, and if it suffered major damage in the past. So, what does all this information mean to you? Basically, consider it fuel for a positive purchase when you are buying a car—the more you know about the vehicle, the better decision you will be able to make when buying it. Conversely, if you already own the vehicle, knowing the car’s history is vital in giving the car the proper maintenance it needs. Also, you may be able to foresee problems in the future that originate from past issues with the vehicle. In the end, you should visit a website that allows you to check on the VIN number of any vehicle. In fact, some sites let you run a free VIN number check so that you can test out there services. Using your preferred search engine, you can easily locate a VIN Number checking website. You will find such services well worth the visit.
It is always wise and advisable to do a detailed inspection of any used vehicle or auto parts that you opt and plan to purchase, BEFORE executing the transaction and any money exchanges hands. Advertisements and sales-talk about the car, that might have lured you in or grabbed your attention might be misleading, misrepresentation, even untrue. Some of the toted features and promised quality may not really present, even performance claims, enhancements or exaggerations are quite commonplace and pervasive in this market as well. You will be well-served to diligently be on the look-out for them. Here are some examples of what to pay attention to in your pre-purchase vehicle or parts inspection: I. Vehicle Exterior: do a walkabout and note the paint-job and detailing on the car 1 Look for scratch-marks and other dents. 2 If you are unable to detect any and/or suspect a new finish, ask when and why the car was painted. 3 Hiding rust and imperfections are quite common. 4 Check the bumpers and wheel wheels checking for dents, body filling and/or signs of rust or decay. 5 The underside might yield the most of this problem. 6 You might be able to infer from these aspects mentioned above, that if there are problems on the out or underside, they might also just be inside the vehicle as well. II. Vehicle Angles, as well as the Vehicle Interior: check all angles of the vehicle, top to bottom, tip to tail, rear, front, sides and even underneath the vehicle. 1 Any inconsistencies or signs of major repair, could be cause for concern. 2 Try to cover all the details and detailing. 3 Look for outright and lingering sign of damages. 4 Stains, tears or exposure, even sun damage might be noticeable on the upholstery and interior of the vehicle as well. 5 Try and spot all these tell-tale signs prior to your purchase. III. Vehicle engine: always remember that a clean engine does not necessarily mean that all is good and well. 1 Take a much closer look and notice all details that has to do with the functioning of the vehicle 2 Two obvious places to look, would include the exhaust manifold (check for rust here) and the ass well (check for oil leaks or residue here). 3 Checking the dipstick for oil is essential as well. Ensure that you feel no particles in it when rubbing your fingers against it. If present, it may be indicative of some related engine problems and even wear and tear, aging or breakdown over time. 4 Physically starting the engine, listening carefully to the revs and even taking it for a test drive is advisable as well. 5 Performance of the engine and the handling of the car are your tell-tale signs here. 6 Check all brakes and features thoroughly as well.
When their cars break down unexpectedly, many people take them to the closest repair shop they can find. But this important decision should not be left to chance. The best thing to do is to start shopping for a repair facility before you need one. By planning ahead, you can be sure that your car will be in capable hands when repairs are needed. The National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE), a nonprofit, independent organization that tests and certifies auto service professionals, offers these tips on finding a good auto repair establishment. * Ask your friends and associates for their recommendations or consult local consumer groups. * Arrange for alternate transportation in advance so you will not feel forced to choose a shop based solely on location. * Look for a neat, well-organized facility with modern equipment and vehicles in the parking lot that are equal in value to your own. * Look for a courteous staff. The service consultant should be willing to answer all of your questions. * Ask about the shop's policies regarding estimated repair costs, diagnostic fees, guarantees and acceptable methods of payment. * Ask if the repair facility usually handles your type of repair work. * Look for signs of professionalism in the customer service area such as civic, community or customer service awards. * Look for evidence of qualified technicians such as trade school diplomas, certificates of advanced courses and ASE certification. Approximately 400,000 professionals hold current ASE credentials. They can be found at independent garages, dealerships, franchised outlets, collision shops and various other types of repair facilities. The certified technicians wear blue and white ASE insignia or pins. Their employers often display their technicians' ASE credentials in the customer service area and post the ASE sign on the premises.
Ten years ago, you would be laughed at if you were to tell someone that people would buy cars without first inspecting them in person. Well, today thousands of people are buying cars on the internet through sites like eBay, without ever physically coming in contact with their cars before the purchase! Let’s face it: The internet is a hassle free place to shop for cars. There are many advantages to shopping cars online. When buying a car online, you don’t have to listen to a dealer talk about the specs of a car. You just have to read all about it in a website. You don’t have to go to a showroom, you just to have to point and click your mouse and you could browse through different make and models of cars. And if you want to take a second look at a car it’s very easy. Furthermore, transactions can be done without you having to go out of your room. After ordering the car you want and paying the price, all you have to do is to wit for your brand new vehicle to be delivered to the nearest dealer. Some dealers would even deliver the car right at your doorstep. Depending on the sites you are visiting, the method in which they sell cars to you will differ. Some websites will only get you in touch with a real car seller. This means you have to transact the traditional way. Then there are websites that would take car of everything. Some websites would even deliver the car at your doorstep. Of course this would mean a bigger amount of service fee. However, before you decide to buy a car online, you must first know exactly what kind of car you want. How? By determining the types of car you’re looking for and the price you are willing to pay for that car. Below are some helpful tips for buying cars online: 1. Make sure it’s safe. Make sure that the website you go to is secure and reliable. Most sites would let you browse by car type, by price range or both. 2. Research carefully. The most important thing to do is to research. Don’t get too excited. Check on the different packages available. 3. Read Third Party Reviews. Read reviews about the different make, model and year of cars. A good website must also have reviews and ratings for the cars they are selling. But you should also cross check by visiting independent car sites or sites that do not sell cars or are connected to car companies to get a more objective review. 4. Ask yourself what features are important to you. Do you give much ore importance to fuel efficiency than speed or vice versa? Are you more concerned about safety features than a good sound system? After you’ve done all these, it’s time to determine your budget. Just how much are you willing to spend for a vehicle? 5. Check on the history of the particular car line. You can easily do this by consulting consumer magazines and websites. You could also check out the website of the car’s manufacturer. 6. See if you can meet the seller offline. If you don’t want to make all transactions online then you could ask the dealer to meet you in person once you found him on the Internet. Upon meeting the dealer, negotiate with him as you would a normal car dealer and then sign the papers. 7. Do a detailed background check of the website or person you are about to buy from. It is advisable to buy only from websites which has detailed information about the vehicles they are selling. Ask if they have conducted inspections of each car in their lot through independent mechanics. If they have, then you’ll know that that website is a good place to shop for cars. By following the above tips and always being aware that you are dealing with a legitimate, trustworthy seller, buying cars on the internet can in fact be a fun and rewarding experience. Now, who says you have to visit your local car dealer to buy a car?
Filled up your car at the pump lately? Did it pinch? Sure it did, with oil prices rising like the summer temperature there’s no respite. There is not much that our government can do about it, there is one reality facing us all in the face, oil reserves around the world are depleting and the day is not far when oil will cost $5, $10 maybe $100 a gallon!. The ultimate truth is that we will have no oil in the times to come and we need to develop alternative fuels now and begin using them too. Governments are trying their hand at promoting electric hybrid cars, compressed natural gas cars etc but the scale is not large. Every alternative fuel has some advantages and some limitations it’s the balance of these which makes it a viable alternative to fossil fuels. Cars that run on electric power do not emit any harmful emissions but they are less powerful and need frequent recharges. Cars that run on compressed natural gas also suffer from a drop in power and can carry only 100kms worth of gas since gas is hard to carry around and the tank is heavy and expensive. Hydrogen technology seems the best bet but it needs to have the necessary infrastructure (filling stations, installation points etc) and also needs to be made safe for public use. Developed countries must pool their resources and develop fuels for tomorrow rather than wasting resources on going to space and fighting wars. For if we have no fuel how will we fill up the space shuttle and the jet planes that fight wars? Bicycling is also a good alternative, we should learn from Amsterdam which has as many cycles as residents. Or we could go back to th days of old and ride on horses and ponies, well that would be quite a sight. Imagine having a parking lot for horses and people in their business suits riding on thoroughbred horses to work! Life without petrol and diesel is going to be future reality and how fast we develop alternative fuels is what will determine what we ride tomorrow, cars or ponies.
According to the National Insurance Crime Bureau, auto theft costs consumers more than $8 billion annually. Today's thieves typically are not teens out for a joy ride, but rather professionals involved with organized theft rings. While car thieves do like luxury cars, they mainly focus on the more popular vehicles: Hondas, Toyotas and Chevy pickups. These in-demand vehicles can be stripped down in less than 30 minutes and sold for parts or shipped abroad. That means car owners need to take extra measures to protect their vehicles from sophisticated criminals. The good news is that, with a combination of approaches, it is possible to achieve a strong defense against vehicle theft. The first step is to use common-sense measures. Never leave keys in the car with the engine running. Don't hide a spare key in the vehicle. Close all windows and lock all doors when leaving your vehicle. Park in a well-lit area and, when at home, keep your car in the garage. Don't leave valuables in your car. The next step is to use theft-prevention products. A thief is less inclined to steal your car when it has visible and audible warning devices like a wheel lock or alarm system. Immobilizers - which include smart keys, kill switches and fuel cut-off devices - offer another means of protection. Keep in mind that these will help deter some thieves, but a professional still can outsmart them all. The third step, which many police officers say is most important, is to have a tracking and recovery system. The most effective systems connect directly to law enforcement agencies, use radio frequency technology and are covert so they cannot be disengaged - like the LoJack system, for example. Systems that use only global positioning system technology often present tracking limitations. Remember, the best theft protection is a combination of common sense, audible or visual alarms and a recovery system that will get your vehicle back if it is ever stolen.
Compressed air is used in many operations and processes and as a source of energy for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and process actuators and motors. It may also be supplied for low pressure systems and used for pneumatic control. Air can be compressed in several different ways and supplied at varying pressures and degrees of filtration depending on its use. A typical compressed air system is capable of producing instrument quality air for pneumatic HVAC controls, tools, conveying systems, and general plant air. The system consists of a single motor driven single stage rotary screw compressor with inlet air filter, a safety relief valve, aftercooler, air/oil separator, air receiver with safety relief valve, prefilter, air dryer, afterfilter, oil/water traps, and oil/water separator. Compressors are most often supplied skid mounted as a packaged unit. Theassembled package includes all major components, controls, and a sound attenuation enclosure. The unit only requires mounting to a foundation, hook up to system piping, connection to the oil water separator, and power connection. There are various types of compressors: Rotary helical screw air compressors are positive displacement machines. Atwin-screw compressor consists of accurately matched rotors [one lobe (male) and one helix (female)] that mesh closely when rotating within a close tolerance common housing. One rotor is motor driven while the other is gear driven, turning it in a counter-rotating motion. The rotors uncover inlet posts at one end allowing air to flow in. As the rotors continue to rotate the air is compressed by the minishing volume between the rotors . At the end of the rotors, ports allow the now compressed air to exit. One or more stages may be used. These compressors are used in systems up to 3000 cubic feet per minute (cfm). They are usually oil injected to increase sealing, lubricate rotors, and provide cooling. They can also be oil free. One or two stages can be used. They have a low initial cost, no pulsation, are almost free of vibration, and do not require special foundations. Centrifugal compressors compress air as it enters the center of a fluted casting, housing a rotating impeller. The impeller imparts kinetic energy to the gas which turns into potential energy as the gas velocity slows, thus increasing pressurepression is a continuous process. One or more stages may be used. Centrifugal compressors are used in large systems up to 15,000 cfm. A blow-off silencer is needed to control noise. Centrifugal compressors require no ubrication in contact with the air stream and therefore provide oil free air. Reciprocating or positive displacement compressors use a piston in a cylinder to compress air up to a capacity of 6,000 cfm . Air enters the cylinder through a valve when the piston is going down. The valve closes when the piston starts to go up. As the piston approaches the top ofthe cylinder, the air is compressed by the decreasing volume. An exhaust valve opens when the piston is near the top of the cylinder allowing the compressed air to exit. The cycle is them repeated. Rotary sliding vane compressors use a rotor eccentrically mounted in a cylinder. The rotor has eight or more slots cut along its length. Vanes are placed in the slots. As the rotor rotates, the vanes move out from centrifugal force. As the rotor continues through a rotation, the rotor housing causes the vanes to move back in the slot ofthe rotor. The volume of air between the housing, eccentrically mounted rotor, and two vanes changes as the rotor rotates, compressing the air.